Applied sciences

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials


Archives of Metallurgy and Materials | 2003 | No 4

Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Using SHSB technique, composites "in situ" based on intermetallic phase Ni3Al reinforced with particles of titanium carbides or borides were fabricated. The reinforcing phase was generated by spontaneous exothermic reaction proceeding in metal bath in a metaVnon-metal powdered briquette. Thus fabricated composites were free from porosity, possessed high thermodynamic stability and were characterised by absence of chemical reactions at the matrix-reinforcing particle phase boundary, which effectively prevented structure degradation under high-temperature service conditions. The nucleation of the reinforcing phase in molten metal matrix produced clean interfacial surface, free from the presence of oxides and adsorbed gas, and better wettability and coherence between the matrix and reinforcing particles. Owing to the possibility of controlling the parameters of the reaction kinetics during composite synthesis it was possible to generate particles of a required diameter, volume content and distribution and to obtain, consequently, the required level of the mechanical and tribological properties. An important advantage of this method is the possibility of finally shaping by means of casting process the elements and parts of machines. In accordance with ANSI H35. I we use such nomenclature of composite for example Ni3AVfi05p - matrix Ni3AI, type of reinforcement TiC, vol fraction 5%, p - particles.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Edward Fraś
Andrzej Janas
Paweł Kurtyka
Stanisław Wierzbiński
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Fine equiaxial grain structure is a consequence of designing a material with a large contribution of intermetallic compounds of certain size and distribution. A 2XXX alloy with Fe, Ni, Mn and Zr additions was cast obtaining large amounts of Al-Fe-Ni and Al-Cu-Mg precipitates, in which the Al-Zr compounds appeared as dispersoids. After the application of a modified thermomechanical procedure, an alloy with average grain size of 12 μm with a large contribution of grains smaller than IO μm has been obtained. Apart from that, elongated precipitates of0.8-4.0 μmin size as well as globular ones about 0.3 urn large were produced in the alloy after recrystallization. The alloy revealed high resistance to grain growth at high temperatures, which was due to the appearance of intermetallic compounds (mostly Al-Fe-Ni) in grain boundaries.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Janusz Król
Marta Tałach-Domańska
Maria Socjusz-Podosek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


A Fe-4.34Ni alloy was solidified directionally in the Bridgman system. The solid-liquid interface has been frozen and doublet structure revealed. Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy proved that peritectic reaction had occurred during solidification and modified profile of solute redistribution within primary phase existed just before peritectic reaction. Energ Dispersive X-Ray Spectrimetry (EDXS) solute measurements confirmed also the influence of doublet tip splitting on the solute redistribution. The obtained profile of solute redistribution modified by tip splitting has been compared to analogous profile obtained for the Al-3.5Li alloy in which doublet structure has also been formed but peritectic reaction does not exist. However, in the latter some precipitates have been predicted and revealed by use of the Scanning Electron Microscopy. Relevant equations have been formulated in order to fit experimental solute redistribution within frozen morphology of the Fe-4.34Ni alloy. The formulated equations are an analytical description of the peritectic reaction. It employs the merastable solidus line position known from the Fe-Ni phase diagram. An orientation of the doublet topography has also been determined based on electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) acquired from the Al-3.5Li doublet shaped cells solidified and frozen during microgravity test.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Marek Faryna
Toshimitsu Okane
Edward Guzik
Waldemar Wołczyński
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The effect of tempearture, strain rate and strain on the structure and plastic properties of metals and alloys has been widely known, and improvement of above mentioned features by changes of deformation conditions only has been rather exhausted, but the effect of strain path changes is less known especially in the case of massive processes. Therefore the effect of different complex strain paths on behavior of CuSi3.5 silicon bronze has been investigated. The strain paths contain various sequences of cyclic torsion and monotonic tension were applied. The amplitude was changed in the range of 0.01-0.6, temperature 20-800 °C and strain rate O.Ol-I s _,_ The platic properties and structure obtained in complex strain paths were compared with those gained in monotonic torsion and tensile tests. The silicon bronze containing about 3.5 % Si has a very low stacking fault energy, therefore in the mechanism of complex deformation the twinnings and crystalographic slip play the imporatant role. The strain paths similar to those applied in the experiments are observed in some industrial processes. By proper chosen of the strain path the control of the flow stress and the limit strain can be obtained.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Zbigniew Gronostajski
Karol Jaśkiewicz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The methodology of determination of strain-rate sensitivity index was developed, based on hot rolling of a set of samples with the same draft but different speed at defined temperature levels. It was proved that initial grain size had nearly negligible influence on the investigated variable, in contrast to phase composition whose influence was remarkable. Combined influence of strain rate and temperature on deformation resistance of various types of steel was studied. For a selected group of steels an universal equation was set up, which described with a good accuracy impact of reciprocal temperature and chemical composition, expressed simply by nickel equivalent, on strain-rate sensitivity in hot stale.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Ivo Schindler
Eugeniusz Hadasik
Karel Cmiel
Milos Marek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The examinations of the extent of sinter reduction were carried out in simulated conditions of a blast- furnace at the temperatures of950 and I 100 °C. Two cokes with different reactivity were applied. An analysis was carried out to determine whether it was possible for the CO2, formed in situ as a result of sinter reduction by means of CO, to react with coke. It was shown, that at the temperature of 950 °C the reaction of CO2 with coke did not occur. The reduction of iron - bearing materials at that temperature occurs by way of indirect reduction without the participation of coke carbon. With the growth of temperature up to about 1100 °C the reaction CO2+ C = 2CO becomes an important process influencing the course of the reduction and coke consumption. The effect of coke reactivity on the course of direct reduction was also analysed. Increasing of coke reactivity results an increase in the amount of coke for the reaction CO2+ C= 2CO. The type of packing of the reduced sinter and coke influences the rate of the material reduction.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Andrzej Sadowski
Stanisław Budzyń
Aleksander Długosz
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


