Applied sciences

Archives of Acoustics

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Archives of Acoustics | 2021 | vol. 46 | No 2 |

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Abstract

The reflection coefficient of the open end belongs among the essential parameters in the physical description of a flue organ pipe. It leads directly to practical topics such as the pipe scaling. In this article, sound propagation is investigated inside an organ pipe with the most intense mean flow that is achievable under musically relevant conditions. A theoretical model is tested against the experimental data to obtain a suitable formula for the reflection coefficient when a non-negligible flow through the open end is considered. The velocity profile is examined by means of particle image velocimetry. A fully developed turbulent profile is found and interactions of the acoustic boundary layer with the turbulent internal flow are discussed. A higher value of the end correction than expected from the classical result of Levine and Schwinger is found, but this feature shall be associated with the pipe wall thickness rather than the mean flow effects.
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Authors and Affiliations

Viktor Hruška
1
Pavel Dlask
1

  1. Academy of Performing Arts in Prague, Musical Acoustics Research Centre, Prague, Czech Republic
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Abstract

The proposed compound sound sources for low-frequency noise control applications are composed of dipole sources. Their spatial radiation, which is critical in the modal field of small, closed spaces, is intended to be controlled with independent driving signals of each dipole. The need for small and efficient low-frequency elementary monopole sources led to the proposed vented sub-woofer loudspeaker design with low force factor (low-Bl) drivers. The investigated sources are set up in quadrupole configurations and measured in terms of polar near field response patterns to verify the theoretical predictions. The measurement results consist of the validation of the proposed compound sound sources on the implementation of active noise control problems in the low-frequency range. Also, their small size and modular construction make them interesting for use in other applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

Marios Giouvanakis
1
Christos Sevastiadis
1
George Papanikolaou
1

  1. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki
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Abstract

By duplicating the binaural pressures of an actual source, transaural reproduction with two frontal loudspeakers is expected to recreate a virtual source in arbitrary direction. However, experiments indicated that in static transaural reproduction, the perceived virtual source is usually limited to the frontalhorizontal plane. The reasons for this limitation, as guessed, are that, in static reproduction, the dynamic cues for front-back and vertical localisation are incorrect, and the high-frequency spectral cues are unstable with head movement. To validate this hypothesis, the variations of ITD (interaural time difference) caused by head turning in both static and dynamic transaural reproductions are analysed. The results indicate that dynamic reproduction is able to create appropriate low-frequency ITD variations, and the static transaural reproduction is unable to do so. Psychoacoustic experiments are conducted to compare virtual source localisation in static and dynamic reproductions. The results indicate that dynamic reproduction is able to recreate the front, back, and vertical virtual source for low-pass stimuli below 3 kHz, while for full audible bandwidth stimulus, appropriate low-frequency dynamic cue and unstable high-frequency spectral cues in dynamic reproduction result in two splitting virtual sources.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lulu Liu
1
Bosun Xie
1

  1. Acoustic Lab, School of Physics and Optoelectronics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510641, China
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Abstract

In this paper, the relationship between Chinese speech intelligibility (CSI) scores of the elderly aged 60–69 and over 70 years old, and speech transmission index (STI) were investigated through the auralization method under different reverberation time and background noise levels (BNL, 40 dBA and 55 dBA). The results show that the CSI scores of the elderly are significantly worse than those of young adults. For the elderly over 70, the CSI scores become much lower than those of young adults. To be able to achieve the same CSI, the elderly, especially those over 70, need much higher STI and greater SNR than the young. The elderly aged 60–69 and over 70 need to improve their STI by 0.419 and 0.058 respectively under BNL 40 dBA, as well as 0.282 and 0.072 respectively under BNL 55 dBA, so as to obtain the same CSI scores as the young adults.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jianxin Peng
1 2
Jiazhong Zeng
3
Yuezhe Zhao
2

