Słowa kluczowe:
mechanism synthesis
machine design
discrete balancing
torque balancing

The aim of this work is to design the links‒spring mechanism for balancing, in the three positions of the operating range, a rotary disc subjected to a torque. An energy-related approach towards the conditions of the mechanical system balance for a discrete number of positions leads to the formulation of a task of searching for a four-bar linkage which guides a coupler point through the prescribed positions, where, at the same time, geometrical conditions (specifying the spring tension) and kinematic conditions (defining the radial component of the tension change rate) are satisfied. The finitely and infinitesimally separated position synthesis is considered, however, only a component of the coupler point velocity is essential. A general method was proposed for determining the four-bar mechanism geometry. Mechanism inversion was applied in order to reduce the number of designed variables and simplify the solution method. The system of complex algebraic equations defines the problem. Linear, symbolic transformations and a systematic search technique are utilized to find multiple local optimal solutions. The problem is solved using Mathematica software.

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] V.H. Arakelian and S. Briot. *Balancing of Linkages and Robot Manipulators. Advanced Methods with Illustrative Examples*. Springer, 2015.

[2] P. Wang and Q. Xu. Design and modeling of constant-force mechanisms: A survey.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 119:1–21, 2018. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2017.08.017.

[3] V. Arakelian and M. Mkrtchyan. Design of scotch yoke mechanisms with balanced input torque. In*Proceedings of the ASME 2015 International Design Engineering Technical Conferences \amp Computers and Information in Engineering Conference IDETC/CIE 2015*, pages 1–5, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, 2–5 August, 2015. doi: 10.1115/DETC2015-46709.

[4] J.A. Franco, J.A. Gallego, and J.L. Herder. Static balancing of four-bar compliant mechanisms with torsion springs by exerting negative stiffness using linear spring at the instant center of rotation.*Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics*, 13(3):031010–13, 2021. doi: 10.1115/1.4050313.

[5] B. Demeulenaere and J. De Schutter. Input torque balancing using an inverted cam mechanism.*Journal of Mechanical Design*, 127(5):887–900, 2005. doi: 10.1115/1.1876452.

[6] D.A. Streit and E. Shin. Equilibrators for planar linkages.*Journal of Mechanical Design*, 115(3):604–611, 1993. doi: 10.1115/1.2919233.

[7] Y. Liu, D.P. Yu, and J. Yao. Design of an adjustable cam based constant force mechanism.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 103:85–97, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2016.04.014.

[8] J.L. Herder. Design of spring force compensation systems.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 33(1-2):151–161, 1998. doi: 10.1016/S0094-114X(97)00027-X.

[9] S.R. Deepak and G.K. Ananthasuresh. Static balancing of a four-bar linkage and its cognates.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 4:62–80, 2012. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2011.09.009.

[10] S. Perreault, P. Cardou, and C. Gosselin. Approximate static balancing of a planar parallel cable-driven mechanism based on four-bar linkages and springs.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 79:64–79, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2014.04.008.

[11] J. Buśkiewicz. The optimum distance function method and its application to the synthesis of a gravity balanced hoist.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 139:443–459, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2019.05.006.

[12] V.L. Nguyen. A design approach for gravity compensators using planar four-bar mechanisms and a linear spring.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 172:104770, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2022.104770.

[13] R. Barents, M. Schenk, W.D. van Dorsser, B.M. Wisse, and J.L. Herder. Spring-to-spring balancing as energy-free adjustment method in gravity equilibrators.*Journal of Mechanical Design*, 133(6):689–700, 2011. doi: 10.1115/DETC2009-86770.

[14] I. Simionescu and L. Ciupitu. The static balancing of the industrial robot arms, Part I: discrete balancing.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 35(9):1287–1298, 2001. doi: 10.1016/S0094-114X(99)00067-1.

[15] A.G. Erdman and G.N. Sandor.*Mechanism Design: Analysis and Synthesis*, Vol. 1, 4th ed., Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ, 2001.

[16] G.N. Sandor and A.G. Erdman.*Advanced Mechanism Design: Analysis and Synthesis*, Vol. 2, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1997.

[17] J.M. McCarthy and G.S. Soh.*Geometric Design of Linkages*, Vol. 11, Springer, New York, 2011.

