Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research


Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2018 | vol. 58 | No 3

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The rules and guidelines for integrated pest management specified in Annex III, sections 2

and 3, state “General principles of integrated pest management”: Harmful organisms must

be monitored by adequate methods and tools, where available. Such adequate tools should

include observations in the field as well as scientifically sound warnings, forecasting and

early diagnostic systems, where feasible, as well as advice from professionally qualified advisors.

As part of Multiannual Programs, the Institute of Plant Protection – NRI in Poznań

has been carrying out work and research for many years to develop or modify guidelines for

monitoring short- and long-term forecasting of pest occurrence on crops. These guidelines

are extremely helpful for farmers and advisers in determining the optimum date of chemical

control of pests on plants. Regularly revised and improved the guidelines deal with pests

which currently pose a threat to crops. They are developed according to the latest scientific

findings and are successfully promoted among professional users and agricultural advisors.

These guidelines are standardized to include descriptions of species, life cycles, symptoms

of damage/infestation of crops, methods of observation targeted at warning of the need

for plant protection treatments, and threshold values of harmfulness. All guidelines include

extensive photographic material. Guidelines for the monitoring of pests on orchard

plants, vegetables and others are prepared at the Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation

− NRI in Puławy and the Institute of Pomology in Skierniewice. Guidelines for about

80 pests of crops are available for public use in the on-line Pest Warning System (Platforma

Sygnalizacji Agrofagów,

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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Tratwal
Marcin Baran
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Morocco is basically an agricultural country; almost 40% of the workforce is employed in

this sector. Xylella fastidiosa is a xylem-inhabiting pathogen which can infect more than

300 plant species, although most host species are symptomless. Until relatively recently,

X. fastidiosa was primarily limited to North and South America, but in 2013 a widespread

epidemic of olive quick decline syndrome caused by this fastidious pathogen appeared in

southeastern Italy, and later several cases of X. fastidiosa outbreaks have been reported

in other European countries (France, Germany and Spain). Following these recently confirmed

findings of X. fastidiosa in the European Union, this bacterium has become a serious

threat to the Moroccan flora. The national phytosanitary authorities have adopted several

measures to prevent the introduction of X. fastidiosa into the national territory by deciding,

inter alia, to suspend importation of host plant species to the bacterium from infected

areas. This paper presents the phytosanitary risk of this bacterium in Morocco.

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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Afechtal
Antonio Vicent
Maria Saponari
Anna Maria D’Onghia
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Barley phylloplane is seriously colonized by Drechslera graminea, the causal agent of leaf

stripe disease in the hos. The present study involved the elucidation of alterations induced

in the protein content of the host due to Drechslera infection. Naturally growing barley

plants were obtained from fields and Drechslera graminea was isolated and identified from

diseased plants’ leaves. After identification and preparation of the pure culture, the pathogen

was inoculated on plants grown under aseptic and controlled laboratory conditions.

Changes in the total soluble cytoplasmic proteins and defense enzymes of the host such

as polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POX), phenylalanine lyase (PAL) and tyrosine

ammonia lyase (TAL) were observed up to 5 h after inoculation. The results demonstrated

a significant effect of the pathogen on the cytoplasmic protein expression of the host as well

as in its defense system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Navodit Goel
Gaurav Jaiswal
Abhinav Kr Srivastava
Prabir Kumar Paul
Anukrati Goel
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Ash dieback, caused by Hymenoscyphus fraxineus, is a serious disease of common and

narrow-leaved ash in Europe. The resistance of individual trees seems to be important for

the maintenance of ash in European forests. In this in situ wound inoculation study, the

susceptibility and differences in resistance to H. fraxineus between Fraxinus excelsior and

F. angustifolia clones were assessed. Neither of the tested clones revealed total resistance

to ash dieback; variety between the tested clones was observed. Differences in necroses

lengths were significant between clones and between two ash species. Longer necroses were

formed in F. angustifolia than in F. excelsior. Some clones exhibiting some resistance to the

pathogen were identified.