The magnetic band separator is provided for the enrichment of strongly magnetic ores, as, for example, magnetite ore. The process of magnetic flocculation occurs under the influence of magnetic field. The forming particle aggregates (floes) contain non-magnetic particles in their structure which deteriorates the separation results. In the band separator the material is subjected to several remagnetizations on its separation path during which non-magnetic particles are being liberated from the floe volumes. The separation results depend on the characteristics of the separator magnetic system and magnetic properties of the raw material. Starting from the equations ofmagnetic field the author calculated the distribution of magnetic field and force in the band separator. On this basis he also determined the optimum pole pitch of the magnetic system which depends on particle sizes of the enriched raw material. Despite the magnetic force, also mechanical forces act upon particles. The balance of forces acting upon the particle enabled the value of separation magnetic susceptibility lo be calculated according to which the raw material is divided into magnetic and non-magnetic particles. Taking into account magnetic interactions between magnetite inclusions in the particle, the dependence of particle magnetic susceptibility on the volume content of magnetite was determined and, next, theoretical indexes of magnetite ore enrichment ability were calculated.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Marian Brożek
Download PDF Download RIS Download Bibtex


Using the dilatometric method the densities of the solid Al-Li-Mg alloys were measured for two constant values oft=0.85 and 0.95, where t =X Al/ (X A 1 +X Mg) and for Li concentrations changing from O to 0.25 mole fraction. The experiments were carried out in the temperature ranges: 293-818 Kand 293-718 K fort= 0.05 and O. 15, respectively. The temperature dependences of density were described by the parabolic equation of the form y =a+ bT + cT 2. The parameters a, b, and c were calculated using the least squares method. It was found that the density isotherms fort= 0.95 show slight negative deviation from the linear behaviour, while fort= 0.85 an almost linear change is observed when plotting the density from Al-Mg alloys to pure Li density. The molar volume isotherms of Al-Li-Mg solid alloys calculated at the same temperatures as for the density are characterised by slow decreasing with the increase of Li content, except that calculated at 700 K for t = 0.85 showing an opposite trend.
Go to article

Authors and Affiliations

Władysław Gąsior
Zbigniew Moser
Janusz Pstruś

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is a quarterly journal of Polish Academy of Sciences and Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science PAS which publishes original scientific papers and reviews in the fields of metallurgy and materials science, foundry, mechanical working of metals, thermal engineering in metallurgy, thermodynamic and physical properties of materials, phase equilibria in the broad context and diffusion. In addition to the regular, original scientific papers and conference proceedings, invited reviews presenting the up-to-date knowledge and monothematic issues devoted to preferred areas of research will be published. Submission of a paper implies that it has not been published previously, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that if accepted it will not be published elsewhere in the same form.

When preparing the manuscript, please pay attention to the following rules:

1. Manuscript submission

1.1. Manuscripts to be considered for publication should be submitted to the Editorial Office via Authors should designate corresponding author, whose responsibility is to represent the Authors in contacts with the Editorial Office. The corresponding author receives an e-mail notification confirming the submission of the manuscript to the Editorial Office and is informed about the progress of the review process.

1.2. Manuscript should not exceed 15 pages of full-size paper (A4), must be double spaced (please use 12 point font), with generous margins, and the pages must be numbered. Authors should submit an electronic file of their manuscript in Microsoft Word (minimum : version 2000).