[18] H. Kaustubh, J. Sonawale, and J.M. McCarthy. A design system for six-bar linkages integrated with a solid modeler.*Journal of Computing and Information Science in Engineering*, 15(4):041002, 2015. doi: 10.1115/1.4030940.

[19] J. Han and W. Liu. On the solution of eight-precision-point path synthesis of planar four-bar mechanisms based on the solution region methodology.*Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics*, 11(6):064504, 2019. doi: 10.1115/1.4044544.

[20] C.W. Wampler, A.P. Morgan, and A.J. Sommese. Complete solution of the nine-point path synthesis problem for four-bar linkages.*Journal of Mechanical Design*, 114(1):153–159, 1992. doi: 10.1115/1.2916909.

[21] W. Guo and X. Wang. Planar linkage mechanism design for bi-objective of trajectory and velocity.*J Beijing Univ Aero Astronautics*, 35(12):1483–1486, 2009.

[22] J. Han, W. Qian, and H. Zhao. Study on synthesis method of $\lambda$-formed 4-bar linkages approximating a straight line.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 44(1):57–65, 2009. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2008.02.011.

[23] J.E. Holte, T.R. Chase, and A.G. Erdman. Approximate velocities in mixed exact-approximate position synthesis of planar mechanisms.*Journal of Mechanical Design*, 123(3):388–394, 2001. doi: 10.1115/1.1370978.

[24] W.T. Lee and K. Russell. Developments in quantitative dimensional synthesis (1970–present): Four-bar path and function generation.*Inverse Problems in Science and Engineering*, 26(9):1280–1304, 2017. doi: 10.1080/17415977.2017.1396328.

[25] C. Wampler and A. Sommese, Numerical algebraic geometry and algebraic kinematics.*Acta Numerica*, 20:469–567, 2011. doi: 10.1017/S0962492911000067.

[26] D.A. Brake, J.D. Hauenstein, A.P. Murray, D.H. Myszka, and C.W. Wampler. The complete solution of alt-burmester synthesis problems for four-bar linkages.*Journal of Mechanisms and Robotics*, 8(4): 041018, 2016. doi: 10.1115/1.4033251.

[27] J. Buśkiewicz, 2019, Gravity balancing of a hoist by means of a four-bar linkage and spring. In:*Advances in Mechanism and Machine Science: Proceedings of the 15th IFToMM World Congress on Mechanism and Machine Science*, pages 1721–1730, Cracow, Poland, June, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-20131-9_170.

[28] J. Buśkiewicz. Solution data, the code of algorithm 6dv2s_II in Mathematica wolfram 8.0 and pdf file of the code, the figures of the spring extensions and the rates of the spring extensions for all the cases. Mendeley Data, V3, 2022, https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/sb38dsw6vm/3.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] P. Wang and Q. Xu. Design and modeling of constant-force mechanisms: A survey.

[3] V. Arakelian and M. Mkrtchyan. Design of scotch yoke mechanisms with balanced input torque. In

[4] J.A. Franco, J.A. Gallego, and J.L. Herder. Static balancing of four-bar compliant mechanisms with torsion springs by exerting negative stiffness using linear spring at the instant center of rotation.

[5] B. Demeulenaere and J. De Schutter. Input torque balancing using an inverted cam mechanism.

[6] D.A. Streit and E. Shin. Equilibrators for planar linkages.

[7] Y. Liu, D.P. Yu, and J. Yao. Design of an adjustable cam based constant force mechanism.

[8] J.L. Herder. Design of spring force compensation systems.

[9] S.R. Deepak and G.K. Ananthasuresh. Static balancing of a four-bar linkage and its cognates.

[10] S. Perreault, P. Cardou, and C. Gosselin. Approximate static balancing of a planar parallel cable-driven mechanism based on four-bar linkages and springs.

[11] J. Buśkiewicz. The optimum distance function method and its application to the synthesis of a gravity balanced hoist.

[12] V.L. Nguyen. A design approach for gravity compensators using planar four-bar mechanisms and a linear spring.

[13] R. Barents, M. Schenk, W.D. van Dorsser, B.M. Wisse, and J.L. Herder. Spring-to-spring balancing as energy-free adjustment method in gravity equilibrators.

[14] I. Simionescu and L. Ciupitu. The static balancing of the industrial robot arms, Part I: discrete balancing.

[15] A.G. Erdman and G.N. Sandor.

[16] G.N. Sandor and A.G. Erdman.

