Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials

Content

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2022 | vol. 67 | No 2 |

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Abstract

Quality of 3d model in simple way translates into quality of final product, obtained from 3d printing. 3d CAx software give possibility to create enormous number of shapes – doesn’t matter solids or surfaces. The question is where is the frontier between quality of 3d model and a value for money of the completed print? Is it always necessary to create as good model as possible? This paper will focus on preparation of 3d models, based on primitives and will show connection between quality of mesh, its size and deviations and quality of obtained samples, in same manufacturing conditions.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Tagowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Technology and Automation, 21. Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The effects of hydrogen absorption and manganese substitution on structural, electronic, optical, and thermoelectric properties of silicon-carbon nanotubes (SiCNT) are studied using the density functional theory and the GGA approximation. An examination of the PDOS curves and the electronic band structure showed that the Mn substitution leads to an increase in magnetic anisotropy and the occurrence of semi-metallic behavior and that the hydrogen absorption shifts the band gap toward the lower energies. A study of these nanostructures’ thermoelectric behavior reveals that the H absorption leads to a significant escalation in the figure of merit of the SiCNT to about 1.6 in the room temperature range. The effects of the H absorption on this nanotube’s optical properties, including the dielectric functions and its absorption spectra, are also investigated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Amir Toofani Shahraki
1
Heydar Ali Shafiei Gol
1
Salimeh Kimiagar
2
Naser Zare Dehnavi
1

  1. Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
  2. Nano Research Lab (NRL), Department of Physics, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
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Abstract

In the past decades, Mg alloys have been studied intensively as potential orthopedic applications. The present research work, the FEA of the obtained contact stresses in the case of the load applied on Mg-0.5Ca-xMn alloys has been investigated. It has been used the NCB Curved Femur Shaft Plate type as a model in order to establish the necessary modeling parameters. The objective of the present work was to highlight the strain values at the contact point on the surface of the Mg-0.5Ca-xMn alloys. The results showed that the highest stresses observed near the gaps of the plate and in the screws. It means that all mechanical loads are sustained by the plate and screws, and the patient’s femur can be recovered.
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Authors and Affiliations

R.O. Nastasa
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Tufescu
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Munteanu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
B. Istrate
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Przybył
3
ORCID: ORCID
G. Ianus
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Blvd. Mangeron, No. 43, 700050, Iasi, Romania
  2. Technical Science Academy of Romania, 26 Dacia Blvd, Bucharest 030167, Romania
  3. Częstochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

AlCrFeCuCoNi high entropy particles were alloyed on Ti-6Al-4V surface using Plasma transferred arc (PTA) process. PTA alloyed surfaces were investigated for their phase formation, microhardness improvement and wear behaviour. The various wear mechanism and their corresponding surface roughness were studied. The results revealed that the dual phase of BCC and FCC microstructure along with some intermetallic compounds were grown in the alloyed region through the PTA technique and good metallurgical bonding of the alloyed region with the base material were achieved. The PTA alloyed region exhibited a hardness of 718 HV0.2 which is 2.2 times higher than the hardness of base material. The PTA alloyed samples showed higher wear resistance due to the solid solution strengthening as the HEA has high entropy of mixing that leads to the reduction of free energy of the alloyed region. It exhibited better interconnection of the coated material and superior metallurgical bonding to the base material. Frictional heat produced during the wear test has promoted the formation of FeO, Cr2O3, CuO, NiO and Al2O3 oxide film on the PTA alloyed sample. These oxide films act as a barrier between two mating surfaces and improve the tribo performance of the PTA alloyed sample.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Prabu
1
Muthukannan Duraiselvam
1

  1. National Institute of Technology, Department of Production Engineering, Tiruchirappalli, India
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Abstract

Effect of annealing treatment on deep drawing behavior of hot-rolled Q235 carbon steel/410/304 stainless steel three-layer composite plate was investigated. Deep drawability of the unannealed composite plates exhibits a sharp difference for various contact surfaces with the die. The limit drawing ratio (LDR) of the composite plate with the carbon steel contacting the die is 1.75, while it is 1.83 with the stainless steel contacting the die due to the different mechanical responses to the tensile stress at the corner of the die. After annealing at 900°C for 2 h, however, the deep drawabilities of the composite plates both for various contact surfaces with the die are significantly improved and becomes almost identical, which are attributed to the stress relief, the enhanced ductility and the improved interface bonding strength of the hot-rolled component plates during annealing.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zehua Lv
1 2 3
Zhixiong Zhang
1 2 3
Jianchao Han
1 2 3
Tao Wang
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Taiyuan University of Technology, College of Mechanical and Vehicle Engineering, Taiyuan 030024, PR China
  2. Taiyuan University of Technology, Engineering Research Center of Advanced Metal Composites Forming Technology and Equipment, Ministry of Education, Taiyuan 030024, PR China
  3. Taiyuan University of Technology, Tyut-Uow Joint Research Centre, Taiyuan 030024, PR China
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Abstract

Plates of AZ91 magnesium alloy were butt-welded using a CO2 laser. The non-equilibrium solidification of the laser-melted metal caused fragmentation of the weld microstructure as well as the supersaturation of a solid solution of aluminium in magnesium, which enabled the T5 ageing of the weld. The weld proved to be a mechanically stable part of the joint; all the tensile-tested specimens, both as-welded and post-weld T5 aged, fractured outside it. During the ageing of the supersaturated joint, which involved heat treating it to the T6 condition, the weld was the region where discontinuous precipitation was observed and this was the location of fracture in the tensile specimens. Thus, the strength properties of welded, supersaturated and aged AZ91 were much worse than when the non-welded material was T6 tempered.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Dziadoń
1
ORCID: ORCID
E. Musiał
1

  1. Kielce University of Technology, Metals Science and Materials Technologies, 7 Tysiąclecia Państwa Polskiego Av., 25-314, Kielce, Poland
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Abstract

The one-part geopolymer binder was synthesis from the mixing of aluminosilicate material with solid alkali activators. The properties of one-part geopolymers vary according to the type and amount of solid alkali activators used. This paper presents the effect of various sodium metasilicate-to-sodium aluminate (NaAlO2/Na2SiO3) ratios on fly ash-based one-part geopolymer. The NaAlO2/Na2SiO3 ratios were set at 1.0 to 3.0. Setting time of fresh one-part geopolymer was examined through Vicat needle apparatus. Mechanical and microstructural properties of developed specimens were analysed after 28 days of curing in ambient condition. The study concluded that an increase in NaAlO2 content delayed the setting time of one-part geopolymer paste. The highest compressive strength was achieved at the NaAlO2/Na2SiO3 ratio of 2.5, which was 33.65 MPa. The microstructural analysis revealed a homogeneous structure at the optimum ratio. While the sodium aluminium silicate hydrate (N-A-S-H) and anorthite phases were detected from the XRD analysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ooi Wan-En
1 2
Yun-Ming Liew
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Heah Cheng Yong
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Ho Li-Ngee
2 4
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Ong Shee-Ween
1 2
Andrei Victor Sandu
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP), Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGEOGTECH), Kangar, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Kangar, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Kangar, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UNIMAP), Centre of Excellence Frontier Materials Research, FRONTMATEKANGAR, 01000 Perlis, Malaysia
  5. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 700050, Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

The versatile application of titanium alloy in the aerospace industry and it’s hard to machine characteristics focus towards the additive manufacturing. The Ti-6Al-4V alloy is manufactured using the electron beam source with a novel method of prepositioned titanium alloy wires. The tribology of the additive manufactured titanium alloy under dry sliding condition is experimented and analysed using Taguchi technique. The targeted objective of minimum tribological responses are attained with the identified optimal parameters as load – 9.81 N, sliding velocity – 3 m/s, sliding distance – 3000 m for minimum specific wear rate and load – 9.81 N, sliding velocity – 3 m/s, sliding distance – 1000 m for minimum coefficient of friction. Among the parameters tested, load is found to be the dominant factor on the tribology of additively manufactured titanium alloy. The morphological analysis on the worn surface and debris revealed the existence of abrasion, delamination and adhesion wear mechanisms. The increase in the load dominantly showed the appearance of delamination mechanism.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Manjunath
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Anandakrishnan
2
ORCID: ORCID
S. Ramachandra
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Parthiban
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Sathish
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gas Turbine Research Establishment, Defence Research & Development Organization, Bangalore, Karnataka-560093, India
  2. Department of Production Engineering, National Institute of Technology Tiruchirapalli, Tiruchirappalli – 620015, Tamil Nadu, India
  3. Department of Mechatronics Engineering, K.S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode, Namakkal – 637215, Tamil Nadu, India
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Abstract

