The paper describes the communities of laminarians and their macrofauna at the western coasts of Spitsbergen. The following aspects are considered: specific composition of fauna, spatial distribution of animals within the algae, trophic structure of fauna associated with the laminarians. Some zoogeographic remarks are included.
The attempt was made to describe the dynamics of water masses in the southern part of the Drake Passage and the Bransfield Strait in the time period from December 1983 to January 1984. The dynamic topography at the surface (referred to 500 dbar surface) allowed to define the eastward flow of water in the Bransfield Strait and to observe, in the same region, the presence of a rather weak counter-current of the Weddell Sea origin. In the Drake Passage, a general north-eastern direction of water flow of the Bellingshausen Sea was found. In the Bransfield Strait, as well as in the Drake Passage, the relative velocities of geostrophic flow were low: 0.22 and 0.06 m s-1 respectively. The analysis of Rossby and eddy numbers and Rossby radius made it possible to regionalize the dynamic phenomena but could not be fully used for their classification.
Concentration of Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb and Co have been determined in Antarctic water (South Shetland Islands) and in krill exoskeletons with the help of atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of these metals both in sea-water and in krill exoskeleton are in order Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni > Pb > Co. Comparing concentrations of these metals in sea-water to their concentrations in krill exoskeleton, the factors have been calculated giving a list of metals in the order of krill chitin ability, which is Ni > Cu > Zn > Cd > Pb > Co accumulation. The highest accumulation factors for Ni and Cu point out to the special role played by these metals in krill life.
The microclimate of the nest-sites of Pygoscelis adeliae, P. antarctica and P. papua was studied from December 1979 to January 1981. The temperature of the ground, air temperature at 0.05 m, 0.35 m ad 2 m and wind velocity at 0.35 m and 2 m above the ground were recorded. The wind velocity in the places chosen by penguins for nesting was lower than at the meteorological station by 22% to 60%. It was proved that in winter the mean monthly ground temperature at the nesting places was lower than that at the meterological station by 6 to 8°C due to the much thinner snow cover. Pygoscelid penguins chose for nesting places of specific microclimate and modified the wind velocity, temperature of the ground and, to a leser extent, the air temperature.
There were tested microorganisms in differents soils at Admiralty Bay region. The physiological groups of microorganisms were restricted by the kind of organic matter. There were found in ornithogenic soils in higher number the following groups of microorganisms; proteolytic bacteria, uric acid and L-asparagine ammonifying bacteria, chitin degrading bacteria, lecithin degrading bacteria and calcium phosphate dissolving bacteria. The nitrifying bacteria were found in lower horizons of ornithogenic soils in higher number. The nitrogen fixing bacteria were found in mineral soils covered by plant associations, only. The spore-forming bacteria were detected in ornithogenic soils and in soil influenced by man.
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