[17] J.M. McCarthy and G.S. Soh.

[18] H. Kaustubh, J. Sonawale, and J.M. McCarthy. A design system for six-bar linkages integrated with a solid modeler.

[19] J. Han and W. Liu. On the solution of eight-precision-point path synthesis of planar four-bar mechanisms based on the solution region methodology.

[20] C.W. Wampler, A.P. Morgan, and A.J. Sommese. Complete solution of the nine-point path synthesis problem for four-bar linkages.

[21] W. Guo and X. Wang. Planar linkage mechanism design for bi-objective of trajectory and velocity.

[22] J. Han, W. Qian, and H. Zhao. Study on synthesis method of $\lambda$-formed 4-bar linkages approximating a straight line.

[23] J.E. Holte, T.R. Chase, and A.G. Erdman. Approximate velocities in mixed exact-approximate position synthesis of planar mechanisms.

[24] W.T. Lee and K. Russell. Developments in quantitative dimensional synthesis (1970–present): Four-bar path and function generation.

[25] C. Wampler and A. Sommese, Numerical algebraic geometry and algebraic kinematics.

[26] D.A. Brake, J.D. Hauenstein, A.P. Murray, D.H. Myszka, and C.W. Wampler. The complete solution of alt-burmester synthesis problems for four-bar linkages.

[27] J. Buśkiewicz, 2019, Gravity balancing of a hoist by means of a four-bar linkage and spring. In:

[28] J. Buśkiewicz. Solution data, the code of algorithm 6dv2s_II in Mathematica wolfram 8.0 and pdf file of the code, the figures of the spring extensions and the rates of the spring extensions for all the cases. Mendeley Data, V3, 2022, https://data.mendeley.com/datasets/sb38dsw6vm/3.

Słowa kluczowe:
continuum robots
inverse kinematic model
artificial neural network

In this paper, neural networks are presented to solve the inverse kinematic models of continuum robots. Firstly, the forward kinematic models are calculated for variable curvature continuum robots. Then, the forward kinematic models are implemented in the neural networks which present the position of the continuum robot’s end effector. After that, the inverse kinematic models are solved through neural networks without setting up any constraints. In the same context, to validate the utility of the developed neural networks, various types of trajectories are proposed to be followed by continuum robots. It is found that the developed neural networks are powerful tool to deal with the high complexity of the non-linear equations, in particular when it comes to solving the inverse kinematics model of variable curvature continuum robots. To have a closer look at the efficiency of the developed neural network models during the follow up of the proposed trajectories, 3D simulation examples through Matlab have been carried out with different configurations. It is noteworthy to say that the developed models are a needed tool for real time application since it does not depend on the complexity of the continuum robots' inverse kinematic models.

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] D. Trivedi, C.D. Rahn, W.M. Kier, and I.D. Walker. Soft robotics: Biological inspiration, state of the art, and future research. *Applied Bionics and Biomechanics*, 5(3):99–117, 2008. doi: 10.1080/11762320802557865.

[2] G. Robinson and J.B.C. Davies. Continuum robots – a state of the art. In*Proceedings 1999 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation*, volume 4, pages 2849–2854, 1999. doi: 10.1109/ROBOT.1999.774029.

[3] I.D. Walker. Continuous backbone “continuum” robot manipulators.*International Scholarly Research Notices*, 2013:726506, 2013. doi: 10.5402/2013/726506.

[4] H.-S. Yoon and B.-J. Yi. Development of a 4-DOF continuum robot using a spring backbone.*The Journal of Korea Robotics Society*, 3(4):323–330, 2008.

[5] M. Li, R. Kang, S. Geng, and E. Guglielmino. Design and control of a tendon-driven continuum robot.*Transactions of the Institute of Measurement and Control*, 40(11):3263–3272, 2018. doi: 10.1177/0142331216685607.

[6] G. Gao, H. Wang, J. Fan, Q. Xia, L. Li, and H. Ren. Study on stretch-retractable single-section continuum manipulator. Advanced Robotics, 33(1):1–12, 2019. doi: 10.1080/01691864.2018.1554507.

[7] C. Laschi, B. Mazzolai, V. Mattoli, M. Cianchetti, and P. Dario. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.*Bioinspiration & Biomimetics*, 4(1):15006, 2009. doi: 10.1088/1748- 3182/4/1/015006.