1.3. All manuscripts must be written in good English. Both British and U.S. English are acceptable but Authors should be consistent in their usage. It is sole responsibility of the Authors to make sure that the manuscript is grammatically correct and spell checked. Authors are strongly encouraged to have the manuscript proofread by a native speaker of English or a language professional, before it is submitted to the editorial office. Papers written in poor English will be automatically rejected without being subjected to review.

1.4. Authors should submit an electronic copy of final version of their paper in Microsoft Word Format, shemes (sketches) and figures saved as .eps, .jpeg, or .tiff.

1.5. Articles submitted for publication should include abstract and maximum 5 keywords.

1.6. Please adhere to the following order of presentation:

Author(s) with first names in full and ORCID.

Affiliation(s): in a short form (Institution, City, Country). Use the superscripts (*, **, . . .) after the Authors’ names in case of different affiliations.

Title: All words in lower case (first letter of first word capitalized).

Abstract: maximum 10 lines, including primary objective, research design, methods and procedures, main outcomes and results. Do not use abbreviations in the abstract.

Keywords: 5 maximum.

Main text: Begin on the second page with Introduction, followed by Experimental (Materials and Methods) and/or Theory section, Results, Discussion, and end with Conclusion section and Acknowledgement. When appropriate the Authors may choose to combine Results section and Discussion section into one Results and Discussion section. Make sure the text in sections is divided logically into paragraphs.
Use the decimal system for sections, subsections and (at the most) sub-subsections, as exemplified in the headings of these instructions.
All abbreviations should be spelled out the first time they are introduced in text or references. Thereafter the abbreviation can be used.



Correspondence address: title, name, postal address, telephone and e-mail address of the corresponding Author, number ORCID.

Figure captions


2. Manuscript preparation

The editorial system includes:

1. Manuscript, which should contain the full text with figures, tables and signatures to them where they are placed.

2. Figures, tables and signatures to them as separate files.

2.1. Formulae, equations and units
The formulas should be written in Microsoft Equation and MathType with the possibility of editing (not as graphics).
Formulae and equations should be typed on separate lines and numbered consecutively in parentheses on the right side (1) . . . (n). Vectors must be indicated as such. Size of symbols should be kept uniform for all equations in the manuscript. Formulae and equations should be referred to in the text as follows: Eq. (1).
Numbers and units must be separated by a space, e.g. 5.5 wt.%, 273.15 K, 1013 MPa, etc. The only exception are angle degrees, e.g. 90°.

2.2. Figures

Figures should be complete without corrections and additions in the word. Figures are usually printed in reduced size (fitting column width of 85 mm) and this should be taken into account when preparing them. For the best results, make sure that lettering on figures and micrographs is at least 2 mm high after reduction, and the style of labeling must be uniform for all figures. Each figure should have its own caption explaining the content without reference to the text. Figure captions should be typed on a separate page at the end of manuscript. The appropriate place of in the text should be indicated by <Fig. 3 > written in separate line. Figures should be referred to in text as follows: Fig. 1. The magnification must be indicated by a labeled scale marker on the micrograph itself, not drawn below it. For optimum printing quality micrographs should be saved as .eps or .tiff at a resolution of at least 300 dpi while line drawings at a resolution of at least 600 dpi.

2.3. Move file
The authors can make movie files up to 100 MB in MP4 format.
The author at the first reference (Movie 1. Click here) should with the Click here command connect the web address with the place of uploading the movie (hyperlink) and at the end of the article provide a list of hyperlinks (samples: Movie 1, hyperlink, movie no 2, hyperlink ......).

The files will be removed from the edytorial system when rejected or published article (moved to Rejected or Published manuscripts).

2.4. Tables

Tables together with captions should be typed on separate page at the end of manuscript. Tables are to be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in the text (TABLE 1 . . . n). A caption must be placed above respective table and should explain the symbols used in the heading and in the left hand column. Tables should be referred to in the text as follows: TABLE 1.

2.5. References

References should be typed on separate pages and numbered consecutively applying the system accepted by the Quarterly (initials and names all authors, journal title [abbreviated according to the Journal Title Abbreviations of Web of Science:, everyone abbreviation should be end with a dot - example. Arch.Metall.Mater.] or book title; journal volume or book publisher; page spread; publication year in bracket).

The use of DOI numbers (full notation and linked) is mandatory for each paper and should be formatted as shown in the examples below:


[1] L.B. Magalas, Development of High-Resolution Mechanical Spectroscopy, HRMS: Status and Perspectives. HRMS Coupled with a Laser Dilatometer. Arch. Metall. Mater. 60 (3), 2069-2076 (2015). DOI:

[2] E. Pagounis, M.J. Szczerba, R. Chulist, M. Laufenberg, Large Magnetic Field-Induced Work output in a NiMgGa Seven-Lavered Modulated Martensite. Appl. Phys. Lett. 107, 152407 (2015). DOI:

[3] H. Etschmaier, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, Suppression of Interdiffusion in Copper/Tin thin Films. J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012).DOI: (in press).