  1. School of Physics and Optoelectronics, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 510640
  2. State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Building Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 510640
  3. School of Architecture, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China, 510640
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Abstract

Orthographic-To-Phonetic (O2P) Transcription is the process of learning the relationship between the written word and its phonetic transcription. It is a necessary part of Text-To-Speech (TTS) systems and it plays an important role in handling Out-Of-Vocabulary (OOV) words in Automatic Speech Recognition systems. The O2P is a complex task, because for many languages, the correspondence between the orthography and its phonetic transcription is not completely consistent. Over time, the techniques used to tackle this problem have evolved, from earlier rules based systems to the current more sophisticated machine learning approaches. In this paper, we propose an approach for Arabic O2P Conversion based on a probabilistic method: Conditional Random Fields (CRF). We discuss the results and experiments of this method apply on a pronunciation dictionary of the Most Commonly used Arabic Words, a database that we called (MCAW-Dic). MCAW-Dic contains over 35 000 words in Modern Standard Arabic (MSA) and their pronunciation, a database that we have developed by ourselves assisted by phoneticians and linguists from the University of Tlemcen. The results achieved are very satisfactory and point the way towards future innovations. Indeed, in all our tests, the score was between 11 and 15% error rate on the transcription of phonemes (Phoneme Error Rate). We could improve this result by including a large context, but in this case, we encountered memory limitations and calculation difficulties.
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Authors and Affiliations

El-Hadi Cherifi
1
Mhania Guerti
1

  1. Department of Electronics, Signal and Communications Laboratory, National Polytechnic School, El-Harrach 16200, Algiers, Algeria
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Abstract

Objective: Self-report questionnaire is informative to assess general hearing disability. The aims of this study were to investigate the reliability of Turkish version of spatial hearing questionnaire (SHQ) and to analyze the validity of the SHQ by the correlation with speech, spatial, and qualities of hearing questionnaire (SSQ) and Turkish matrix sentence test (TMST).
Methods: The first part of the study was the psychometric properties of the SHQ with 192 participants (137 with normal hearing, 55 with hearing loss). In the second and main part of the study, we applied two questionnaires (SHQ and SSQ) and TMST to people other than those included in the first part ofthe study (88 participants with bilateral sensorineural hearing loss). We compared the results of these two questionnaires and the TMST with the speech discrimination (SD) scores.
Results: Turkish spatial hearing questionnaire’s internal consistency was 0.94 and 0.97 for individuals with normal hearing and for individuals with hearing loss, respectively. Moderate, positive, statistically significant correlation was observed between the SHQ and SSQ (r = 0:606, p = 0:001 in individuals with hearing loss who do not wear any hearing aid, and r = 0:627, p = 0:001 in hearing aid users), and SHQ and SD (r = 0:561, p = 0:032 in hearing aid users). According to TMST, moderate, positive, statistically significant correlation was found between SSQ and adaptive TMST in individuals with hearing loss who do not wear any hearing aid (r = 0:330, p = 0:033 for S0N90 and r = 0:364, p = 0:018 for S0N270).
Conclusions: Turkish SHQ is a valid and reliable questionnaire for assessing hearing functions. SHQ, SSQ, and TMST are clinically beneficial measuring tools in planning the process of hearing rehabilitation and follow-up.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bünyamin Çildir
1
Suna Tokgöz-Yilmaz
2
Gonca Sennaroğlu
3

  1. Ankara Yıdırım Beyazıt University, Health Sciences Faculty, Speech Language Therapy Department, Ankara, Turkey
  2. Ankara University, Health Sciences Faculty, Audiology Department, Ankara, Turkey
  3. Hacettepe University, Health Sciences Faculty, Audiology Department, Ankara, Turkey
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Abstract