The following article presents the results of selected properties of regranulates of polyamide 6.6, regranules of polyamide contaminated with polypropylene and regranules of polyamide contaminated with silicone. The tested materials came from the reprocessing of polyamides 6.6 originally derived from production of airbags from renowned world producers (material for the research came from production waste). The results of examination were referred to regranulates of uncontaminated polyamide but also obtained from waste from the production of these airbags.
The influence of impurities on properties of regranulates such as their density and melt flow index was assessed. The tests allowed to show a significant impact of impurities on the density but above all on the mass and volume flow rate index which ranged from 47 to 116 g/10 min.
In the case of standardized test specimens selected thermal and mechanical properties were analyzed. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to assess the impact of impurities on the thermal properties of polyamides, allowing primarily identification of materials and impurities (especially polypropylene) as well as characteristic temperatures and the enthalpy of melting of the materials being analyzed. The mechanical properties were assessed using a DMA device. DMA research allowed to determine changes in mechanical properties in a wide temperature range of tested materials. It allowed to obtain full characteristics of changes in material stiffness under the influence of two factors, i.e. temperature and content of impurities, like polypropylene or silicone.
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Authors and Affiliations

T. Stachowiak
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, Częstochowa 42-200, 69 J.H. Dąbrowskiego Str., Poland
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Abstract

Friction stir welding (FSW) currently contributes a significant joining process for welding aluminium, magnesium, and other metals in which no molten or liquid state were involved. It is well known that aluminium alloys are more effective, promising for different applications light weight, strength and low cost. This study aims to determine how such tools geometry and tool speed can be related to dissimilar material in the joining process. Specifically, it investigates whether the distribution of the weld zone particularly between tool pin profile to rotational speed. In this context, the influence of tool pin profile and tool rotational speed in relation to the mechanical properties and microstructure of friction stir welded. The aim of this study is also to test the hypothesis that better mixing between dissimilar metals at higher tool rotational speed along the weld path. Three different tool profiles were configured with AA5083 and AA7075. During welding, notable presence of various types of defects such as voids and wormholes in the weld region. The results of this work showed that the tool pin profile and weld parameter are significant in determining mechanical properties at different tool rotational speed. The highest tensile strength achieved was about 263 MPa and the defectfree joint was obtained by using the threaded tapered cylindrical pin tool at a rotational speed of 800 rpm. These findings indicate that different tool profiles influence differently on the formation of defects at welds. On this basis, the tool geometry should be considered when designing experimental friction stir welded joint.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.H. Azmi
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.Z. Hasnol
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.F.A. Zaharuddin
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Sharif
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Rhee
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, 81310 Johor Bahru Johor, Malaysia
  2. Hanyang University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 17 Haengdang-dong, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791, Korea
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Abstract

Initial investigations on oxidation behaviour and phase transformations of equimolar AlCoCrCuNi high entropy alloy with and without 1 at.% silicon addition during 24-hr exposure to air atmosphere at 1273 K was carried out in this work. After determining the oxidation kinetics of the samples by means of thermogravimetric analysis, the morphology, chemical and phase compositions of the oxidized alloys were determined by means of scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Additional cross-section studies were performed using transmission electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and selected area electron diffraction. From all these investigations, it can be concluded that minor silicon addition improves the oxidation kinetics and hinders the formation of an additional FCC structure near the surface of the material.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Gawel
1
Ł. Rogal
2
K. Przybylski
1
Kenji Matsuda
3

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Materials Science and Ceramics, Department of Physical Chemistry and Modelling, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30 -059 Kraków, Poland
  2. Polish Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Materials, 25 Reymonta Str., 30-059 Kraków, Poland
  3. University of Toyama, Faculty of Sustainable Design, Department of Materials Design and Engineering, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
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Abstract

In this case ceramic layers from Metco ZrO2 and Al2O3 powders mixture (25/75; 50/50 and 75/25) were obtained through atmospheric plasma spraying (APS) after five passes on low carbon steel substrate. The sample surfaces mechanically grinded (160-2400) before and after ceramic layer deposition. Powder’s mixtures and the surface of ceramic thin layers were analyzed through: scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In order to understand the effect of surface wettability of the ceramic layers, before and after grinding the surface, three different liquids were used. Experimental results confirm the modification of the steel substrate surface characteristic from hydrophilic to hydrophobic when the ceramic layer was deposited. Surface free energy of hydration increases for all the samples with zirconia percentage addition before polishing process.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Luțcanu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Coteață
3
ORCID: ORCID
M.A. Bernevig
1
ORCID: ORCID
C.D. Nechifor
2
ORCID: ORCID
M.M. Cazacu
2
ORCID: ORCID
P. Paraschiv
4
ORCID: ORCID
B. Istrate
5
ORCID: ORCID
G. Bădărău
1
ORCID: ORCID
I.G. Sandu
1
ORCID: ORCID
N. Cimpoeșu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron no. 41 Street, 700050 Iasi, Romania
  2. "Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Physics, 700050 Iasi, Romania
  3. Gheorghe Asachi Tech Univ Iasi, Dept Machine Mfg Technol, 59A D Mangeron Blvd, Iasi 700050, Romania
  4. “Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Department of Sport, 700050 Iasi, Romania
  5. Gheorghe Asachi Tech Univ Iasi, Fac Mech Engn 43 D Mangeron St, Iasi 700050, Romania
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Abstract

The S304H steel is used in the construction of pressure components of boilers with supercritical operating parameters. The paper presents the results of the research on the microstructure after ageing for 20,000 hours at 650 and 700°C. The microstructure examination was performed using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The precipitates were identifies using transmission electron microscopy. The influence of ageing time on microstructure changes and the precipitation process of the tested steel is described. The presented research results are an element of material characteristics of the new generation of steel, which are used in the design work of pressure devices of steam boilers and in diagnostic work during operation.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Wersta
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Zieliński
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Sroka
3
ORCID: ORCID
T. Puszczało
3 4
ORCID: ORCID
K. Sówka
3 4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Office of Technical Inspection, Regional Branch Office based in Wrocław, 51 Grabiszyńska Str., 53-503 Wrocław, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, K. Miarki 12-14, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  3. Silesian University of Technology, Department of Engineering Materials and Biomaterials, 18 A S. Konarskiego Str., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  4. ZRE, 13 Gen. Jankego Str., 40-615 Katowice, Poland
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Abstract

The study investigated the primary structure of the new generation of superalloys based on Co-10Al-5Mo-2Nb and Co-20Ni- 10Al-5Mo-2Nb cobalt. Research on a group of cobalt-based materials was initiated in 2006 by J. Sato [1]. These materials may replace nickel-based superalloys in the future due to their excellent properties at elevated temperatures relative to nickel-based superalloys. The primary microstructure characterisation of the Co-10Al-5Mo-2Nb and Co-20Ni-10Al-5Mo-2Nb alloy are the basic subject of this article. The Co-10Al-5Mo-2Nb and Co-20Ni-10Al-5Mo-2Nb alloy are tungsten free alloys of a new type with the final microstructure based on the Co-based solid solution L12 phase of the Co3(Al,Mo,Nb) type as a strengthened structural element. The analysed alloys were investigated in an as-cast state after a vacuum casting process applied on graphite moulds. The primary microstructure of the alloys and the chemical constituent of dendritic and interdendritic areas were analysed using light, scanning electron and transmission microscopy. Currently, nickel-strengthened γ’ phase steels are still unrivalled in aerospace applications, however, cobalt based superalloys are a response to their existing limitations, which do not allow maintaining the current rate of development of aircraft engines.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Kierat
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
G. Moskal
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
A. Zieliński
2
ORCID: ORCID
T. Jung
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Institute of Materials Science, 8 Krasińskiego Str., 40-019 Katowice, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz Research Network – Institute for Ferrous Metallurgy, K. Miarki 12-14, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
  3. Silesian University of Technology, University Zone of Material Innovation, 8 Krasińskiego Str., 40-019 Katowice, Poland
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Abstract

