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Polish Psychological Bulletin

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Polish Psychological Bulletin | 2021 | vol. 52 | No 3 |

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Abstract

The current literature on personality types—understood as basic configurations of the Big Five’s personality traits—provides inconsistent results. The most commonly reported, three-type RUO (Resilient-Undercontrolled- Overcontrolled) solution is not definitive, as other solutions are also" often obtained. The current paper starts from reviewing and discussing the inconsistencies found in the previous results as well as in the RUO typology itself. The prevalence of an exploratory orientation in research on personality type was interpreted as the main cause of these problems. Then, we proposed a solution by using the Two Factor Model of personality and its extension—the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits—as the theoretical foundation for a four-type RUNO typology (Resilient- Undercontrolled-Nonresilient-Overcontrolled). The paper presents the RUNO personality typology and its theoretical consequences – in particular, we argue that the RUNO (a) is the most theoretically justified, and therefore, empirically expected solution, (b) allows us to explain why the three-type RUO solution is so commonly obtained, and (c) helps to solve some other problems that have arisen in the literature (e.g., with “typeness”).
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Bibliography


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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Strus
1
Natalia Cybis
1
Jan Cieciuch
1
Tomasz Rowiński
1

  1. Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw
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Abstract

Personality types are currently understood as basic configurations of personality traits from the Big Five model. However, to date, research has provided inconsistent results as to the number and content of personality types. The broadest support was found for the three-type RUO (Resilient-Undercontrolled-Overcontrolled) typology, but many studies indicate the existence of four or five basic personality types. The prevalence of an exploratory orientation in research on personality types was identified as the main cause of these inconsistencies, and the need for a well-justified theoretical basis for the personality typology was observed. The current study examines the predictions resulting from the four-type RUNO (Resilient-Undercontrolled-Nonresilient-Overcontrolled) typology – a proposal built on the Two Factor Model of personality and its extension: the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits. We used various measurement instruments (11 questionnaires to measure Big Five traits), samples (five samples with a total of 4430 respondents) and statistical procedures (cluster analyses on row and standardized data) testing the three-type, four-type and five-type solutions. We expected that although the robustness of the empirically derived type-solutions across different research conditions will be limited (in accordance with the previous studies), the configurations of each type found in the Big Five data will be in a concordance with the RUNO typology. Obtained results roughly confirmed our expectations. We conclude that a renewed focus on the theoretical basis of personality typology seems to be necessary to further advance this field of research and the Circumplex of Personality Metatraits enables the essential turn from an exploratory approach (usually used in the previous studies) to a theoretically driven approach (proposed by us in the current study) to personality typology.
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Bibliography


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Authors and Affiliations

Włodzimierz Strus
1
Natalia Cybis
1
Jan Cieciuch
1
Tomasz Rowiński
1

  1. Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University in Warsaw
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Abstract

The main goal of this study is to check if the relationship between the perceived stress and life satisfaction or the general health is mediated by health behaviors and whether this mediated relationship is moderated by temperament structures: sanguine, melancholic, phlegmatic and choleric. A total of 254 people from local community sample, aged 18-93, took part in the study and filled a set of questionnaires. The results show that there are significant differences in the level of perceived stress, life satisfaction and the level of general health between different temperament structures. The relationship between perceived stress and life satisfaction is partially mediated by health behaviors only in the group of people with melancholic temperament structure. The higher level of stress turned out to be only directly and negatively related to the life satisfaction in all other structures. Among all temperament structures the perceived stress is only directly related to general health, and health behaviors do not serve as a mediator for this relationship. The obtained results suggest that incorporating more health behaviors may have a specifically beneficial effect on people with a melancholic temperament structure. Subsequent studies of experimental design are needed to directly test this hypothesis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Maria Cyniak-Cieciura
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Institute of Psychology, Advanced Clinical Studies and Therapy Excellence Centre, Poland
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Abstract