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Authors and Affiliations

Katarína Adamčíková
Jozef Pažitný
Katarína Pastirčáková
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This study was executed to investigate the potential of agar-agar, a nontoxic and non-degradable

gelling agent, as a promising coating agent to improve and protect banana fruit

against fungal postharvest diseases i.e., crown, finger, neck and flower end rots which are

caused by fungal isolates of Colletotrichum musae and Fusarium moniliforme. Coated-ba-nana

fruit samples with different concentrations of agar-agar suspension particularly at

2.0 g · l−1 exhibited a significant reduction in incidence and severity of postharvest diseases

compared to untreated fruit. Banana fruits dipped in agar suspension at 2.0 g · l−1 for 5, 10

and 15 min showed significant reduction in disease incidence and severity. Moreover,

application of agar suspension as a coating agent at 2.0 g · l−1 significantly decreased

weight loss (%), firmness loss (%), and soluble solid concentration of banana fruit for

15 days at 25 ± 2°C. Scanning electron microscopy observation confirmed that the fruit

coated with agar colloid at 2.0 g · l−1 had significantly fewer cracks and showed smoother

surfaces than untreated fruit. This explains the quality improvement in agar-coated fruit

compared to uncoated fruit. Overall, agar colloid, a safe coating agent, could be used to

protect banana fruit against postharvest rot diseases and extend fruit storage life during

ripening and storage.

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Authors and Affiliations

El Sayed Hussein Ziedan
Hassan Mohamed El Zahaby
Hanafey Farouk Maswada
El Hassan Abd El Rafh Zoeir
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This study was aimed at evaluating the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate on physiological parameters of a common ornamental plant Mexican marigold (Tagetes erecta). The herbicide was applied in the following doses: 720 g ⋅ ha–1 (standard field dose), 144 g ⋅ ha–1, 28.8 g ⋅ ha–1, and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1, in the form of a spraying treatment of plants in a specialist spraying chamber. The net assimilation rate and leaf greenness index were then determined. Herbicide application in the sublethal doses, i.e. below 720 g ⋅ ha–1, caused disorders in both analyzed physiological parameters of plants. The glyphosate dose of 144 g ⋅ ha–1 elicited transient disorders in the leaf greenness index. In turn, the use of the lower doses (28.8 g ⋅ ha–1 and 14.4 g ⋅ ha–1) caused a short-term increase in the net photosynthesis rate in the plants which was accompanied by a decreased value of the leaf greenness index. Study results demonstrated the effect of sublethal doses of glyphosate as a stress factor in parameters associated with the process of photosynthesis in plants.

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Authors and Affiliations

Karol Wysocki
Tadeusz Banaszkiewicz
Jacek Olszewski
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Early blight disease caused by Alternaria sp. is one of the most devastating diseases of

Solanaceous crops widely distributed in Sudan. The aim of this study was to determine the

genetic variation among different Alternaria isolates recovered from different Solanaceae

crops showing typical symptoms of early blight disease. Infected leaves of tomato, potato,

eggplant and pepper were collected from different geographical zones in Sudan. The recovered

fungal isolates were identified to the genus level based on cultural and morphological

characteristics. Five representative isolates were sent to the CABI Bioscience, U.K. for confirmation.

The genetic relationship among the isolates was determined using the amplified

fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) technique and the generated data were used to

create similarity matrices using the PAST 3.01 software package. Dendrograms were constructed

based on Jaccard’s similarity coefficients. A total of 70 fungal isolates was recovered

from the tested plants and all of them showed morphological characteristics typical

of Alternaria spp. The conidia appeared in multiple-branched chains with spore sizes in

the range of 2.38−13.09 μm × 12.30−43.63 μm. Therefore, the isolates were identified as

Alternaria alternata (Fr.) Keissl. The identification was then confirmed by CABI.AFLPbased

dendrogram which revealed five clusters with a significant cophenetic correlation

coefficient (r = 0.834) between the dendrogram and the original similarity matrix irrespective

of their geographical origins. Eighteen (75%) of the Alternaria isolated from tomato

leaves were clustered together in cluster I and five isolates formed two separate clusters,

viz. cluster IV (T-Kh5 and T-H1) and cluster V (T-H4 and T-Med2). The remaining isolate,

T-Am5, grouped with one of the potato isolates in cluster III. The other isolates which were

recovered from potato, pepper and eggplants were all separated from the tomato isolates

in the largest cluster.

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Authors and Affiliations

Azza Siddig Abbo
Mohamed Osman Idris
Mustafa Ali Elballa
Ahmed Mohamed Hammad
Marmar Abdel Rahman El Siddig
Petr Karlovsky
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Aphids are one of the most important economic pests and vectors of viral diseases in crops. Brevicoryne brassicae L., one of the most serious aphid pests in Brassicaceae, if not controlled, often reaches very high densities. The present study compared the systemic effects of ethanolic, methanolic and aqueous Melia azedarach L., Peganum harmala L., Calendula officinalis L. and Otostegia persica Boissier extracts with two systemic pesticides, acetamiprid and pirimicarb (at the maximum label-recommended rate). Population growth percentages of B. brassicae through leaf spraying under greenhouse conditions were assessed. The chemicals were sprayed on one of the leaves in greenhouse condition. The results indicated that all the plant extracts have systemic effects at different levels. Among different extracts, O. persica ethanolic extract, P. harmala methanolic extract and M. azedarach aqueous extract resulted in a reduction of the B. brassicae population.