The study investigates the use of speech signal to recognise speakers’ emotional states. The introduction includes the definition and categorization of emotions, including facial expressions, speech and physiological signals. For the purpose of this work, a proprietary resource of emotionally-marked speech recordings was created. The collected recordings come from the media, including live journalistic broadcasts, which show spontaneous emotional reactions to real-time stimuli. For the purpose of signal speech analysis, a specific script was written in Python. Its algorithm includes the parameterization of speech recordings and determination of features correlated with emotional content in speech. After the parametrization process, data clustering was performed to allows for the grouping of feature vectors for speakers into greater collections which imitate specific emotional states. Using the t-Student test for dependent samples, some descriptors were distinguished, which identified significant differences in the values of features between emotional states. Some potential applications for this research were proposed, as well as other development directions for future studies of the topic.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zuzanna Piątek
1
Maciej Kłaczyński
1

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Robotics, Department of Mechanics and Vibroacoustics, Cracow, Poland
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Abstract

An analysis of low-level feature space for emotion recognition from the speech is presented. The main goal was to determine how the statistical properties computed from contours of low-level features influence the emotion recognition from speech signals. We have conducted several experiments to reduce and tune our initial feature set and to configure the classification stage. In the process of analysis of the audio feature space, we have employed the univariate feature selection using the chi-squared test. Then, in the first stage of classification, a default set of parameters was selected for every classifier. For the classifier that obtained the best results with the default settings, the hyperparameter tuning using cross-validation was exploited. In the result, we compared the classification results for two different languages to find out the difference between emotional states expressed in spoken sentences. The results show that from an initial feature set containing 3198 attributes we have obtained the dimensionality reduction about 80% using feature selection algorithm. The most dominant attributes selected at this stage based on the mel and bark frequency scales filterbanks with its variability described mainly by variance, median absolute deviation and standard and average deviations. Finally, the classification accuracy using tuned SVM classifier was equal to 72.5% and 88.27% for emotional spoken sentences in Polish and German languages, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lukasz Smietanka
1
Tomasz Maka
1

  1. Faculty of Computer Science and Information Technology, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine how the wording of a question about audio, visual and audiovisual stimuli can affect the assessment of the environment. The participants of the psychophysical experiments were asked to rate, on a numerical scale, audio and visual information both separately and together, combined into mixes. A set of questions was used for all the investigated audio, visual, and audio-visual stimuli. The participants were asked about the comfort or the discomfort caused by the perceived stimuli presented at three different sound levels.
The results show that there are no statistically significant differences between the assessment of comfort and discomfort associated with visual samples. Actually, the comfort and discomfort ratings are equivalent to the extent that a discomfort rating can be represented as the opposite to the comfort rating, i.e. the discomfort rating is equal to the 10 minus comfort rating.
In general, the results obtained for audio and audio-visual samples were the same, with only a few exceptions that were dependent on sound level. No statistically significant differences were found for the loudest stimuli, but there were some exceptions for the softener cases. Based on the results, we show that only for visual stimuli both scales are totally interchangeable. When presenting audio and audio-visual samples, only one scale should be applied – either discomfort or comfort, depending on the context and the character of the stimuli.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jan Felcyn
1
Anna Preis
1
Marcin Praszkowski
1
Małgorzata Wrzosek
2

  1. Department of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland
  2. Institute of Philosophy, Szczecin University, Szczecin, Poland
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Abstract