[8] F. Renda, M. Cianchetti, M. Giorelli, A. Arienti, and C. Laschi. A 3D steady-state model of a tendon-driven continuum soft manipulator inspired by the octopus arm.*Bioinspiration & Biomimetics*, 7(2):25006, 2012. doi: 10.1088/1748-3182/7/2/025006.

[9] F. Renda, M. Giorelli, M. Calisti, M. Cianchetti, and C. Laschi. Dynamic model of a multibending soft robot arm driven by cables.*IEEE Transactions on Robotics*, 30(5):1109–1122, 2014. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2014.2325992.

[10] Y. Peng, Y. Liu, Y. Yang, N. Liu, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, H. Pu, S. Xie, and J. Luo. Development of continuum manipulator actuated by thin McKibben pneumatic artificial muscle.*Mechatronics*, 60:56–65, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.mechatronics.2019.05.001.

[11] G. Gao, H. Ren, Q. Xia, H. Wang, and L. Li. Stretched backboneless continuum manipulator driven by cannula tendons.*Industrial Robot*, 45(2):237–243, 2018. doi: 10.1108/IR-06-2017-0124.

[12] R.J. Webster III and B.A. Jones. Design and kinematic modeling of constant curvature continuum robots: A review.*The International Journal of Robotics Research*, 29(13):1661–1683, 2010. doi: 10.1177/0278364910368147.

[13] S. Mosqueda, Y. Moncada, C. Murrugarra, and H. León-Rodriguez. Constant curvature kinematic model analysis and experimental validation for tendon driven continuum manipulators. In*Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Informatics in Control, Automation and Robotics ICINCO (2)*, volume 2, pages 211–218, 2018. doi: 10.5220/0006913502110218.

[14] A. Ghoul, K. Kara, M. Benrabah, and M.L. Hadjili. Optimized nonlinear sliding mode control of a continuum robot manipulator.*Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems*, pages 1–9, 2022. doi: 10.1007/s40313-022-00914-1.

[15] C. Escande.*Towards Modeling of a Class of Bionic Manipulator Robots*. PhD Thesis, Lille, France, 2013.

[16] T. Mahl, A. Hildebrandt, and O. Sawodny. A variable curvature continuum kinematics for kinematic control of the bionic handling assistant.*IEEE Transactions on Robotics*, 30(4):935– 949, 2014. doi: 10.1109/TRO.2014.2314777.

[17] S. Djeffal, A. Amouri, and C. Mahfoudi. Kinematics modeling and simulation analysis of variable curvature kinematics continuum robots.*UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series D: Mechanical Engineering*, 83:28–42, 2021.

[18] S. Djeffal, C. Mahfoudi, and A. Amouri. Comparison of three meta-heuristic algorithms for solving inverse kinematics problems of variable curvature continuum robots. In*2021 European Conference on Mobile Robots (ECMR)*, pages 1–6, 2021. doi: 10.1109/ECMR50962.2021.9568789.

[19] O. Lakhal, A. Melingui, A. Shahabi, C. Escande, and R. Merzouki. Inverse kinematic modeling of a class of continuum bionic handling arm. In*2014 IEEE/ASME International Conference on Advanced Intelligent Mechatronics*, pages 1337–1342, 2014. doi: 10.1109/AIM.2014.6878268.

[20] D. Trivedi, A. Lotfi, and C.D. Rahn. Geometrically exact dynamic models for soft robotic manipulators. In*2007 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems*, pages 1497–1502, 2007. doi: 10.1109/IROS.2007.4399446.

[21] A. Amouri, C. Mahfoudi, A. Zaatri, O. Lakhal, and R. Merzouki. A metaheuristic approach to solve inverse kinematics of continuum manipulators.*Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part I: Journal of Systems and Control Engineering*, 231(5):380– 394, 2017. doi: 10.1177/0959651817700779.

[22] E. Shahabi and C.-H. Kuo. Solving inverse kinematics of a planar dual-backbone continuum robot using neural network. In B. Corves, P. Wenger, and M. Hüsing, editors,*EuCoMeS 2018*, pages 355–361. Springer, Cham, 2019. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-98020-1_42.

[23] T.G. Thuruthel, E. Falotico, M. Cianchetti, and C. Laschi. Learning global inverse kinematics solutions for a continuum robot. In V. Parenti-Castelli andW. Schiehlen, editors,*ROMANSY 21 - Robot Design, Dynamics and Control*, pages 47–54. Springer, Cham, 2016. doi: 10.1007/978-3-319-33714-2_6.