The lack of instruments that evaluate strategic thinking and the fact that it is positively related to high levels of professional performance has led us to the development and validation of a questionnaire that allows us to measure it in an organizational context. This was done through three studies. First an exploratory study, in which 272 Human Resources (HR) professionals participated, allowed us to develop its items and analyze its psychometric properties. From it three factors were extracted: (1) systemic thinking, (2) vision towards the future and, (3) identification of new opportunities. Also, the results indicated the existence of a latent overall model of strategic thinking. Secondly, a confirmatory study, where 352 Human Resources professionals participated, intended to validate the results of the previous study. The same three factors, and a latent factor were replicated revealing that the model presented had an excellent adjustment. Furthermore, a third study was carried out in order to study the perceived relationship between strategic thinking, satisfaction, trust and customers’ retention. This study counted with the participation of 273 professionals who held positions of middle and upper management, key employees regarding the use of ST in organizations. The results of the three studies allow us to conclude that the Strategic Thinking Questionnaire is a valid instrument to analyze strategic thinking.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rosa Isabel Rodrigues
1
ORCID: ORCID
Aristides Ferreira
2
José Neves
2

  1. Instituto Superior de Gestão, Lisboa, Portugal
  2. ISCTE-IUL, Lisboa, Portugal
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Abstract

The present qualitative study sought to unravel English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ perceptions and experiences of classroom justice and injustice. By employing purposive sampling, 31 EFL teachers in Iran were targeted to respond to an open-ended questionnaire. Subsequently, five of them took part in a follow-up, semi-structured interview. All data analyses were conducted via MAXQDA software. The main findings of the study were as follows; (1) The procedural, interactional, and distributive justice dimensions emerged in the teachers’ accounts of justice and injustice; (2) classroom justice was highlighted more saliently in teachers’ accounts than classroom injustice; (3) the teachers mainly had positive evaluations of their justice practices; and (4) they regarded educational and institutional factors, student-related factors, and teacher-related factors as the three major sources of challenges faced by EFL teachers when enacting classroom justice. It is hoped that by unraveling and reflecting on their justice and injustice behaviors, EFL teachers be prompted to go for their instructional justice betterment and more skillfully handle daily challenges that they face when trying to act fairly in the classroom.
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Authors and Affiliations

Masoomeh Estaji
1
Kiyana Zhaleh
1

  1. Department of English Language and Literature, Allameh Tabataba’i University, Tehran, Iran
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Abstract

The article presents the Identity Dynamics Questionnaire (IDQ) as a method for measuring identity processes and modes included in the identity dynamics model by Oleś. The model refers to general processes of personality development that underlie identity functioning located on two dimensions: the internal experience and the external activity. The new tool was created to validly and reliably operationalize the theoretical proposition and to verify its assumptions and relations between components of the model. Four studies were conducted as successive stages of constructing the IDQ. Studies 1 and 2 aimed to exploratory setting the content of subscales designed to measure four identity processes (integration, reconstruction, adaptation, expansion – part A of the IDQ) and four identity modes (stabilization, fluidity, amplification, pliability – part B of the IDQ). Studies 3 and 4 served to confirmatory analyses concerning the structure of the IDQ and show its validity. The studies showed satisfactory psychometric properties of current version of the new method.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elwira Brygoła
1
Mariusz Zięba
1
Krzysztof Kwapis
2

  1. SWPS University of Social Sciences and Humanities, Poznań, Poland
  2. Jesuit University Ignatianum in Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

The study was conducted to identify significant predictors of psychological distress in the group of young Polish adults during COVID-19 epidemic outbreak. The web-based cross-sectional survey was applied to 975 Polish respondents (755 female, 77.44%) aged 18-35 years. They were divided into two age groups: younger (18-25) and older (25-35). All participants completed: General Functioning Questionnaire (GFQ), COVID-19 Risk Perception Scale (C-RPS), State Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S), and General Sense of Threat to Life Scale (GSTLS). The Polish adults aged 18-25 years manifested significantly higher psychological distress, state anxiety, and a sense of threat to life, but they perceived less risk in COVID-19 epidemic compared to older participants. Risk perception and a sense of threat to life were indirectly related to state anxiety and psychological distress. Significant predictors of psychological distress in the group of young adult Poles during the COVID-19 epidemic are: state anxiety, risk perception, and a sense of threat to life, where risk perception and a sense of threat to life mediate the relation between state anxiety and psychological distress.
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Authors and Affiliations

Beata Mirucka
1
Urszula Bielecka
2
Maria Mirucka
3
Natalia Kępińska
4

  1. John Paul II Catholic University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland
  2. University of Bialystok, Białystok, Poland
  3. University of Warsaw, Warsaw, Poland
  4. SWPS University, Warsaw, Poland

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