In the domain of the equipment and apparatus construction, a permanent preoccupation worldwide is ensuring technical performances and high fiability in exploitation. The users’ requirement growth in this field led to producing materials with high characteristics such as iron-nickel alloys having a high nickel content with special magnetic, thermal, or elastic properties. The theoretical and experimental researches had the aim of obtaining cold rolled strip, thin (2.6 mm) and narrow (86 mm) from iron-nickel alloys with 41% Ni (low content of C: 0.02-0.04%; Fe: 58%; other elements: Mn, Si, Cu, Cr, Al: under 1%). Our own experiments aimed to establish an optimal cold rolling technology of hot rolled strips of iron-nickel alloys, in order to obtain cold rolled strips with superior mechanical and technological characteristics, strip profile according to current standards, including a finished product characterization.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Bordei
1
ORCID: ORCID
B. Tudor
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Engineering, Materials and Environmental Quality Research Center (CMM), 47 Domneasca Street, RO-800008 Galati, Romania
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Abstract

Filler surface modification has become an essential approach to improve the compatibility problem between natural fillers and polymer matrices. However, there is limited work that concerns on this particular effect under dynamic loading conditions. Therefore, in this study, both untreated and treated low linear density polyethylene/rice husk composites were tested under static (0.001 s –1, 0.01 s –1 and 0.1 s –1) and dynamic loading rates (650 s –1, 900 s –1 and 1100 s –1) using universal testing machine and split Hopkinson pressure bar equipment, respectively. Rice husk filler was modified using silane coupling agents at four different concentrations (1, 3, 5 and 7% weight percentage of silane) at room temperature. This surface modification was experimentally proven by Fourier transform infrared and Field emission scanning electron microscopy. Results show that strength properties, stiffness properties and yield behaviour of treated composites were higher than untreated composites. Among the treated composites, the 5% silane weight percentage composite shows the optimum mechanical properties. Besides, the rate of sensitivity of both untreated and treated composites also shows great dependency on strain rate sensitivity with increasing strain rate. On the other hand, the thermal activation volume shows contrary trend. For fracture surface analysis, the results show that the treated LLDPE/RH composites experienced less permanent deformation as compared to untreated LLDPE/RH composites. Besides, at dynamic loading, the fracture surface analysis of the treated composites showed good attachment between RH and LLDPE.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Firdaus Omar
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Sam Sung Ting
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
B. Jeż
3
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
3
ORCID: ORCID
Hazizan Md Akil
4
ORCID: ORCID
Nik Noriman Zulkepli
1
ORCID: ORCID
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
1
ORCID: ORCID
Azida Azmi
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP),Centre of Excellent Geopolymer & Green Technology (CeGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Częstochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
  4. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
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Abstract

Generally, the metallic implants do not exhibit any bio-integration properties in contact with bone tissues. To improve the interfacial properties of metallic implants in contact with bone, the coatings with thin biocompatible films are used. Two methods to coating titanium implants with hydroxyapatite are described. The first is a two phase method, where by cathodic polarization is deposed a monetite film followed by an alkaline treatment when the monetite is converted to hydroxyapatite. The second method is a biomimetic deposition on an alkaline activate titanium surface, using a five time more concentrated simulated body fluid (5xSBF). After deposition this samples was drying at 120℃ and was sintered at 700℃ for three hours. Optical microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) were used to characterize structure, morphology and compositions of the deposed films. In this study, electrochemical deposition and biomimetic deposition of hydroxyapatite are compared.
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Authors and Affiliations

M.C. Perju
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
C. Nejneru
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Vizureanu
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
A.A. Aelenei
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.V. Sandu
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
L. Sachelarie
4
ORCID: ORCID
M. Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. "Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Prof. D. Mangeron Street, No. 41, 700050, Iasi, Romania
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech ), Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Romanian Inventors Forum, Sf. P. Movila 3, Iasi, Romania
  4. Apollonia University of Iasi, Faculty of Dentistry, PACURARI STREET, NO. 11, 700511, Iasi, Romania
  5. Częstochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics , 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The aim of this paper was to study the corrosion behavior of Nickel – Base – Dental Alloys in Ringer biological fluid. The Nickel base alloys are widely used for medical purposes, especially for prosthetic works in the field of dentistry. The applied electrochemical methods used for corrosion investigations are Open Circuit Potential, Linear Polarization during time of immersion in order to calculate the polarization resistance and corrosion rate. Potentiodynamic Polarization diagrams was performed to appreciate the passive domain. Ni-Cr Ugirex alloy show a better corrosion resistance in Ringer solution which will be reflected in a longer life of the dental structures made with this alloy as compared to the Ni-Cr Ducinox alloy, which will result in dental structures with a shorter lifespan.
The electrochemical studies has shown that the alloy have a corrosion behavior similar to a passivating alloy, displaying an extensive passivity area due to formation of an oxide film.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Benea
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Dragus
1 2
D. Mocanu
1

  1. Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Competences Centre: Interfaces-Tribocorrosion and Electrochemical Systems (CC-ITES), 47 Domneasca Street, RO-800008 Galati, Romania
  2. Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Medicine and Pharmacy, 35 Alexandru. I. Cuza Street., RO-800010, Galati, Romania
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Abstract

The paper presents the impact of exceeding the railway rails lifespan which usually causes a railway structural failure, thus an accident. The research highlights the rails’s high degradation, especially on the running area, consisting in 60-70% weight loss by advanced wear of the rail, followed by fatigue fracture caused by alternating cyclic stresses that initiates the crack and also by tensile stresses resulting in the crack growth. The chemical composition, structural and mechanical properties were analyzed in order to establish the causes that led to the railway rails rupture.
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Authors and Affiliations

A.C. Berbecaru
1
ORCID: ORCID
G. Coman
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Ciucă
1
ORCID: ORCID
I.A. Gherghescu
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.G. Sohaciu
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Grădinaru
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Predescu
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Politehnica University of Bucharest, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 313 Splaiul Independenței, 060042 Bucharest, Romania
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Abstract

This work presents the development of a safer processing route for hard metals. Traditional processing of fine particles under organic solvents presents significant explosion risks. The milling under dichloromethane (DCM) reduces the risks associated with fire hazards. After milling and drying, the samples have been sintered in an industrial sintering furnace under a vacuum at 1380°C. The materials’ characterisation has been done by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis, optical microscopy, and by magnetic measurements. The present work results reveal the powders’ appropriate properties after milling and drying and the desired biphasic (Co-WC) phases obtained after sintering, thus proving the feasibility of such a route, therefore the diminishing of specific fire hazards.
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Authors and Affiliations

H.-F. Chicinaș
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
O.-D. Jucan
1
ORCID: ORCID
R.V. Gădălean
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
G. Conțiu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Cotai
1
ORCID: ORCID
C.O. Popa
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 103-105 Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  2. Gühring Romania, 32 Constructorilor Street, 407035 Apahida, Romania
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Abstract

In this paper there are presented some results obtained by open circuit potential and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements from studies performed on the behavior of tribocorrosion on metallic implant biomaterials as: 304L stainless steel, Co/nano-CeO2 nanocomposite layer and Ti6Al4V untreated and oxidized alloy to form a nanoporous TiO2 film. The open circuit potential technique used in measuring the tribocorrosion process provide information on the active or passive behavior of the investigated metallic biomaterial in the biological fluid, before, during friction and after stopping the friction. Thus it clearly show a better behavior of Co/nano-CeO2 nanocomposite coatings as compared with 304L stainless steel to tribocorrosion degradation in Hank solution; as well the better behavior of nanoporous TiO2 film formed annodically on Ti6Al4V alloy surface as compared with untreated alloy to tribocorrosion degradation in artificial saliva Fusayama Meyer. The slight decrease in polarization resistance value resulted from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measured during friction in the case of the Co/nano-CeO2 nanocomposite layer (four times smaller), compared to 304L stainless steel, whose polarization resistance decreased more than 1000 times during friction shows the higher sensitivity of stainless steel to degradation by tribocorrosion. The same behavior is observed when comparing the polarization resistance of untreated titanium alloy recorded during friction that is about 200 hundred times smaller, while the specific polarization resistance of the oxidized alloy with the nanoporous film of titanium oxide, decreases very little during friction, highlighting the beneficial effect of modifying the titanium alloy by anodic oxidation to increase its resistance to the degradation process by tribocorrosion.
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Authors and Affiliations

L. Benea
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Competences Centre: Interfaces-Tribocorrosion and Electrochemical Systems (CC-ITES), 47 Domneasca Street, RO-800008 Galati, Romania
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Abstract

