The transformation and migration of contaminants during the remediation process of heterogeneous strata by the in-situ thermal conductive heating (TCH) technology: A literature review

Journal title

Archives of Environmental Protection




vol. 49


No 1


Ji, Wei : State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse,College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, ChinaCentre for Environmental Risk Management and Remediation of Soil and Groundwater,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China ; Fu, Rong-Bing : State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse,College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, ChinaCentre for Environmental Risk Management and Remediation of Soil and Groundwater,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China ; Gao, Cai-Hong : State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse,College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, ChinaCentre for Environmental Risk Management and Remediation of Soil and Groundwater,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China ; Yao, Jia-Bin : State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse,College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, ChinaCentre for Environmental Risk Management and Remediation of Soil and Groundwater,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China



migration ; transformation ; soil remediation ; heterogeneous strata ; in-situ thermal desorption

Divisions of PAS

Nauki Techniczne




Polish Academy of Sciences


  1. Baker, R. & Heron, G. (2004). In-Situ delivery of heat by thermal conduction and steam injection for improved DNAPL remediation.TerraTherm, Inc., Fitchburg USA2004.
  2. Baker, R., Lachance, J. & Heron, G. (2006). In-pile thermal desorption of PAHs, PCBs and dioxins/furans in soil and sediment. Land Contamination & Reclamation, 14(2), pp. 620–624. DOI:10.2462/09670513.731
  3. Biache, C., Mansuy-Huault, L., Faure, P., Munier-Lamy, C. & Leyval, C. (2008). Effects of thermal desorption on the composition of two coking plant soils:impact onsolvent extractable organic compounds and metal bioavailability. Environmental Pollution, 3, pp. 671–677. DOI:10.1016/j.envpol.2008.06.020
  4. Bonnard, M., Devin, S., Leyval, C., Morel, J.L. & Vasseur, P. (2010). The influence of thermal desorption on genotoxicity of multipolluted soil. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 73, pp. 955–960. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.02.02
  5. Brooks, M.C., Wise, W.R. & Annable, M.D. (1999). Fundamental changes in in situ air sparging how patterns. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 19(2), pp. 105–113. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6592.1999.tb00211.x
  6. Burghardt, J.M. & Kueper, B.H. (2008). Laboratory study evaluating heating of tetrachloroethylene impacted soil. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 28(4), pp. 95–106. DOI:10.1111/ j.1745-6592.2008.00214.x
  7. Carey, V.P. (2007). Liquid-Vapor Phase-change Phenomena, second ed. Taylor and Francis, New York 2007. Cébron, A., Cortet, J., Criquet, S., Biaz, A., Calvert, V., Caupert, C., Pernin, C. & Leyval, C. (2011). Biological functioning of PAHpolluted and thermal desorption-treated soils assessed by fauna and microbial bioindicators. Research in Microbiology, 162, pp. 896–907. DOI:10.1016/j.resmic.2011.02.011
  8. Chiou, C.T., Porter, P.E. & Schmedding, D.W. (1983). Partition equilibria of nonionic organic compounds between soil organic matter and water. Environmental science & technology, 17, pp. 27–231, DOI:10.1021/es00110a009
  9. Chen, F., Freedman, D.L., Falta, R.W. & Murdochb, L.C. (2012). Henry’slaw constants of chlorinated solvents at elevated temperatures. Chemosphere, 86(2), pp. 156–165. DOI:10.1016/j. chemosphere.2011.10.004
  10. Geistlinger, H., Krauss, G., Lazik, D. & Luckner, L. (2006). Direct gas injection into saturated glass beads: Transition from incoherent to coherent gas flow pattern. Water Resources Research, 42, W07403. DOI:10.1029/2005WR004451
  11. Hegele, P.R. & Mumford, K.G. (2014) Gas production and transport during bench-scale electrical resistance heating of water and trichloroethene. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 165, pp. 24–36, DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.07.002