The possibility of a normal distribution indicates that few particles are in the same phase during a breath and their reflections can be observed on the chest wall, then a few explosive waves with relatively large power occurr occasionally. Therefore, the one-cycle sine wave which is simulated as a single burst of the explosive effect phenomenon penetrates through the chest wall and was analysed to explore the reason of the crackle sounds. The results explain the differences between the definitions of crackle proposed by Sovijärvi et al. (2000a). The crackles in the lungs were synthesised by a computer simulation. When the coarse crackles occur, the results indicate that higher burst frequency carriers (greater than 100 Hz) directly penetrate the bandpass filter to simulate the chest wall. The simulated coarse crackle sounds were low pitched, with a high amplitude and long duration. The total duration was greater than 10 ms. However, for a lower frequency carrier (approximately 50 Hz), the fundamental frequency component was filtered out. Therefore, the second harmonic component of the lower frequency carrier, i.e., the fine crackle, penetrated the chest wall. Consequently, it is very possible that the normal lung sounds may contain many crackle-shaped waves with very small amplitudes because of the filtering effects of the chest wall, environment noises, electric devices, stethoscopes, and human ears, the small crackles disappear in the auscultations. In addition, our study pointed out that some unknown crackles of the very low frequency under the bandwidth of the human ears cannot penetrate the airways and be detected by medical doctors. Therefore, it might be necessary to focus advanced electronic instrumentation on them in order to analyse their possible characteristics for diagnosis and treatment of the respiration system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Bing-Yuh Lu
1 2
Meng-Lun Hsueh
3
Huey-Dong Wu
4

  1. Faculty of Automation, Guangdong University of Petrochemical Technology, No. 139, Sec. 2, Guando Road, Maoming City, Guangdong 525000, China
  2. Department of Electronic Engineering, Tungnan University, No. 152, Sec. 3., BeiShen Rd., ShenKeng Dist., New Taipei City 22202, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
  3. Department of Electronic Engineering, Hwa Hsia University of Technology, No. 111, Gongzhuan Rd., Zhonghe Dist., New Taipei City 235, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
  4. Section of Respiration Therapy, Department of Integrated Diagnostics and Therapeutics, National Taiwan University Hospital, No. 7, Zhongshan S. Rd., Zhongzheng Dist., Taipei City 100, Taiwan (R.O.C.)
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Abstract

The impact of the noise radiated from merchant ships on marine life has become an active area of research. In this paper, a methodology integrating observation at a single location and modelling the whole noise field in shallow waters is presented. Specifically, underwater radiated noise data of opportunistic merchant ships in the waters of Zhoushan Archipelago were collected at least one day in each month from January 2015 to November 2016. The noise data were analyzed and a modified empirical spectral source level (SSL) model of merchant ships was proposed inspired by the RANDI-3 model (Research Ambient Noise Directionality) methodology. Then combining the modified model with the realistic geoacoustic parameters and AIS data of observed merchant ships, the noise mappings in this area were performed with N×2D of Normal Mode calculations, in which the SSL of each ship was estimated using the modified model. The sound propagation at different receiving positions is different due to the shielding effect of islands and bottom topography. The methodology proposed in this paper may provide a reference for modelling shipping noise in shallow waters with islands and reefs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zilong Peng
1
Fulin Zhou
2
Jun Fan
2
Bin Wang
2
Huabing Wen
1

  1. Institute of Noise and Vibration, School of Energy and Power Engineering, Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, Zhenjiang 212003, People’s Republic of China
  2. Collaborative Innovation Center for Advanced Ship and Deep-Sea Exploration, State Key Laboratory of Ocean Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, People’s Republic of China
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Abstract

This document presents the results of numerical analyses of the SAW gas sensor in the steady state. The effect of SAW velocity changes depending on how the surface electrical conductivity of the sensing layer is predicted. The conductivity of roughness sensing layer above the piezoelectric waveguide depends on the profile of the diffused gas molecule concentration inside the layer.
Numerical results for the gas DMMP (CAS Number 756-79-6) for layer (RR)-P3HT in the steady state are shown. The main aim of the investigations was to study the thin film interaction with target gases in the SAW sensor configuration based on diffusion equation for polymers. Numerical results for profile concentration in steady state are shown.
The results of numerical acoustoelectric analysis (NAA) allow to select the sensor design conditions, including the morphology of the sensor layer, its thickness, operating temperature and layer type. The numerical results based on the code written in Python, are described and analyzed. The theoretical results were verified and confirmed experimentally.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Robert Hejczyk
1
Jarosław Wrotniak
2
Mirosław Magnuski
2
Wiesław Jakubik
3