This paper presents a comparative study of the preparation and characterisation of Fe 38.5 Co 38.5 Nb 7 P 15Cu 1 alloy produced by mechanical alloying (MA) and rapid quenching (RQ) method. In order to obtain the starting mixture (SS) in the present study, we opted for the replacement of elemental Nb and P powders with ferroalloy powders of niobium and phosphorus. Benzene was used as a control agent of the process (PCA) for wet MA. The samples obtained (powders and ribbons) were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray microanalysis (EDX), magnetic measurements M(H) and thermomagnetic measurements M(T). After 40 h of wet MA, the alloy was partially amorphous, and the ribbons obtained by RQ do not show an amorphous state. Also, the magnetic measurements show the influence of the method used on the magnetic properties.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Cotai
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
S. Miraglia
2
ORCID: ORCID
B.V. Neamţu
1
ORCID: ORCID
T.F. Marinca
1
ORCID: ORCID
H.F. Chicinaș
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
O. Isnard
2
ORCID: ORCID
I. Chicinaş
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 103-105 Muncii Ave., 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  2. Institut Néel, CNRS / Université Grenoble Alpes, 25 rue des Martyrs, BP166, 38042 Grenoble, Cédex 9, France
  3. Guhring Romania, Constructurilor Street 30, Apahida 407035, Romania
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Abstract

Setting time in geopolymers is known as the time taken for the transition phase of liquid to solid of the geopolymer system in which is represented in the initial setting and final setting. Setting time is significant specifically for application in the construction field. This study intends to determine the setting time of high calcium fly ash geopolymers and the properties of the geopolymers after setting (1-day age). This includes the determination of heat evolved throughout geopolymerization using Differential Scanning Calorimeter. After setting properties determination includes compressive strength and morphology analysis at 1-day age. High calcium fly ash was used as geopolymer precursor. Meanwhile, for mixing design, the alkali activator was a mixture of sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide (concentration varied from 6M-14M) with a ratio of 2.5 and a solid-to-liquid ratio of 2.5. From this study, it was found that high calcium fly ash geopolymer with 12M of NaOH has a reasonable setting time which is suitable for on-site application as well as an optimal heat evolved (–212 J/g) which leads to the highest compressive strength at 1-day age and no formation of microcracks observed on the morphology. Beyond 12M, too much heat evolved in the geopolymer system can cause micro-cracks formation thus lowering the compressive strength at 1-day age.
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Authors and Affiliations

Rosnita Mohamed
1
ORCID: ORCID
Rafiza Abd Razak
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1
ORCID: ORCID
Liyana Ahmad Sofri
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem Aziz
1
ORCID: ORCID
Noor Fifinatasha Shahedan
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellence (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

Ballistic targets are multi-material assemblies that can be made of various materials, such as metal alloys, ceramics, and polymers. Their role is to provide collective or individual ballistic protection against high-speed dynamic penetrators or kinetic fragments. The paper presents the impact behavior with incendiary perforating bullets having 7.62 mm of ballistic packages made of combinations between Dyneema ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene and high entropy alloy from alloying system AlCoCrFeNi, by analyzing the dynamic phenomena (deformation, perforation) that take place at high speeds. The geometry evolution of the physical model subjected to numerical simulation allows a very good control over the discretization network and also allows the export for modeling to nonlinear transient phenomena. The results obtained by numerical simulation showed that the analyzed ballistic package does not allow sufficient protection for values of impact velocities over 500 m/sec.
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Authors and Affiliations

I. Voiculescu
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Geanta
2
ORCID: ORCID
T. Chereches
3
ORCID: ORCID
P. Vizureanu
4
ORCID: ORCID
R. Stefanoiu
2
ORCID: ORCID
A. Rotariu
5
ORCID: ORCID
D. Mitrica
6
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Industrial Engineering and Robotics, 060042 Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, Romania
  2. University Politehnica of Bucharest, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 060042 Splaiul Independentei 313, Bucharest, Romania
  3. UPS PILOR ARM, Laminorului Street, 2, Targoviste, Romania
  4. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 67, Dimitrie Mangeron Street, Romania
  5. Military Technical Academy Ferdinand I, 050141, George Cosbuc, 39-49, Bucharest, Romania
  6. National Research-Development Institute for Non-Ferrous and Rare Metals – IMNR, 077145, Biruintei, 102, Pantelimon, Romania
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Abstract

Research in additive manufacturing of tungsten carbide-cobalt has intensified over the last few years due to the increasing need for products designed using topology optimisation and multiscale structures (lattice). These products result in complex shapes and contain inner structures that are challenging to produce through conventional techniques, thus involving high costs. The present work addresses this problem using a two-step approach to 3D print parts with complex shapes and internal structures by employing indirect selective laser sintering (SLS) and tungsten carbide-cobalt sintering. The paper takes further our research in this field [1] to improve the part density by using high bulk density tungsten carbide-cobalt powders. Mechanically mixing tungsten carbide-cobalt with the sacrificial binder, polyamide 12, results in a homogenous powder successfully used by the selective laser sintering process to produce green parts. By further processing, the green parts through a complete sintering cycle, an average final part density of 11.72 g/cm3 representing more than 80% of the theoretical density is achieved.
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Authors and Affiliations

R.V. Gădălean
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
O.-D. Jucan
3
ORCID: ORCID
H.F. Chicinaş
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
N. Bâlc
1
ORCID: ORCID
C.O. Popa
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Department of Manufacturing Engineering, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
  2. Gühring Romania, 32 Constructorilor Street, 407035 Apahida, Romania
  3. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Materials Science and Engineering Department, 103-105, Muncii Avenue, 400641 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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Abstract

Biodegradable materials represent a new class of biocompatible materials with applications in many medical cases where the support must be provided only for a certain period. In this article obtaining of ZnMgY alloy is presented along with some basic characteristic investigations like chemical composition (energy dispersive spectroscopy – EDS), microstructure (optical microscopy – OM and scanning and electron microscopy – SEM), immersion behavior in 10xDPBS (Dulbecco Phosphate Buffer Saline) solution (mass loss and surface degradation), electro-corrosion behavior (potentiostat with a three electrodes cell) and micro-hardness of the experimental alloy compared to cast Zn and ZnMg materials. The results present an improvement of micro-hardness of Zn by alloying with Mg and Y and a modification of corrosion resistance.
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Authors and Affiliations

C. Panaghie
1
ORCID: ORCID
N. Cimpoesu
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Benchea
2
ORCID: ORCID
A.-M. Roman
1
ORCID: ORCID
V. Manole
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Alexandru
1
ORCID: ORCID
R. Cimpoesu
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.M. Cazacu
3
ORCID: ORCID
I. Wnuk
4
ORCID: ORCID
G. Zegan
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Gheorghe Asachi University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science Engineering, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron Str., no. 41, Iași 700050, Romania
  2. Gheorghe Asachi University of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron Str., No. 61-63, Iași 700050, Romania
  3. Gheorghe Asachi University of Iasi, Department of Physics, Prof.dr.doc. D. Mangeron Str., No. 59A, Iași 700050, Romania
  4. Częstochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics, 19 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
  5. Grigore T. Popa University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Dental Medicine, University Str., No. 16, Iași 700115, Romania
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Abstract

An alternative for Ordinary Portland cement (OPC) consumption is the production and integration of green cement. In other words, the clinker consumption has to be replaced with new low-carbon binders. A possible solution was introduced by the geopolymerisation technology. However, the alkaline activation of geopolymers offers the possibility of obtaining greener materials with high properties, superior to OPC, but due to the high price of sodium silicate, their industrial use is limited. In the past few years, a new activator has been discovered, namely phosphoric acid. This study approaches the obtaining of coal ash-based geopolymers activated with acid solution cured at room temperature. Accordingly, phosphoric acid, 85% by mass, was diluted in distilled water to obtain a corresponding activation solution for H3PO4/Al2O3 ratio of 1.0 and two types of geopolymers were ambient cured (22°C ±2°C). Moreover, to evaluate the geopolymerisation potential of this system (coal ash – phosphoric acid), SEM and EDS analysis was performed to investigate their morphologic characteristics.
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Authors and Affiliations