  12. Heron, G., Bierschenk, J., Swift, R., Watson, R. & Kominek, M. (2016). Thermal DNAPL source zone treatment impact on a CVOC plume. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 36(1), pp. 26–37. DOI:10.1111/gwmr.12148
  13. Heron, G., Carroll, S. & Nielsen, S.G. (2005). Full-scale removal of DNAPL constituents using steam enhanced extraction and electrical resistance heat. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 25(4), pp. 92–107. DOI:10.1111/j.1745- 6592.2005.00060.x
  14. Heron, G., Lachance, J. & Baker R. (2013). Removal of PCE DNAPL from tight clays using in situ thermal desorption. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 3(4), pp. 31–43. DOI:10.1111/ gwmr.12028
  15. Heron, G., Parker, K., Galligan, J. & Holmes, T.C. (2009). Thermal treatment of 8 CVOC source areas to near nondetect concentrations. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 29(3), pp. 56–65. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6592.2009.01247.
  16. Hicknell, B.N., Mumford, K.G. & Kueper, B.H. (2018). Laboratory study of creosote removal from sand at elevated temperatures. Contam Hydrol, 219, pp. 40–49. DOI:10.1016/j. jconhyd.2018.10.00
  17. Hiester, U., Muller, M., Koschitzky, H. & Trötschler, O. (2013). In situ thermal treatment for source zone remediation of soil and groundwater. British Medical Journal, 31, pp. 482–484.
  18. Janfada, T.S., Class, H., Kasiri, N. & Dehghani, M.R. (2020). Comparative experimental study on heat-up efficiencies during injection of superheated and saturated steam into unsaturated soil. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 158, 119235. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2019.119235
  19. Jones, S.F., Evans, G.M. & Galvin K.P. (1999). Bubble nucleation from gas cavities – a review. Adv. Colloid Interfac, 80, pp. 27–50. DOI:10.1016/S0001-8686(98)00074-8
  20. Kueper, B.H. & McWhorter, D.B. (1991). The behaviour of dense, nonaqueous phase liquids in fractured clay and rock. Ground Water, 29(5), pp. 716–728. DOI:10.1111/j.1745-6584.1991. tb00563.
  21. Kunkel, A.M., Seibert, J.J., Elliott, L.J., Kelley, R., Katz, L.E. & Pope, G.A. (2006). Remediation of elemental mercury using in situ thermal desorption(ISTD). Environmental Science & Technology, 40(7), pp. 2384–2389. DOI:10.1021/es050358
  22. Li, K. & Horne, R.N. (2002). A capillary model for geothermal reservoirs. Proceedings of the GRC 2002 Annual Meeting,September 23–25, 2002, Reno, USA: Geothermal Resources Council Trans.
  23. Magdalena. M.K., Mumford, K.G., Johnson, R.L. & Sleep, B.E. (2011) Modeling discrete gas bubble formation and mobilization during subsurface heating of contaminated zones. Advances in Water Resources, 34, PP. 537–549. DOI:10.1016/j. advwatres.2011.01.010
  24. Martin, E.J. & Kueper, B.H. (2011). Observation of trapped gas during electrical resistance heating of trichloroethylene under passive venting conditions. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 126, pp. 291–300. DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2011.09.004
  25. Martin, E.J., Mumford, K.G. & Kueper, B.H. (2016). Electrical resistance heating of clay layers in water-saturated sand. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 36(1), pp. 54–61. DOI:10.1111/gwmr.12146
  26. Martin, E.J., Mumford, K.G, Kueper, B.H. & Siemens, G.A. (2017). Gas formation in sand and clay during electrical resistance heating. International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 110, pp. 855–862. DOI:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2017.03.056
  27. Mumford, K.G., Martin, E.J. & Kueper, B.H. (2021). Removal of trichloroethene from thin clay lenses by electrical resistance heating: Laboratory experiments and the effects of gas saturation. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 243, 103892. DOI:10.1016/J. JCONHYD.2021.103892
  28. Mumford, K.G., Smith, J.E. & Dickson, S.E. (2008). Mass flux from a non-aqueous phase liquid pool considering spontaneous expansion of a discontinuous gas phase. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 98, pp. 85–96. DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2008.02.007
  29. Munholland, J.L. (2015) Electrical resistance heating of groundwater impacted by chlorinated solvents in heterogeneous sand. ProQuest Dissertations. Munholland, J.L., Mumford, K.G. & Kueper, B.H. (2016). Factors affecting gas migration and contaminant redistribution in heterogeneous porous media subject to electrical resistance heating. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 184, pp. 14–24. DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2015.10.011