[24] L. Jiajia, D. Fuxin, L. Yibin, L. Yanqiang, Z. Tao, and Z. Gang. A novel inverse kinematics algorithm using the Kepler oval for continuum robots.*Applied Mathematical Modelling*, 93:206–225, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.apm.2020.12.014.

[25] D.Y. Kolpashchikov, N.V. Laptev, V.V. Danilov, I.P. Skirnevskiy, R.A. Manakov, and O.M. Gerget. FABRIK-based inverse kinematics for multi-section continuum robots. In*2018 18th International Conference on Mechatronics-Mechatronika (ME)*, pages 1–8. IEEE, 2018.

[26] R. Köker, C. Öz, T. Çakar, and H. Ekiz. A study of neural network based inverse kinematics solution for a three-joint robot.*Robotics and Autonomous Systems*, 49(3-4):227–234, 2004. doi: 10.1016/j.robot.2004.09.010.

[27] R.Y. Putra, S. Kautsar, R.Y. Adhitya, M. Syai’in, N. Rinanto, I. Munadhif, S.T. Sarena, J. Endrasmono, and A. Soeprijanto. Neural network implementation for invers kinematic model of arm drawing robot. In*2016 International Symposium on Electronics and Smart Devices (ISESD)*, pages 153–157, 2016. doi: 10.1109/ISESD.2016.7886710.

[28] N. Bigdeli, K. Afsar, B.I. Lame, and A. Zohrabi. Modeling of a five link biped robot dynamics using neural networks.*Journal of Applied Sciences*, 8(20):3612–3620, 2008.

[29] Z. Bingul, H.M. Ertunc, and C. Oysu. Comparison of inverse kinematics solutions using neural network for 6r robot manipulator with offset. In*2005 ICSC Congress on Computational Intelligence Methods and Applications*, page 5, 2005. doi: 10.1109/CIMA.2005.1662342.

[30] X. Zhang, Y. Liu, D.T. Branson, C. Yang, J. S Dai, and R. Kang. Variable-gain control for continuum robots based on velocity sensitivity.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 168:104618, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2021.104618.

[31] A. Liegeois. Automatic supervisory control of the configuration and behavior of multibody mechanisms.*IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics*, 7(12):868–871, 1977.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] G. Robinson and J.B.C. Davies. Continuum robots – a state of the art. In

[3] I.D. Walker. Continuous backbone “continuum” robot manipulators.

[4] H.-S. Yoon and B.-J. Yi. Development of a 4-DOF continuum robot using a spring backbone.

[5] M. Li, R. Kang, S. Geng, and E. Guglielmino. Design and control of a tendon-driven continuum robot.

[6] G. Gao, H. Wang, J. Fan, Q. Xia, L. Li, and H. Ren. Study on stretch-retractable single-section continuum manipulator. Advanced Robotics, 33(1):1–12, 2019. doi: 10.1080/01691864.2018.1554507.

[7] C. Laschi, B. Mazzolai, V. Mattoli, M. Cianchetti, and P. Dario. Design of a biomimetic robotic octopus arm.

[8] F. Renda, M. Cianchetti, M. Giorelli, A. Arienti, and C. Laschi. A 3D steady-state model of a tendon-driven continuum soft manipulator inspired by the octopus arm.

[9] F. Renda, M. Giorelli, M. Calisti, M. Cianchetti, and C. Laschi. Dynamic model of a multibending soft robot arm driven by cables.

[10] Y. Peng, Y. Liu, Y. Yang, N. Liu, Y. Sun, Y. Liu, H. Pu, S. Xie, and J. Luo. Development of continuum manipulator actuated by thin McKibben pneumatic artificial muscle.

[11] G. Gao, H. Ren, Q. Xia, H. Wang, and L. Li. Stretched backboneless continuum manipulator driven by cannula tendons.

[12] R.J. Webster III and B.A. Jones. Design and kinematic modeling of constant curvature continuum robots: A review.

[13] S. Mosqueda, Y. Moncada, C. Murrugarra, and H. León-Rodriguez. Constant curvature kinematic model analysis and experimental validation for tendon driven continuum manipulators. In

[14] A. Ghoul, K. Kara, M. Benrabah, and M.L. Hadjili. Optimized nonlinear sliding mode control of a continuum robot manipulator.