D.D. Burduhos Nergis
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Vizureanu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
S. Lupescu
1
ORCID: ORCID
D.P. Burduhos Nergis
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.C. Perju
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.V. Sandu
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. "Gheorghe Asachi” Technical University of Iasi, Blvd . Mangeron, No. 51, 700050, Iasi, Romania
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Center of Excellence, Geopolymer & Green Technology (CeGeoGTech), School of Material Engineering, Perlis, Malaysia
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Abstract

Nanostructured systems based on ZnO nanoparticles composite systems/polymer fibers have attracted a lot of attention in the last years because of their applications in multiple areas. Nanofibres based on polymers are used in many domains such as nanocatalysis, controlled release of medicines, environmental protection and so on. This work show the synthesis of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) nanofiber useful as substrates for growing ZnO nanocrystals and that ZnO is an unorganic metal oxide nanoparticle used to improve the piezoelectric properties of the polymer. The piezoelectric propertiesof ZnO-doped polymeric was investigated with atomic force microscopy and measurements were performed, in contact technique, in piezoelectric response mode (PFM).In order to analyze the structural and textural features, the obtained materials were characterized using advanced physical-chemical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The XRD patterns show the characteristic reflections of ZnO with a hexagonal type wurtzit structure and the broad peaks of the polymer. The SEM images reveal the presence of ZnO nanoparticles on top of the polymer nanofibres.In most ZnO-based nanocomposites their morphology is uncontrolled (agglomerated granules), but in ase of using cellulose acetobutyrate this becomes controlled by observing through flower-like structures SEM and AFM) The study of the functional properties of ZnO/polymer fiber composite systems showed that they have piezoelectric properties which give them the characteristics of smart material with possible sensor and actuator applications.Recent literature reports that the synthesis and characterization of ZnO-polymer nanocomposites are more flexible materials for various applications.
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Authors and Affiliations

G. Calin
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Sachelarie
1
ORCID: ORCID
N. Olaru
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Apollonia University of Iasi, Faculty of Dental Medicine, 11 Pacurari Str., 700511, Iasi, Romania
  2. Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry “Petru Poni” Iasi, Aleea Grigore Ghica Voda,41A, 700487, Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

The present study describes a method for the determination of As (III) and As (V) in copper electrolytes. The method is based on the separation of As (III) from a copper electrolyte by triple liquid-liquid extraction using a non-polar organic solvent in a medium of 10-12 mol L–1 HCl. The extract contains As (III) and the raffinate-As (V), respectively. As(III) specie can be re-extracted from the organic solvent through the water. Analyzes of the concentration of As in the re-extract and raffinate were performed by ICP-OES spectroscopic method. The average recovery of arsenic by the proposed method is about 99%. Repeatability was estimated with RSD (n = 6). Selectivity and accuracy were proven by the standard addition method. The relative error for restoring the standard addition of As (III) is about 0.3%. The speciation method analysis could be applied for determination of the arsenic species in the analytical quality control of refined copper in copper tanks in the production of copper cathodes.
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Authors and Affiliations

E. Stefanov
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Georgieva
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, Department of Analytic Chemistry, 8, St. Kliment Ohridski Blvd, 1756, Sofia, Sofia, Bulgaria
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Abstract

This research paper aims to study the influence of some of the main parameters applied to the electrodeposition process on the nanocomposite layers obtained by strengthening the cobalt matrix with cerium oxide nanoparticles. Thus, the current efficiency (process efficiency) and the degree of inclusion of cerium oxide nanoparticles into cobalt matrix are analyzed according to the current density, the concentration of nanoparticles dispersed in the deposition electrolyte and time of the process. The choice of the optimal parameters imposed on the electrodeposition process lead to the improvement of the quality of the obtained layers, to the reduction of production costs and last but not least to the improvement of corrosion and tribocorrosion resistance of the material. The obtained results show an increase of current efficiency in the process of the deposited layers with the increase of time and current density applied. There is also a slight increasing in the current efficiency of the obtained layers with the increase of the concentration of nanoparticles dispersed in the deposition electrolyte. The increase of the current density, time and the concentration of nanoparticles also have an effect on the degree of embedded CeO2 nanoparticles into cobalt matrix for the studied nanocomposite layers. The degree of inclusion of nanoparticles decreases for the same studied system with the increasing of the current density.
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Authors and Affiliations

N. Simionescu-Bogatu
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Benea
2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Engineering, Competences Centre: Interfaces-Tribocorrosion-Electrochemical Systems (CC-ITES), 47 Domneasca Street, RO-800008 Galati, Romania
  2. Dunarea de Jos University of Galati, Faculty of Engineering, Competences Centre: Interfaces-Tribocorrosion-Electrochemical Systems (CC-ITES),47 Domneasca Street, RO-800008 Galati, Romania
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Abstract

Through taking the cold rolling process as the research object, the three-dimensional finite element model of the strip rolling process is established by using ANSYS/LS-DYNA software. The actual rolling product data has strong consistency with the finite element simulation results. The rolling process is dynamically simulated, and the distribution curves of important rolling parameters such as equivalent stress, control efficiency coefficient, transverse rolling pressure, lateral thickness and work roll deflection is obtained. Based on summarizing the influence of rolling parameters on rolling deformation, the research results of this paper can play an important role in the actual rolling process control. The research results have certain guiding significance for the development and optimization of the rolling control system.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhu-Wen Yan
1
ORCID: ORCID
Bao-Sheng Wang
1
ORCID: ORCID
He-Nan Bu
2
ORCID: ORCID
Hao Li
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lei Hong
1
ORCID: ORCID
Dian-Hua Zhang
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Nanjing Institute of Technology, Industrial Technology Research Institute of Intelligent Equipment, Jiangsu Provincial Engineering Laboratoryof Intelligent Manufacturing Equipment, Nanjing 211167, Peoples R China
  2. Jiangsu University of Science and Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, Zhenjiang 212003, Peoples R China
  3. Northeastern University, State Key Laboratory of Rolling and Automation, 3-11 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Peoples R China
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Abstract

Through partially replacing Y element, Ce was added into near-equiatomic AlNiY medium-entropy amorphous alloy (denoted as MEAA) ribbons by the melt spinning process in this study. The differences of microstructure, thermal stability, hardness and corrosion resistance of Al33.3Ni33.3Y33.4-xCex (x = 0, 2, 5, 8, 13) alloy ribbons were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and Vickers-type hardness tester. The anti-corrosion performance in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution of alloy ribbons was investigated elaborately through the general potentiodynamic polarization curves (Tafel) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Results suggested that all ribbon samples could remain amorphous structure and the hardness are all above 510 HV0.1. With the increase of Ce content, the thermal stability begins to be gradually lower. However, according to the analysis of crystallization kinetics, all types of MEAA ribbons presents the relatively prominent thermal stability compared with traditional Al-based amorphous alloys. The corrosion current density raises firstly, then shows a decreasing trend, and has a slight increase at last. Therefore, appropriate content of Ce element can improve the corrosion protection performance of alloy ribbons and the 5 at.% Ce MEAA ribbons exhibited the excellent corrosion resistance in this study.
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Authors and Affiliations

Shuyan Zhang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Zhibin Zhang
2
Xin Wang
2
Yangyang Gao
1
Xiubing Liang
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Zhejiang University, Ocean College, Zhoushan 316021, Peoples Republic of China
  2. Defense Innovation Institute, Academy of Military Sciences of The PLA of China, Beijing 100071, Peoples Republic of China
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Abstract

Laser-generated surface patterns provide the means for local mechanical interlocking between the joined materials, tunes the wettability of surfaces that come in contact, and generally are the main factor for bonding strength enhancement, especially between dissimilar materials. This paper presents the influence of different patterning overlays generated with a pulsed laser on the surface of stainless-steel sheets. For all experiments, an overlapping degree of 90% has been chosen between three different patterns, while the engraving speed, pulse frequency and number of passes have varied. The textured surfaces’ morphology was assessed through optical microscopy, and the roughness of the surfaces was correlated with the corresponding experimental parameters. The results have indicated promising insights for joining stainless steel to plastic materials, which is otherwise difficult to assess through usual welding techniques.
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Authors and Affiliations

E.R. Moldovan
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Concheso Doria
2
ORCID: ORCID
J.L. Ocaña Moreno
3
ORCID: ORCID
L.S. Baltes
1
ORCID: ORCID
E.M. Stanciu
1
ORCID: ORCID
C. Croitoru
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Pascu
1
ORCID: ORCID
M.H. Tierean
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Transilvania University of Brasov, Brasov, Romania
  2. BSH Electrodomésticos España S.A., Zaragoza, Spain
  3. Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Madrid, Spain
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Abstract

