Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2002 | No 4

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The paper presents the results of some preliminary investigations on electrolytic separation of chemical elements contained in anode slimes. A new type of electrolyzer is presented which can enable a continuous transport of the electrolysis products 10 a receiver. Then, both the kinetics and the mechanism of anodic dissolution of powder electrodes, taking as example silver powder are discussed. An empirical formula allowing to control this process by means of such parameters as powder mass, current density, electrolyte concentration and grain structure has also been derived. Finally, a procedure for conducting anodic dissolution so as to reverse passivation and to increase the fraction reacted is suggested.
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Authors and Affiliations

Irena Harańczyk
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Basing on the data of Al2O3 and SiO2 thermodynamic acnvrties in SiO2-containing calcium aluminates of three formulae, CaO · Alz03, I 2CaO · 7Alz03 and 3Ca0 · Alz03 (shortly denoted as C1A" C12A7 and C3A1), at 1873K for the wide range of SiO2 mole fractions [!], we propose their activities expressed as functions of CaO contents provided there is no change in SiO2 mole fraction. The proposed relations allow to follow the change of the inclusions and steel composition during calcium treatment when calcium or calcium-silicon are added. An evolution of inclusion and steel compositions during calcium treatment was investigated starting from the partly modified inclusions C1A1-SiO2 with x;,02 = O.IO and 0.03. It was shown that the change of calcium aluminosilicates composition is slightly different for the pure calcium and calcium-silicon additions. With the calcium treatment the mole fraction of SiO2 in inclusions is decreasing less significant.
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Zofia Kalicka
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The chemistry and microstructure of ceramic coatings of Zr02 with 8 and 20 wt% Y2O3 plasma deposited on the NiCrFe substrate with the NiCr25Al6Fe2Y0.4 interlayer were investigated using scanning, analytical microscopy and X-ray phase analysis. An amorphous phase and fine crystalline zone adjacent to the ceramic and metallic layer was detected using transmission electron microscopy. On the other hand, another zone, which was nanocrystalline with some contribution of amorphous phase was observed in the NiCrAIFeY interlayer close to the NiCrFe substrate.
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Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Pawłowski
Tomasz Czeppe
Leszek Górski
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A basic ceramic system was developed by mixing the low temperature form of wollastonite ceramics, sodium silicate and aluminium phosphate. In some cases, UHMW polyethylene powder has been added to the ceramic system during the mixing. The effect of maturation time and aluminium phosphate and polyethylene contents on the mechanical properties has been evaluated. By using four-point bending and double torsion tests the mechanical characterisation has been performed. The mechanical properties, with the exception of the maximum strength, are of the order of human cortical bone. This system allows other constituents to be added to the basic formulation to improve mechanical properties due to the presence of liquid sodium silicate that decreases the interfacial energy of ceramics. Thus, from the mechanical point of view, the materials developed may be suitable for the repair and reconstruction of bone.
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Stress and strain state during the curvature change are characterized by great nonuniformity. There are circumferential tensile stresses in the external elongated zone and compressive ones in the internal zone. Both zones are separated by the neutral surface where circumferential stresses equal zero.
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Authors and Affiliations

Fryderyk Knap
Łukasz Cieślak
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The suitable structure of an alloy affects its superplastic properties due to a basic mechanisms of superplastic deformation. A fine structure of equiaxial grains appears in the alloy provided there are dispersoids and intermetallic compounds of certain size and distribution. The composition of the 2:XXX - type alloy (with Ni - addition) as well as a special thermomechanical treatment allowed to obtain a suitable structure of 15 μm-grain size and an equiaxial shape. The formation of such microstructure was investigated using optical, scanning and electron microscopy, as well as X-ray phase analysis techniques. The X-ray and electron microscopy with EDAX analyser allowed to determine the type and morphology of the intermetallic compounds, very important to generation the fine-grained structure. The superplastic state regarding quality of the structure was verified in tensile tests performed at the range of deformation rates between 1.4 x 10--4 to 7 x 10-3 s-1 and at temperatures from 789 K to 839 K, which allowed to attain the elongation above 300% and strain rate sensitivity coefficient m = 0.509.
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Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Król
Marta Tałach-Dumańska
Henryk Paul
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The strain hardening parameters of steel, aluminium and brass sheets were determined by uniaxial and balanced biaxial (hydraulic bulging) tensile tests. Sheet thickness gradation in different points of hemisphere formed in bulge test was analysed. The Ho 11 om o n equation was used to described uniaxial and biaxial strain hardening curves, and a comparison of strain hardening exponent was performed. Both the mean value of strain hardening exponent n (which describe the strain hardening of the whole strain range) and differential n,-value were determined on the base of the results of uniaxial and biaxial testing. The influence of the stress-state on the strain hardening behaviour of the material, as well as strain localization process, under both deformation modes are analysed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Feliks Stachowicz

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:

1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.

1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).

1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.

1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.

1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.

1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:

Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).

Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.



Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions


2. Manuscript preparation

The editorial system includes:

1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.

2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.

2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).

2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.

2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science:, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:


[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: (in press).


[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.


[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:


PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

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