  1. The Academy of Creative Development – the Foundation, Marklowice, Poland
  2. Institute of Electronics, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
  3. Institute of Physics CSE, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
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Abstract

The nonlinear interaction of magnetoacoustic waves in a plasma is analytically studied. A plasma is an open system. It is affected by the straight constant equilibrium magnetic flux density forming constant angle with the wave vector which varies from 0 till π. The nonlinear instantaneous equation which describes excitation of secondary wave modes in the field of intense magnetoacoustic perturbations is derived by use of projecting. There is a diversity of nonlinear interactions of waves in view of variety of wave modes, which may be slow or fast and may propagate in different directions. The excitation is analysed in the physically meaningful cases, that is: harmonic and impulsive exciter, oppositely or accordingly directed dominant and secondary wave modes.
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Authors and Affiliations

Anna Perelomova
1

  1. Gdansk University of Technology, Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk, Poland
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Abstract

An approach is presented to form and broaden the low-frequency band gap of the double panel structure (DPS) by using a locally resonant sonic crystal (LRSC) in this work. The LRSC is made of cylindrical Helmholtz resonators arranged on square lattice. Their designs are similar to a slot-type resonator, but have different depths of slot. Elongating the slit neck inward and distributing the depths of slots produce a broad local resonant band gap at low frequencies: an average insertion loss (IL) of 10.9 dB covering 520 Hz to 1160 Hz with a LRSC of 12 cm width. Next, the effect of porous material filled into the resonators on the local resonant band gap is evaluated. It is shown that filling of porous material into the resonators decreases the height and width of the local resonant band gap. Finally, the transmission losses (TLs) through the DPS with LRSC are calculated as a function of the incident angle of the sound wave for LRSC embedded in porous material and not. The results show that the porous material can be significantly reduce the incident angle dependency of TL through the DPS with LRSC.
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Authors and Affiliations

Myong-Jin Kim
1
Chun-Gil Rim
1
Kyong-Su Won
1

  1. Institute of Acoustics, Department of Physics, Kim Il Sung University, Pyongyang, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea
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Abstract

We have designed and built ultrasound imaging-guided HIFU ablative device for preclinical studies on small animals. Before this device is used to treat animals, ex vivo tissue studies were necessary to determine the location and extent of necrotic lesions created inside tissue samples by HIFU beams depending on their acoustic properties. This will allow to plan the beam movement trajectory and the distance and time intervals between exposures leading to necrosis covering the entire treated volume without damaging the surrounding tissues. This is crucial for therapy safety. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of sonication parameters on the size of necrotic lesions formed by HIFU beams generated by 64-mm bowl-shaped transducer used, operating at 1.08 MHz or 3.21 MHz. Multiple necrotic lesions were created in pork loin samples at 12.6-mm depth below tissue surface during 3-s exposure to HIFU beams with fixed duty-cycle and varied pulse-duration or fixed pulse-duration and varied duty-cycle, propagated in two-layer media: water-tissue. After exposures, the necrotic lesions were visualized using magnetic resonance imaging and optical imaging (photos) after sectioning the samples. Quantitative analysis of the obtained results allowed to select the optimal sonication and beam movement parameters to support planning of effective therapy.
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Authors and Affiliations

Łukasz Fura
1
Wojciech Dera
2
Cezary Dziekoński
2
Maciej Świątkiewicz
3
Tamara Kujawska
1

  1. Department of Ultrasound Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences
  2. Department of Theory of Continuous Media and Nanostructures Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Polish Academy of Sciences
  3. Department of Experimental Pharmacology Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences
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Abstract