Machining with tool that have cutting edge radius provides components with high fatigue strength, microhardness of a large surface layer and plastic deformation. Finite element simulations of the cutting process give a better knowledge of the chip generation phenomenon, heat generation in the machining area, stress and temperature field results. This study emphasizes the true importance of the mathematical model that underlies the shape of the tool in the pre-processing steps of finite element analysis. The argument is that its achievement and definition depend on the network difficulty. This research purpose is to perform simulations series of orthogonal machining with different radius and depth of cut. In this way, conclusions on the impact of these variations on the whole cutting process were drawn. The finite element application used is Deform 2D, the Lagrange incremental method and the Johnson-Cook material model. The temperature distribution, stress distribution, von Mises stress distribution, effects on specific tool pressure and wear, and fluctuations in the cutting resistance of the tool tip and C45 workpiece were analyzed.
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Authors and Affiliations

A.B. Pop
1
ORCID: ORCID
A.V. Sandu
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
A. Sachelarie
4
ORCID: ORCID
A.M. Țîțu
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, North University Center of Baia Mare, 62A, Victor Babeș Street, Baia Mare, Romania
  2. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, Blvd. D. Mangeron 71, 700050 Iasi, Romania
  3. Romanian Inventors Forum, Str. Sf. P. Movila 3, 700089 Iasi, Romania
  4. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, D. Mangeron 41, 70050, Iasi, Romania
  5. ”Lucian Blaga” University of Sibiu, Faculty of Engineering, 10 Victoriei Street, Sibiu
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Abstract

This study compares the mechanical properties of recycled high-density polyethylene (r-HDPE)/rice husk (RH) composites from a twin-screw extruder and a heated two-roll mill, and the effect of different filler loadings using different melt blending processes on the mechanical properties of r-HDPE/RH composites. Polyethylene-graft-maleic anhydride (MAPE) acts as the coupling agent to enhance interfacial bonding between the fibre and the polymer matrix. The filler loading used was in the range of 10-40 wt. %. In this work, r-HDPE/RH blends were prepared using a twin-screw extruder and a heated two-roll mill. The ratio of 70/30 twin-screw extruder compounded composites significantly showed higher tensile based on improved to about 45.5% at 11 MPa compared to those compounded in the heated two-roll mill. The same ratio showed an increment almost up to 9% of elongation at break. It has also been verified that the higher filler loading used reduced the tensile strength and elongation at break, while the Young’s modulus increased. The result was evidenced by the increase in water absorption and longer burning time as the filler loading increased.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohd Nazry Salleh
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Roslaili Abdul Aziz
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Chen Ruey Shan
4 2
ORCID: ORCID
Luqman Musa
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Fairul Sharin Abdul Razak
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
5
ORCID: ORCID
Bartłomiej Jeż
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, TechnologyKompleksPusatPengajian Taman Muhibah, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Advanced Polymer Group, Center of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CEGeoGTech), 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Center of Excellence for Biomass Utilization (COEBU), 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Faculty of Science and Technology, School of Applied Physics, Material Science Programme, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia
  5. Częstochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

Herein, the effects of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on the mechanical and dielectric performance of hybrid carbon nanotube-woven glass fiber (GF) reinforced epoxy laminated composited are investigated. CNTs are deposited on woven GF surface using an electrospray deposition method which is rarely reported in the past. The woven GF deposited with CNT and without deposited with CNT are used to produce epoxy laminated composites using a vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding. The tensile, flexural, dielectric constant and dielectric loss properties of the epoxy laminated composites were then characterized. The results confirm that the mechanical and dielectric properties of the woven glass fiber reinforced epoxy laminated composited increases with the addition of CNTs. Field emission scanning electron microscope is used to examine the post damage analysis for all tested specimens. Based on this finding, it can be prominently identified some new and significant information of interest to researchers and industrialists working on GF based products.
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Authors and Affiliations

Muhammad Razlan Zakaria
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Nur Aishahatul Syafiqa Mohammad Khairuddin
3
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Firdaus Omar
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hazizan Md Akil
3
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi Othman
4
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
2
ORCID: ORCID
Sam Sung Ting
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Azida Azmi
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellent (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Chemical Sciences, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
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Abstract

For ages, concrete has been used to construct underwater structures. Concrete laying underwater is a very complex procedure important to the success or failure of underwater projects. This paper elucidates the influence of alkali activator ratios on geopolymers for underwater concreting; focusing on the geopolymer concrete synthesized from fly ash and kaolin activated using sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solutions. The geopolymer mixtures were designed to incorporate multiple alkali activator ratios to evaluate their effects on the resulting geopolymers’ properties. The fresh concrete was molded into 50 mm cubes in seawater using the tremie method and tested for its engineering properties at 7 and 28 days (curing). The control geopolymer and underwater geopolymers’ mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, water absorption density, and setting time were also determined. The differences between the control geopolymer and underwater geopolymer were determined using phase analysis and functional group analysis. The results show that the geopolymer samples were optimally strengthened at a 2.5 alkali activator ratio, and the mechanical properties of the control geopolymer exceeded that of the underwater geopolymer. However, the underwater geopolymer was determined to be suitable for use as underwater concreting material as it retains 70% strength of the control geopolymer.
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Authors and Affiliations

Fakhryna Hannanee Ahmad Zaidi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Romisuhani Ahmad
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
3 2
ORCID: ORCID
Wan Mastura Wan Ibrahim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Ikmal Hakem Aziz
3 2
ORCID: ORCID
Subaer Junaidi
4
ORCID: ORCID
Salmabanu Luhar
5 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Engineering Technology, Sungai Chuchuh, 02100 Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellence (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Taman Muhibbah, 02600 Jejawi, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Universitas Negeri Makassar, Geopolymer & Green Material Group, Physics Department, FMIPA, Indonesia
  5. Frederick Research Center, P.O Box 24729, 1303 Nicosia, Cyprus
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Abstract

The introduction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) onto glass fibre (GF) to create a hierarchical structure of epoxy laminated composites has attracted considerable interest due to their merits in improving performance and multifunctionality. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) was used to analyze the woven hybrid GF-CNT. The results demonstrated that CNT was successfully deposited on the woven GF surface. Woven hybrid GF-CNT epoxy laminated composites were then prepared and compared with woven GF epoxy laminated composites in terms of their tensile properties. The results indicated that the tensile strength and tensile modulus of the woven hybrid GF-CNT epoxy laminated composites were improved by up to 9% and 8%, respectively compared to the woven hybrid GF epoxy laminated composites.
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Authors and Affiliations

Muhammad Razlan Zakaria
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Firdaus Omar
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Hazizan Md Akil
3
ORCID: ORCID
Muhammad Bisyrul Hafi Othman
4
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Geopolymer & Green Technology, Centre of Excellent (CEGeoGTech), Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Engineering Campus, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia
  4. Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Chemical Sciences, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
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Abstract

The most common means to analyze redox gradients in sediments is by push/pulling electrochemical probes through sediment’ strata while repeating measurements. Yet, as electrodes move up and down they disrupt the texture of the sediment layers thus biasing subsequent measurements. This makes it difficult to obtain reproducible measurements or to study the evolution of electrochemical gradients. One solution for solving this problem is to eliminate actuators and electrode movements altogether, while instead deploying probes with numerous electrodes positioned at various depths in the sediment. This mode of operation requires electrode switching. We discuss an electrode-switching solution for multi-electrode probes, based on Complementary Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) multiplexors. In this solution, electrodes can be individually activated in any order, sequence or time frame through digital software commands. We discuss constraints of CMOS-based multilayer electrochemical probes during cyclic voltammetry.
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Authors and Affiliations

V.M. Cimpoiasu
1
F. Radulescu
2
K.H. Nealson
3
I.C. Moga
4
ORCID: ORCID
R. Popa
4

  1. University of Craiova, Frontier Biology and Astrobiology Research Center, Biology and Environmental Engineering Department, Craiova, 200585, Romania
  2. Portland, OR, 97229
  3. University of Southern California, Department of Biological Sciences, 3616, Trousdale Parkway, Los Angeles, 90089, USA
  4. DFR Systems SRL, R&D Department, Bucharest, Romania
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Abstract