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Authors and Affiliations

Fatemeh Shafiei
Kamal Ahmadi
Mahdieh Asadi
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Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) infesting many plants but Mentha viridis L., and Mentha piperita L., were low in number of infestation. Therefore the objective of this study was to identify the resistance of M. viridis and M. piperita plants against T. urticae by studying the external shape and internal contents of those plants. For morphological studies, dried leaves were covered with gold utilizing an Edwards Scan coat six sputter-coater. For histological studies, arrangements of Soft Tissue technique were used. For phytochemical studies, the plants were cut, dried and then high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was used. While feeding the mites were collected from the area between oily glands, trichomes and respiratory stomata in both mint species. The most important leaf structures in aromatic plants are the oily glands found on the external part of the leaves (both upper and lower epidermis). The number of oil glands in M. viridis leaves was greater than in M. piperita; the trichomes on the epidermis of M. viridis were greater in number than in M. piperita; the spongy mesophyll in M. viridis was much thicker than in M. piperita. The essential oils in the leaves of both mint species contained 71 compounds representing 99.61% of the total oil constituents identified from M. viridis before infestation, and 90.95% after infestation, and about 99.65% from M. piperita before infestation, and 99.98% after infestation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sally Farouk Allam
Basem Abdel-Nasser Soudy
Ahmed Salah Hassan
Mahmoud Mohamed Ramadan
Doha Abo Baker
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The use of suitable mass rearing methods is crucial to establish successful inundative or

inoculative biological control programs. The development of an artificial diet considerably

reduces costs of mass rearing. In this study, the efficacy of a new meridic artificial

diet for rearing the predatory bug, Orius albidipennis (Het., Anthocoridae), was studied.

The artificial diet was composed of some natural materials including lamb liver, hen yolk,

whey protein, honey, royal jelly and some specific vitamins. To determine the artificial diet

efficacy life table parameters of the bugs, using the two-sex life table method, fed artificial

and factitious diets, Ephestia kuehniella egg + date palm pollen, were compared. Results

showed that O. albidipennis could complete its life stages and reproduce when reared on the

recommended artificial diet. However, its fecundity and survival rate when fed the artificial

diet was lower than the controls. Overall, due to lower production costs the artificial diet

can be recommended for mass rearing of O. albidipennis despite the lower fecundity and

survival rate.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Rajabpour
Ali Asghar Seraj
Amin Mehrnia
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Field experiments were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of glyphosate (H1) and fluazifop- -P-butyl (H2) herbicides with adjuvants on the common reed without cutting and at two different cutting levels (10 and 30 cm). The adjuvants were urea, nitric acid and sulfonic acid. The relative importance value (RIV), leaf chlorophyll content and plant density were determined to assay the efficacy of herbicides. Glyphosate treatment only (H1a) was more effective than fluazifop-P-butyl (H2a) on reeds without cutting and at the 10 cm cutting level. However, no significant difference was observed between them at the 30 cm cutting level. A positive effect of plant cutting occurred on the efficacy of all herbicides applied alone or in a tank mix with adjuvants. Furthermore, the 10 cm cutting level was more effective in eradication of reeds than the 30 cm cutting level. The adjuvants significantly improved the efficacy of the recommended (Hb) and half recommended (Hc) herbicide rates in comparison to being used alone on uncut reeds. The reduction percentages were 94.5, 86.99, 76.61 and 69.94 for H1b, H1c, H2b and H2c treatments, respectively. However, the adjuvants did not improve the glyphosate effect at different levels of cutting. Conversely the reduction percentage of reeds was improved by the recommended rate of fluazifop-P-butyl with adjuvants (H2b) to 92.77% and 84.62% at 10 and 30 cm cutting levels, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmed Ibrahim El-Tokhy
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Toxicity and physiological alterations were determined in Pseudococcus viburni nymphs treated with Artemisia annua methanolic extract. The leaf dipping bioassay showed LC50 values of 0.287% and 0.194% 24 and 48 hours post-exposure. Activities of general esterases were significantly higher in the control nymphs than in those which had been treated except for the 48 h time interval using α-naphtyl acetate. The activity of glutathione S-transferase using CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) in the control nymphs, was significantly higher than in the control at both time intervals while no significant difference was observed after 24 h in addition to the higher enzymatic activity in the treated nymphs after 48 h. All three aminotransferases were significantly more active in the control nymphs except for time intervals of 24 h for γ-glutamyl transferase and 48 h for alanine aminotransferase. Higher activities of lactate dehydrogenase, acid- and alkaline phosphatase were found in the control nymphs than in treated nymphs for all time intervals. Activities of the enzymes involved in the antioxidant system including catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase was increased in the treated nymphs compared to the control. Results of the current study demonstrated toxic effects of A. annua methanolic extract on P. viburni nymphs causing mortality and physiological turbulences.