Noise is unwanted sound judged to be unpleasant, loud or disruptive to hearing. Like air pollution, noise pollution is one of the serious matters of concern in urban areas. Noise pollution occurs when noise level exceeds certain limit and has deleterious effects on human health and wellness. The major sources of noise pollution are industries, road traffic, railways, airplane traffic and social celebrations. The traffic noise is notably high in cities due to higher density of population, frequent movement of people, good transport system coupled with increasing numbers of vehicles (on road). In this work, the assessments of traffic noise in Sambalpur city is presented. Twelve important locations were chosen for the assessment. Noise contours were drawn to visualize the spreading of traffic noise into its surroundings. At the same time, the effect of noise pollution on wellness of the exposed people was studied. The study shows that the traffic noise level and its effects, are both in an alarming stage in the city.
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Authors and Affiliations

Alekh Kumar Sahu
1
Satish Kumar Nayak
2
Chitta Ranjan Mohanty
3
Prasant Kumar Pradhan
1

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, India
  2. Department of Civil Engineering, Veer Surendra Sai University of Technology, Burla, India
  3. Department of Civil Engineering, Parala Maharaja Engineering College, Berhampur, India
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Abstract

Heating, ventilation and air conditional (HVAC) system provides a cold ventilation for the comfort of the driver and passengers in a vehicle. However, the vibration induced by the HVAC contributes to a reasonable level of noise emission, and hissing is one of the critical noises. So far, the characterization of hissing noise from the vehicle is least to be reported compared to other type of noises. Hence, this paper investigates the occurrence of hissing noise from several HVAC components. A lab-scale HVAC system was developed to imitate the real-time operations of the vehicle HVAC system. Two engine conditions, namely as ambient and operating conditions, were tested at speed of 850 rpm and 850–1400 rpm, with the blower speed maintained constantly at one level. The result shows that the hissing noise from the labscale HVAC was produced at frequency range of 4000–6000 Hz. The finding also highlights that the main component contributors of noise emission are an evaporator and a thermal expansion valve. The validation with a real vehicle system showed a good consensus whereby the hissing noise was produced at the similar operating frequency ranges. Also, the hissing noise was found to be louder when in an operating condition which could be taken into consideration by the vehicle manufacturers to improve the HVAC design.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Hafiz Abdul Satar
1
Ahmad Zhafran Ahmad Mazlan
1
Muhd Hidayat Hamdan
1
Mohd Syazwan Md Isa
1
Muhd Abdul Rahman Paiman
2
Mohd Zukhairi Abd Ghapar
2

  1. The Vibration Lab, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
  2. Testing & Development, Vehicle Development & Engineering, Proton Holdings Berhad, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia
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Abstract

The presence of noises in the vehicle cabin is an annoyance phenomenon which is significantly affected by the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system. There are very limited studies reported on the specific type of noise characterisation and validation for both model and vehicle system levels. The present study developed a model of HVAC system that reflects the operation as in real vehicle, and the investigation of the HVAC components were carried out individually to determine which component contributes to the humming-type noise and vibration. The study was conducted under two conditions; idle speed of engine (850 rpm) and operating condition (850–1400 rpm). A ixed blower speed and fullface setting were applied throughout the experimental process. Three different sensors were used for the experiment, which are: accelerometer, tachometer, and microphone. From the results, the compressor and AC pipe components have contributed the most in generating the noise and vibration for both the model and vehicle systems. The findings also highlight that the humming-type noise and vibration were produced in the same operating frequency of 300–400 Hz and 100–300 Hz for idle and operating conditions, respectively, and this result was validated for both model and vehicle system levels.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Hafiz Abdul Satar
1
Ahmad Zhafran Ahmad Mazlan
1
Muhd Hidayat Hamdan
1
Mohd Syazwan Md Isa
1
Muhd Abdul Rahman Paiman
2
Mohd Zukhairi Abd Ghapar
2

  1. The Vibration Lab, School of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Sains Malaysia 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang, Malaysia
  2. Testing & Development, Vehicle Development & Engineering, Proton Holdings Berhad, 40000 Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia

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