Geopolymer is synthesized by polycondensation of SiO4 and AlO4 aluminosilicate complexes, tetrahedral frames linked with shared sialate oxygen. This paper studies the effect of the solids-to-fluids (S/L) and Na2SiO3/NaOH proportions on the preparing of metakaolin inorganic membrane geopolymer. By consolidating a mixture of metakaolin with sodium hydroxide, sodium silicate and foaming agent, the geopolymer membrane was made in required shape about 1 cm and cured at 80°C for 24 hours. After the curing process, the properties of the samples were tested on days 7. Sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution were utilized as an alkaline activator with a NaOH fixation fixed at 10 M. The geopolymer inorganic membrane tests were set up with various S/L proportions (0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4) and Na2SiO3/NaOH proportions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5). Aluminium (Al) powder as a foaming agent was used to create bubbles in porous structure and provide details on the development of membrane geopolymers. This metakaolin membrane, based on the geopolymer, was synthesized by a suspension that depends on the fast cementing mechanism of high-temperature slurries. Porous geopolymeric circles provided a homogeneous composition and quantitative distribution of pores. The water absorption, density, impact toughness testing and microstructure analyses were studied. However, considering the promising results, an adjustment in the mix design of the metakaolin inorganic membrane geopolymer mixtures could increase their mechanical properties without negatively affecting the mechanical properties and porosity, making these sustainable materials a suitable alternative to traditional porous cement concrete.
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Authors and Affiliations

Masdiyana Ibrahim
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Wan Mastura Wan Ibrahim
2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Ahmad Syauqi Sauffi
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Petrica Vizureanu
4
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, 02100, Padang Besar, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Center of Excellence Geopolymer & Green Technology (CeGeoGTech), 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, 02600, Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Faculty of Materials Science and Engineering, 700050, Iasi, Romania
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Abstract

Despite of extensive researches for decades, there are many unclear aspects for recrystallization phenomenon in the cold rolled Ni-based alloys. Hence, different thermal cycles were conducted in order to determine microstructural evolutions and its effect on the magnetic and mechanical properties of a 90% cold-rolled thin sheet of a Ni-Fe-Cu-Mo alloy (~80 μm). The obtained results revealed that the recrystallization was started at a temperature of 550°C and was completed after 4 hours. An increase in the number of annealing twins was observed with an increase in annealing temperature, which was due to a bulging and long-range migration of grain boundaries during the discontinuous recrystallization. Ordering transformation occurred in the temperature range of 400-600°C and as a result, hardness, yield strength, and UTS were increased, while with an increase in the annealing temperature these mechanical properties were decreased. Maximum toughness was obtained by annealing at 550°C for 4 hours, while the highest elongation was obtained after annealing at 1050°C, where other mechanical properties including toughness, hardness, yield strength, and UTS were decreased due to the grain growth and secondary recrystallization. Moreover, coercivity and remanence magnetization were decreased from 4.5 Oe and 3.8 emu/g for the cold rolled sample to below 0.5 Oe and 0.15 emu/g for the sample annealed at 950°C, respectively.
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Authors and Affiliations

Azizeh Mahdavi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Ali Reza Mashreghi
1
ORCID: ORCID
Saeed Hasani
1
ORCID: ORCID
Mohammad Reza Kamali
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Yazd University, Department of Mining and Metallurgical Engineering, 89195-741, Yazd, Iran
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Abstract

Optimal parameters setting of injection moulding (IM) machine critically effects productivity, quality, and cost production of end products in manufacturing industries. Previously, trial and error method were the most common method for the production engineers to meet the optimal process injection moulding parameter setting. Inappropriate injection moulding machine parameter settings can lead to poor production and quality of a product. Therefore, this study was purposefully carried out to overcome those uncertainty. This paper presents a statistical technique on the optimization of injection moulding process parameters through central composite design (CCD). In this study, an understanding of the injection moulding process and consequently its optimization is carried out by CCD based on three parameters (melt temperature, packing pressure, and cooling time) which influence the shrinkage and tensile strength of rice husk (RH) reinforced low density polyethylene (LDPE) composites. Statistical results and analysis are used to provide better interpretation of the experiment. The models are form from analysis of variance (ANOVA) method and the model passed the tests for normality and independence assumptions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haliza Jaya
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Nik Noriman Zulkepli
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Firdaus Omar
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Shayfull Zamree Abd Rahim
1 3
ORCID: ORCID
Marcin Nabiałek
4
ORCID: ORCID
Kinga Jeż
4
ORCID: ORCID
Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Universiti Malaysia Perlis, Centre of Excellence Geopolymer and Green Technology (CeGeoGTech), 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  2. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Chemical Engineering Technology, Kompleks Pengajian Jejawi 2, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  3. Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering Technology, Kampus Alam Pauh Putra, 02600 Arau, Perlis, Malaysia
  4. Częstochowa University of Technology, Department of Physics, 42-200 Częstochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents mathematic-statistic methods defining the influence of stress on ceramic elements’ durability of hip and knee joints endoprostheses. The tests were conducted with Finite Elements Method in the ADINA System. The obtained results state the influence of load on the values of durability and stress, that get formed in ceramic parts of joints, and help to detect and solve technical problems and thus, counteract the subsequent effects resulting from premature wear of endoprosthesis elements. The paper emphasizes necessity of discovering new materials, that will be bio-compliant and wear resistant. Although ceramic materials like Al2O3, ZrO2, are brittle and less resistant to load than metallic implants, their improving mechanical parameters (excellent tribological properties), make them becoming new standard in biomaterials for clinical use. That opens new possibilities especially for hip or knee joints alloplasty.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Nabrdalik
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Sobociński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Czestochowa University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering and Computer Science, Department of Technology and Automation, 21 Armii Krajowej Av., 42-201 Czestochowa, Poland
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of work leading to the construction of a spatial hybrid model based on finite element (FE) and Monte Carlo (MC) methods allowing the computer simulation of physical phenomena accompanying the steel sample testing at temperatures that are characteristic for soft-reduction process. The proposed solution includes local density variations at the level of mechanical solution (the incompressibility condition was replaced with the condition of mass conservation), and at the same time simulates the grain growth in a comprehensive resistance heating process combined with a local remelting followed by free/controlled cooling of the sample tested. Simulation of grain growth in the entire computing domain would not be possible without the support of GPU processors. There was a 59-fold increase in the computing speed on the GPU compared to single-threaded computing on the CPU. The study was complemented by examples of experimental and computer simulation results, showing the correctness of the adopted model assumptions.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hojny
1
ORCID: ORCID
T. Dębiński
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. AGH University of Science and Technology, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
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Abstract

The article was created as a result of the work TECHMATSTRATEG 1 program “Modern Material Technologies” as part of the project with the acronym INNOBIOLAS entitled “Development of innovative working elements of machines in the forestry sector and biomass processing based on high-energy surface modification technologies of the surface layer of cast elements”; agreement No. TECHMATSTRATEG1/348072/2/NCBR/2017.
The article discusses the procedure for selecting casting materials that can meet the high operational requirements of working tools of mulching machines: transfer of high static and dynamic loads, resistance to tribological wear, corrosion resistance in various environments. The mulching process was briefly described, then the alloys were selected for experimental tests, model alloys were made and perform material tests were carried out in terms of functional and technological properties. The obtained results allowed to select the alloy where the test castings were made.
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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Pirowski
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Bitka
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Grudzień-Rakoczy
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Małysza
1
ORCID: ORCID
S. Pysz
1
ORCID: ORCID
P. Wieliczko
1
ORCID: ORCID
D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
1 2
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Center of Casting Technology, Łukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology Contribution, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Metals Engineering and Industrial Computer Science, Al. Mickiewicza 30. 30-059 Kraków, Poland
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Abstract

This paper deals with the issue of using moulding sands with a new two-component binder: furfuryl-resole resin – PCL polycaprolactone for the production of ductile iron heavy castings. The previous laboratory studies showed the possibility of using biodegradable materials as binders or parts of binders’ compositions for foundry moulding and core sands. The research proved that addition of new biodegradable PCL in the amount of 5% to the furfuryl-resole resin does not cause significant changes in moulding sand’s properties. The article presents research related to the production of ductile iron castings with the use of moulds with a modified composition, i.e. sands with furfuryl resole resin with and without PCL. Mechanical properties and microstructure of the casting surface layer at the metal/ mould interface are presented. The obtained test results indicate that the use of a biodegradable additive for making foundry moulds from moulding sand with a two-component binder does not deteriorate the properties of ductile iron castings.
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Authors and Affiliations