  30. Netzeva, T.I., Aptula, A.O., Chaudary, S.H., Duffy, J.C., Schultz, T.W., Schűrmann, G. & Cronin, M.T.D. (2003). Structure-Activity Relationships for the Toxicity of Substituted Poly-Hydroxylated. Benzenes to Tetrahymena Pyriformis: influence of Free Radical Formation. Qsar & Combinatorial Science, 22(6), pp. 575–582.
  31. Nilsson, B., Tzovolou, D., Jeczalik, M., TomaszKasela, T., Slack,W., Klint, K.E., Haeseler, F. & Tsakiroglou, D.C. (2011). Combining steam injection with hydraulic fracturing for the in-situ remediation of the unsaturated zone of a fractured soil polluted by jet fuel. Journal of Environmental Management, 92. DOI:10.1016/j.jenvman.2010.10.004
  32. Oberle. D. & Kluger, M. (2015). In situ remediation of 1, 4-dioxane using electrical resistance heating. Remediation Journal, 25(2), pp. 35–42. DOI:10.1002/rem.21422
  33. O’Carroll, D.M. & Sleep, B.E. (2007). Hot water flushing for immiscible displacement of a viscous NAPL. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 91, pp. 47–266. DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2006.11.003
  34. Schwarzenbach, R.P., Gschwend, P.M. & Imboden, D.M. (2003). Environmental Organic Chemistry, JohnWiley &Sons, New Jersey2003. Scriven, L.E. (1959). On the dynamics of phase growth. Chemical Engineering Science, 10, PP. 1–13, DOI:10.1016/0009- 2509(59)80019-1
  35. Sinnott, R.K. (2005). Coulson’s and Richardson’s Chemical Engineering, Chemical Engineering Design. Elsevier Inc., UK2005.
  36. Sleep, B.E. & Ma, Y.F. (1997). Thermal variation of organic fluid properties and impact on thermal remediation feasibility. Journal of Soil Contamination, 6(3), pp. 281–306. DOI:10.1080/15320389709383566
  37. Smith, J.M. & Van Ness, H.C. (1987). Introduction to Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics. Mc-Graw Hill, Inc., New York 1987.
  38. Sun, H., Yang, X.R., Xie, J.Y. & Zhao, Y.S. (2021). Remediation of Diesel-Contaminated Aquifers Using Thermal Conductive Heating Coupled With Thermally Activated Persulfate. Water Air Soil Pollut, 232: 293. DOI:10.1007/s11270-021-05240-x
  39. Suthersan. S.S., Horst. J., Schnobrich. M., Welty, N. & McDonough, J. (2016). Remediation Engineering-Design Concepts Second Edition, CRC Press, Boca Raton 2016.
  40. Tang, S., Wang, X., Mao, Y., Zhao, Y., Yang, H. & Xie, Y.F. (2015). Effect of dissolved oxygen concentration on iron efficiency: removal of three chloroacetic acids. Water Research, 73, pp. 342–352. DOI:10.1016/j.watres.2015.01.02
  41. Triplett Kingston,J.L., Dahlen, P.R. & Johnson, P.C. (2010). State-of- -the-practice review of in situ thermal technologies. Groundwater Monitoring & Remediation, 30 (4), pp. 64–72. DOI:10.1111/ j.1745-6592.2010.01305.x
  42. Triplett Kingston, J.L., Johnson, P.C., Kueper, B.H. & Mumford, K.G. (2014). In situ thermal treatment of chlorinated solvent source zones. Chlorinated Solvent Source Zone Remediation, 7, pp. 509–557.
  43. Udell, K.S. (1996). Heat and mass transfer in clean-up of underground toxic wastes. In Annual Reviews of Heat Transfer, 7, pp. 333–405. DOI:10.1615/AnnualRevHeatTransfer.v7.80.
  44. Vermeulen, F. & McGee, B. (2000). In situ electromagnetic heating for hydrocarbon recovery and environmental remediation. J Can. Pet. Technol, 39(8), pp. 24–28. DOI:10.2118/00-08-DAS
  45. Voort, M., Kempenaar, M., Driel, M., Raaijmakers, M.J. & Mendes, R. (2016). Impact of soil heat on reassembly of bacterial communities in the rhizosphere microbiome and plant disease suppression. Ecology Letters, 19(4), pp. 375–382. DOI:10.1111/ele.12567
  46. Zhao, C., Mumford, K.G. & Kueper, B.H. (2014). Laboratory study of non-aqueous phase liquid and water co-boiling during thermal treatment. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 164, pp. 49–58. DOI:10.1016/j.jconhyd.2014.05.008






DOI: 10.24425/aep.2023.144742



Abstracting & Indexing

Abstracting & Indexing

Archives of Environmental Protection is covered by the following services:

AGRICOLA (National Agricultural Library)




BIOSIS Citation Index





Engineering Village


Google Scholar

Index Copernicus

Journal Citation Reports™

Journal TOCs






Ulrich's Periodicals Directory


Web of Science