Science and earth science

Polish Polar Research

Content

Polish Polar Research | 2000 | vol. 21 | No 1 |

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Abstract

In summer 1998 detailed measurements of ablation were carried out on the Waldemar Glacier in order to determine its spatial and time variation. Five-days' average ablation was equal to 14.7 cm water equivalent (w.e.), with maximum total ablation of 160-180 cm w.e. at 200 m a.s.l., and the lowest ablation of 106 cm w.e. at 350 m a.s.l. Total ablation for the whole glacier was estimated at 120.5 cm w.e. Simplified scheme of changes of summer ablation with altitude was exampled by this glacier. Relation between discharge from individual fragments of the Waldemar Glacier and their ablation was examined. Discharge of the Waldemar River was analysed: from about 4,800,000 m3 of water in the stream, 67% came from surface ablation of the Waldemar Glacier.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ireneusz Sobota
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Abstract

Studies of a snow cover on the Waldemar Glacier have been carried out during three spring seasons. In spite of its small area, there is considerable spatial variation in snow deposition on the Waldemar Glacier, different during successive seasons. Winter snow accumulation was the highest in 1995/96 (75 cm in water equivalent), but almost similar in 1996/97 and 1997/98, equal to 48 cm and 42 cm w.e., respectively. Snow cover shows specific physico-chemical features, with many sorts of snow different in its structure, hardness, density and moistening. All analysed snow profiles comprised layers of different grain size and hardness. Volume of water trapped in naledies was estimated to about 457,000 m3 in May 1998. The average winter runoff from the glacier was estimated to 0.024 m3/s i.e. about 91/s.km2.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marek Grześ
Ireneusz Sobota
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Abstract

Concentration and dispersion distributions of mineral suspension and crude-oil particles in waters of the Kongsfiord (Spitsbergen) were examined in 1997. Most suspension occurs at glacier margins and decreases towards a fiord outlet.

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Authors and Affiliations

Henryk Gurgul
Waldemar Staroń
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Abstract

In the years 1987-1995 studies were carried out on the content of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in plants and soil in the Bellsund area, Western Spitsbergen. For the studies the author used predominating species of vascular plants, bryophytes and lichens collected from beaches littoral planes, valleys, slopes and mountain peaks. Some plant species, largely bryophytes and lichens, were shown to contain increased amounts of Zn, Pb and Cd, whilst in others Cu deficiency was found. This paper is summing up studies concerning the content of Cu, Mn, Zn, Pb and Cd in plants of Western Spitsbergen, which were conducted over many years.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Jóźwik

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