[2] M. H. Kamdar, A.M.C. Westwood, Environment-Sensitive Mechanical Behaviour, New York 1981.


[3] F. Erdogan, in: H. Liebowitz (Ed.), Fracture 2, Academic Press 684, New York (1968).

Internet resource:


PhD Thesis:

[6] F.M. LIang. World Hyphenation by Computer. PhD thesis, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305, June.

Chapter in books:

[7] R. Major, P. Lacki, R. Kustosz, J. M. Lackner, Modelling of nanoindentation to simulate thin layer behavior, in: K. J. Kurzydłowski, B. Major,

P. Zięba (Ed.), Foundation of Materials Design 2006, Research Signpost (2006).

Articles in press:

[8] H. EtschmaIer, H. Torwesten, H. Eder, P. Hadley, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. (2012), DOI: 10.1007/s11665-011-0090-2 (in press).

3. Fees

No honorarium will be paid. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

4. Review and proofread process

4.1. Peer review process All submitted manuscripts undergo review by renowned specialists appointed by the Editor-in-Chief and members of the Editorial Board. Reviewers receive guidance to help them perform the review, and submit written opinion on the manuscript together with recommendation to accept as is, or reject, or accept after revision. In the latter case i.e. when revision is requested, the authors are obliged to respond to Editor and Reviewers’ comments in detail and make revisions to the manuscript. A rebuttal to Reviewers’ comments can also be sent via the Editorial System in writing. Decision to reject the article is taken by the Editorial Board with the final decision belonging to the Editor, who may appoint another reviewer if necessary. Reviewers remain anonymous to Authors and their identity cannot be revealed by the Editorial Office.

In a separate file, the authors are requested to suggest names and contact details (affiliations and valid e-mail addresses) of at least three experts who could serve as reviewers.

Brief explanation (2-3 sentence-long) why each person is suitable as a reviewer should also be provided. The suggested reviewers cannot be from the same country as affiliation of the corresponding author. The decision to appoint a reviewer belongs solely to the editor.

4.2. Revised manuscript submission

When revision of a manuscript is requested, Authors should return the revised version of their manuscript as soon as possible. Prompt action may ensure fast publication if a paper is finally accepted for publication in Arch. Metall. Mater. If it is the first revision of an article Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 7 days.

If it is the second revision Authors are requested to return their revised manuscript within 1 day.

4.3. Final proofreading

Authors will receive a pdf file with the edited version of their manuscript for final proofreading. This is the last opportunity to view an article before its publication on the journal web site. No changes or modifications can be introduced once it is published. Thus authors are requested to check their proof pages carefully against manuscript within 3 working days and prepare a separate document containing all changes that should be introduced. Authors are sometimes asked to provide additional comments and explanations in response to remarks and queries from the language or technical editors.

5. Original version

Starting from issue 1/ 2018, Volume 63, Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is published in electronic via The printed version is printed only for designated libraries (legal basis: Regulation of the Minister of Culture and Art of March 6, 1997).

6. Prevent cases of plagiarism

Readers should be sure that the authors present the results of their work transparently, fair and honest, regardless of whether they are the direct authors, or used the help of a specialized entity (natural or legal person). To prevent cases of plagiarism, "ghostwriting" and "guest Authorship", the Editorial Office will require that the Authors disclosed the contribution of individual Authors in the creation of manuscript (with their affiliations and contributions, i.e. the information who is responsible for: research concept and design, collection and/or assembly of data, data analysis and interpretation, writing the manuscript). Funding sources (together with grant number) must also be revealed. The corresponding Author will bear the main responsibility for the manuscript. Detected cases will be exposed, including notifying the appropriate entities (institutions employing the Authors, scientific societies, associations of editors of scientific journals, etc.).

7. License type

Articles are printed in an open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0, This license allows authors to copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format, remix, transform, and build upon the material. Authors may not use the material for commercial purposes. However, this condition does not include dependent works (they may be covered by another license).

Submission of an article to the journal is unequivocal to expressing consent to the publication in both paper and electronic form.

Additional info

Archives of Metallurgy and Materials is covered by the following services:

Arianta, Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Celdes, Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS) - CAplus, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Current Contents/Engineering, Computing, and Technology, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Materials Science Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics (formerly Thomson Reuters) - Science Citation Index Expanded, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - SCOPUS, Genamics JournalSeek, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), Primo Central (ExLibris), ProQuest (relevant databases), ReadCube, ResearchGate, SCImago (SJR), Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, TEMA Technik und Management, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more