M. Hosadyna-Kondracka
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Major-Gabryś
2
ORCID: ORCID
M. Warmuzek
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Brůna
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Lukasiewicz Research Network – Krakow Institute of Technology, 73 Zakopiańska Str., 30-418 Krakow, Poland
  2. AGH University of Science and Technology, Faculty of Foundry Engineering, Department of Moulding Materials, Mould Technology and Foundry of Non-ferrous Metals, Al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Krakow, Poland
  3. University of Žilina, Department of Technological Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Univerzitná 1, 010 26, Slovak Republic
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Abstract

The β phase (Al 12Mg 17) precipitated by heat treatment in some alloy compositions may result deterioration of corrosion resistance. However, much of its role remains unclear. The effect of the β phase on the corrosion resistance behavior in a NaCl solution was presented in this study. The specimen was Mg-9mass%Al (AM90) alloy and the content of the β phase precipitant was controlled systematically by aging time at 473 K. Area rate of β and lamellar phase in the specimens were 0, 10 and 100%, respectively. According to the results of cathodic polarization curves measurement, the corrosion current density of α phase was 0.215 A/m2 and β phase of it was 0.096 A/m2. While, the specimen includes 10% of β and lamellar phase showed large corrosion current density of 0.251 A/m2. Positive correlation between the β phase and the open circuit potential, suggest that the β phase acts as a cathodic electrode. Moreover, the microstructure after postentiostatic corrosion tests was also support the role of β phase.
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Authors and Affiliations

Masahiko Hatakeyama
1
ORCID: ORCID
Yusuke Shimada
2
ORCID: ORCID
Naoki Kawate
2
ORCID: ORCID
Kaede Sarayama
2
ORCID: ORCID
Satoshi Sunada
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. University of Toyama, Graduate School of Materials Science and Engineering for Research, 3190 Gofuku, Toyama 930-8555, Japan
  2. University of Toyama, Graduate School of Materials Science and Engineering for Education, Japan
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Abstract

One of the problems limiting the use of vanadium as hydrogen permeable membranes is its high dilatation upon hydrogen dissolution in it. The information available for the dilatation coefficient value (Δυ/Ω) is contradictory, experimental information on the hydrogen solubility in vanadium within 100-1000 kPa at from 250 to 700°С is very limited. It does not enable to calculate the membrane dilatation. The article contains the measuring results for dilatation of strips made of vanadium foil 100 μm thick in a hydrogen atmosphere in the pressure range from 75 to 1000 kPa, temperatures from 250 to 700°С. The dilatation coefficient (Δυ/Ω) of polycrystalline vanadium was calculated based on the data obtained for dilatation and data previously published for the hydrogen concentration in the α-solid solution at 400°С. It is 0.165. Isobars for the temperature dependence of the hydrogen concentration in vanadium are calculated and constructed using the dilatation measuring results and the dilatation coefficient values. These data are agreed with theoretical and experimental data published previously. The limiting change in concentration and linear dimensions over the cross section of a hydrogen-permeable membrane from V was estimated at various temperatures and operating pressures at the membrane outlet based on the isobars plotted for temperature dependences of the CH/V. The conclusions are made on the optimal working conditions of Pd/V/Pd membranes when hydrogen is released from hydrogen-containing gas mixtures in accordance with Fick’s 1st law and data published previously for hydrogen concentration value at which solid hydrogen solutions in vanadium become brittle.
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Authors and Affiliations

A. Panichkin
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Mamaeva
1
ORCID: ORCID
A. Kenzhegulov
1
ORCID: ORCID
Z. Karboz
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Satbayev University; Engineer of Laboratory Metallurgical Sciences, Institute of Metallurgy and Ore Beneficiation, 050010, Almaty City, Shevchenko str., 29/133, The Republic of Kazakhstan
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Abstract

In this paper, the microstructure of laser beam welded Sc-modified AA2519-F has been taken under investigation. The welded joint has been produced using Fanuc 710i industrial robot equipped with YLS-6000 6 kW laser beam source. The welding speed and laser power were equal to 0.75 m/min and 3.2 kW, respectively. The investigation involved microstructure observations with the use of both light microscope and scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of chemical composition and microhardness distribution measurements. It has been stated that laser beam welding allows to obtain Sc-modified AA2519-F weld of good quality, characterized by the presence of an equiaxed grain zone containing scandium-rich precipitates adjacent to the fusion boundary.
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Authors and Affiliations

R. Kosturek
1
ORCID: ORCID
L. Śnieżek
1
ORCID: ORCID
K. Grzelak
1
ORCID: ORCID
M. Wachowski
1
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Military University of Technology, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, 2 gen. S. Kaliskiego Str., 00-908 Warszawa, Poland
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Abstract

In this paper, the macroscopic and microscopic deformation caused by sodium penetration in the carbon cathode has been studied during aluminum electrolysis. The distributions of sodium concentration in the carbon cathode has been measured by SEM-EDS. The microstructure change caused by the gradient of the sodium concentration in the carbon cathode has been studied using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results indicate that sodium penetration decreases with the increase of the penetration depth. The stresses caused by the gradient of the sodium concentration result in a remarkable change for the microstructure of the carbon cathode. The formation of dislocations resulting in dislocation arrays and the development of kink band networks bring about material damage growth and possibly subsequent weakening of the cathode. These results can provide useful information that is helpful in developing an improved comprehending of the microscopic deformation mechanism of the carbon cathode during aluminum electrolysis.
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Authors and Affiliations

Haitao Liu
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Yunhong Huang
4
ORCID: ORCID
Wei Wang
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Ziyang Zhang
1 2 3
ORCID: ORCID
Hengyao Dang
5
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Henan University of Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Luoyang 471023, China
  2. Collaborative Innovation Center of Nonferrous Metals Henan Province, Luoyang 471023, China
  3. Henan Key Laboratory of Non-ferrous Materials Science & Processing Technology, Luoyang 471023, China
  4. Henan University of Science and Technology, Engineering Training Center, Luoyang 471023, China
  5. Luoyang Ship Material Research Institute, Luoyang 471023, China
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Abstract

In this work, influence of NaCl additive on the transformation process of MoO3 to Mo2C under pure CO atmosphere in the range of room temperature to 1170 K was investigated. The results showed that transformation of MoO3 to Mo2C can be roughly divided into two stages: the reduction of MoO3 to MoO2 (the first stage) and the carburization of MoO2 to Mo2C (the second stage). As to the first stage, it was found that increasing the content of NaCl (from 0 to 0.5 wt.%) was beneficial for the increase of reaction rate due to the nucleation effect; while when the content of NaCl increased to 2 wt.%, the reaction rate will be decreased in turn. As to the second stage, the results showed that reaction rate was decreased with the increase of NaCl, which may be due to the formation of low-melting point eutectic. The work also found that morphology of as-prepared Mo2C was irregular and particle size of it was gradually increased with increasing the NaCl content. According to the results, the possible reaction mechanism was proposed.
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Authors and Affiliations

Biao-Hua Que
1
ORCID: ORCID
Lu Wang
1 2
ORCID: ORCID
Bao Wang
3
ORCID: ORCID
Yi Chen
3
ORCID: ORCID
Zheng-Liang Xue
3
ORCID: ORCID

  1. Wuhan University of Science And Technology, Hubei Provincial Key Laboratory For New Processes of Ironmaking and Steelmaking, Wuhan 430081, China
  2. Foshan (Southern China) Institute For New Materials, Foshan 528200, Guangdong, China
  3. Wuhan University of Science and Technology, The State Key Laboratory of Refractories and Metallurgy, Wuhan 430081, China

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.


When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:


1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via www.editorialsystem.com/amm/. Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.


1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).


1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.


1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.


1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.


1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:


Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).


Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.


Appendices

References

Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions

Tables

2. Manuscript preparation


The editorial system includes:


1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.


2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.


2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).


2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.


2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science: http://library.caltech.edu/reference/abbreviations/, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:

Journals:

[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1515/AMM-2015-0350

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI: https://doi.org/10.1063/1.4933303

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

Books:

[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.

Proceedings:

[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:

[4] http://www.twi.co.uk/content/fswqual.html

PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via www.journals.pan.pl. The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/). This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:


Arianta, Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Celdes, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Materials Science Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Science Citation Index Expanded, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), ProQuest (relevant databases), ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, TEMA Technik und Management, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

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