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Authors and Affiliations

Samar Ramzi
Ali Seraji
Reza Azadi Gonbad
Kimia Mirhaghparast
Zahra Mojib-Haghghadam
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The increased cultivation of highbush blueberry in Poland has been paralleled with enhanced

damage to this crop by different pests and diseases, including soft scales. We have

carried out trials to assess methods for controlling soft scales of the genus Parthenolecanium

in highbush blueberry grown in open fields or under a plastic tunnel, with an approach

based on integrated pest management (IPM) principles. The reduction of Lecanium

scale population using alternative products, with mechanical mechanisms of action, was

similar to that achieved with treatments of different formulations of neonicotinyl-based

pesticides; sometimes they were even more effective on protected crops. Control programs

on plantations with a large population of Lecanium scales based on the application of these

alternative products in spring and at harvest time and chemical compounds in autumn resulted

in a very high efficacy and are considered the most suitable strategies to assure yields

without residues and a reduced impact on the environment.

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Authors and Affiliations

Małgorzata Tartanus
Eligio Malusa
Daniel Sas
Barbara Łabanowska
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In this study, the effect of six commercial biocontrol strains, Bacillus pumilus INR7, B. megaterium P2, B. subtilis GB03, B. subtilis S, B. subtilis AS and B. subtilis BS and four indigenous strains Achromobacter sp. B124, Pseudomonas geniculate B19, Serratia marcescens B29 and B. simplex B21 and two plant defense inducers, methyl salicylate (Me-SA) and methyl jasmonate (Me-JA) were assessed on suppression of wheat take-all disease. Treatments were applied either as soil drench or sprayed on shoots. In the soil drench method, the highest disease suppression was achieved in treatment with strains INR7, GB03, B19 and AS along with two chemical inducers. Bacillus subtilis S, as the worst treatment, suppressed take-all severity up to 56%. Both chemical inducers and bacterial strains AS and P2 exhibited the highest effect on suppression of take-all disease in the shoot spray method. Bacillus subtilis S suppressed the disease severity up to 49% and was again the worst strain. The efficacy of strains GB03 and B19 decreased significantly in the shoot spray method compared to the soil drench application method. Our results showed that most treatments had the same effect on take-all disease when they were applied as soil drench or sprayed on aerial parts. This means that induction of plant defense was the main mechanism in suppressing take-all disease by the given rhizobacteria. It also revealed that plant growth was reduced when it was treated with chemical inducers. In contrast, rhizobacteria not only suppressed the disease, but also increased plant growth.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Mahmood Jasem
Rouhallah Sharifi
Saeed Abbasi
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Several species of Solanum produce secondary metabolites with antimicrobial activity. In

the present study, the inhibitory activity of Solanum chrysotrichum, S. erianthum, S. torvum

and S. rostratum against phytopathogenic Curvularia lunata was determined. Methanol extracts

from roots, stems, leaves and fruits were evaluated by the method of mycelial inhibition

on agar and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined on a liquid

medium. To increase the antimicrobial activity, the combined activity of the most active

extracts for each phytopathogen was also determined (a combination of intra and interspecies

extracts). The results showed that 12 of the 16 methanolic extracts of Solanum species

had antifungal effects against C. lunata. The extracts of S. rostratum and S. erianthum

developed the highest activity (~80% inhibition and 28.4 MIC μg . ml–1), even, equal to or

greater than, the reference fungicide. The mixture of the active extracts of S. chrysotrichum

and S. torvum increased their activity. Various extracts affected the macro and microscopic

morphology and most of them reduced the number of conidia of the fungus. This resulted

in the capacity to control the vegetative growth and reproduction of C. lunata, the causal

fungus of corn leaf spot disease.

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Authors and Affiliations

Zuleima Guadalupe Hernández-Rodríguez
Christian Anabi Riley-Saldaña
Alma Rosa González-Esquinca
Marisol Castro-Moreno
Iván de-la-Cruz-Chacón

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Instructions for Authors

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