Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2022 | vol. 43 | No 2 |

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Abstract

This article presents the results of a geophysical survey from which detailed images of glacial and periglacial landforms and subsurface structures were obtained. Sediments and landforms on newly deglaciated terrain can be used to reconstruct the extent and character of glaciers in the past and add to the understanding of their response to climate and environmental changes. To derive spatial information from complex geomorphological terrain, joint interpretation of three non-intrusive geophysical methods were applied: Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), and time-lapse Seismic Tomography. These were used to identify subsurface structures in the forefield of the retreating Hans Glacier in SW Spitsbergen, Svalbard. Three main zones were distinguished and described: outwash plain, terminal moraine from the last glacial maximum, and glacial forefield proximal to the glacier front. Geophysical profiles across these zones reveal information on glacio-fluvial sediment thickness and structure, ice thickness and structure, and bedrock topography. The freezing-thawing effect of the active layer has a strong and deep impact, as demonstrated by variations in VP (P-wave velocity) in the obtained outcomes. The results are discussed in the context of the current climate in Svalbard. This study provides a snapshot of ground parameters and the current state of the subsurface in southern Spitsbergen. The boundary between sediment-bedrock layers was estimated to be from 5 to 20 m in depth. It is the first such extensive description of periglacial structures in the forefield of the Hans Glacier, utilising the longest ERT profile (1500 m) in Svalbard together with deep GPR and precise seismic tomography.
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Authors and Affiliations

Artur Marciniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Marzena Osuch
1
ORCID: ORCID
Tomasz Wawrzyniak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bartosz Owoc
1
ORCID: ORCID
Wojciech Dobiński
2
ORCID: ORCID
Michał Glazer
2
Mariusz Majdański
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Institute of Geophysics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, 01-452, Poland
  2. Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia, Sosnowiec, 41-200, Poland
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Abstract

Duringthe evolution organisms are subjected to the continuous impact of environmental factors. In recent years an increasing number of studies have focused on the physicochemical limits of lifeon Earthsuch as temperature, pressure, drought, salt content, pH, heavy metals, etc. Extreme environmental conditions disrupt the most important interactions that support the function and structure of biomolecules.Forthis reason,organisms inhabiting extreme habitats have recently become of particularlygreat interest. Although filamentous fungi are an important partof the polar ecosystem, information about their distribution and diversity, as well as their adaptation mechanisms, is insufficient. In the present study,the fungal strain Penicillium griseofulvum isolated from an Antarctic soil sample was used as a study model. The fungal cellular response against short term exposure to low temperature was observed. Our results clearly showed that short-term low temperature exposure caused oxidative stress in fungal cells and resulted in enhanced level of oxidative damaged proteins, accumulation of reserve carbohydrates and increased activity of the antioxidant enzyme defence. Ultrastructural changes in cell morphology wereanalysed. Different pattern of cell pathology provoked by the application of two stress temperatures was detected. Overall, this study aimed to observe the survival strategy of filamentous fungi in extremely cold habitats, and to acquire new knowledge about the relationship between low temperature and oxidative stress.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ekaterina Ts. Krumova
1
Ekaterina K. Koeva
1
Stoyanka R. Stoitsova
1
Tsvetelina S. Paunova-Krasteva
1
Galina D. Stoyancheva
1
Maria B. Angelova
1

  1. The Stephan Angeloff Institute of Microbiology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 26, Acad. G. Bonchev str., 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria
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Abstract

New records to lichen flora and bryoflora of Wrangel Island are presented. The additions to the island cryptogam flora include 32 lichens and one lichenicolous fungus, 26 mosses and 11 liverwort species. Acarospora sinopica, Alectoria gowardii, Calogaya bryochrysion, Caloplaca cf. sibirica, Hymenelia ceracea, Porpidia ochrolemma, and Sagiolechia protuberans are new not only to the island but to the Russian Far East. Two lichen species ( Lecidea lithophila and Rinodina terrestris), as well as two liverwort taxa ( Clevea hyalina Lophoziopsis excisa var. elegans and Pseudolophozia debiliformis), are new to the Chukotka Autonomous Area. Two of the reported moss species ( Funaria arctica and Schistidium umbrosum) are extremely rare. Location data and ecological descriptions for the newly reported species are included.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gregory Evdokimov
1
Olga Afonina
2
Liudmila Konoreva
2 3 4
Roman Obabko
5
Yuriy Mamontov
4 6
Sergey Chesnokov
2 3
Ivan V. Frolov
7
Ulyana V. Babiy
8

  1. St. Petersburg State University, Universitetskaya emb. 7–9, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia
  2. Komarov Botanical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Popov St. 2, 197376 St. Petersburg, Russia
  3. Botanical Garden-Institute Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Makovskogo Str., 142, 690024, Vladivostok, Russia
  4. Avrorin Polar-Alpine Botanical Garden-Institute of Kola Scientific Centre of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 184250 Kirovsk, Murmansk Region, Russia
  5. Federal Research Center Karelian Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Petrozavodsk, Russia
  6. Tsitsin Main Botanical Garden of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 127276, Moscow, Russia
  7. Institute Botanic Garden Ural Branch of Russian Academy of Sciences, Vosmogo Marta Str. 202a, 620144, Yekaterinburg, Russia
  8. Wrangel Island State Reserve, Kuvaeva St., 23, 689400, Pevek, Chukotka Autonomous District, Russia
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Abstract

In addition to establishing an exclusive governance system in a vast area of the earth, The Antarctic Treaty is of great importance also in terms of aiming to keep a region away from military activities. In order to carry Antarctica’s dedication to peace and science to future generations, it is necessary to avoid the militarization of the Continent. However, factors such as the ever-growing need for the Continent’s resources, increasing human activities in the Continent due to global warming, and the advancing use of dual-use scientific/military equipment due to technological developments pose a danger as the militarization of the Continent and the Southern Ocean. In this study, the risk of the recent activities of the parties to create a security dilemma and the potential of the security dilemma to increase the Continent’s militarization are analysed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ferhat Kökyay
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Nişantaşı University, Faculty of Economics, Administrative and Social Sciences, 34485, Maslak-İstanbul, Turkey

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