[15] C. Escande.

[16] T. Mahl, A. Hildebrandt, and O. Sawodny. A variable curvature continuum kinematics for kinematic control of the bionic handling assistant.

[17] S. Djeffal, A. Amouri, and C. Mahfoudi. Kinematics modeling and simulation analysis of variable curvature kinematics continuum robots.

[18] S. Djeffal, C. Mahfoudi, and A. Amouri. Comparison of three meta-heuristic algorithms for solving inverse kinematics problems of variable curvature continuum robots. In

[19] O. Lakhal, A. Melingui, A. Shahabi, C. Escande, and R. Merzouki. Inverse kinematic modeling of a class of continuum bionic handling arm. In

[20] D. Trivedi, A. Lotfi, and C.D. Rahn. Geometrically exact dynamic models for soft robotic manipulators. In

[21] A. Amouri, C. Mahfoudi, A. Zaatri, O. Lakhal, and R. Merzouki. A metaheuristic approach to solve inverse kinematics of continuum manipulators.

[22] E. Shahabi and C.-H. Kuo. Solving inverse kinematics of a planar dual-backbone continuum robot using neural network. In B. Corves, P. Wenger, and M. Hüsing, editors,

[23] T.G. Thuruthel, E. Falotico, M. Cianchetti, and C. Laschi. Learning global inverse kinematics solutions for a continuum robot. In V. Parenti-Castelli andW. Schiehlen, editors,

[24] L. Jiajia, D. Fuxin, L. Yibin, L. Yanqiang, Z. Tao, and Z. Gang. A novel inverse kinematics algorithm using the Kepler oval for continuum robots.

[25] D.Y. Kolpashchikov, N.V. Laptev, V.V. Danilov, I.P. Skirnevskiy, R.A. Manakov, and O.M. Gerget. FABRIK-based inverse kinematics for multi-section continuum robots. In

[26] R. Köker, C. Öz, T. Çakar, and H. Ekiz. A study of neural network based inverse kinematics solution for a three-joint robot.

[27] R.Y. Putra, S. Kautsar, R.Y. Adhitya, M. Syai’in, N. Rinanto, I. Munadhif, S.T. Sarena, J. Endrasmono, and A. Soeprijanto. Neural network implementation for invers kinematic model of arm drawing robot. In

[28] N. Bigdeli, K. Afsar, B.I. Lame, and A. Zohrabi. Modeling of a five link biped robot dynamics using neural networks.

[29] Z. Bingul, H.M. Ertunc, and C. Oysu. Comparison of inverse kinematics solutions using neural network for 6r robot manipulator with offset. In

[30] X. Zhang, Y. Liu, D.T. Branson, C. Yang, J. S Dai, and R. Kang. Variable-gain control for continuum robots based on velocity sensitivity.

[31] A. Liegeois. Automatic supervisory control of the configuration and behavior of multibody mechanisms.

Słowa kluczowe:
axial crushing
concertina
eccentricity
ABAQUS
inward folding

The axial crumpling of frusta in the axisymmetric "concertina" mode is examined. A new theoretical model is developed in which the inward folding in both cylinders and frusta is addressed. The results were compared with previous relevant models as well as experimental findings. The flexibility of the model was substantiated by its capability of describing and estimating the inward folding in frusta in general as well as in cylinders as a special case. A declining trend of the eccentricity dependence with the D/t ratio was found in contrast with a previous theory which suggests total independency. ABAQUS 14-2 finite element software was employed to simulate the thin tube as a 3-D thin shell part. Numerical simulations of the process were found to, firstly, underestimate the theoretical values of inward folding in general, secondly anticipate more underestimations as the tubes become thinner and/or have larger apex angle, and finally anticipate as low as 300 apical angle frusta to revert its mode of deformation to global inversion.

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] F.C. Bardi and S. Kyriakides. Plastic buckling of circular tubes under axial compression–part I: Experiments. *International Journal of Mechanical Sciences*, 48(8):830–841, 2006. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2006.03.005.

[2] J.M. Alexander. An approximate analysis of the collapse of thin cylindrical shells under axial loading.*The Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics*, 13(1):10–15, 1960. doi: 10.1093/qjmam/13.1.10.

[3] A.A.K. Mohammed, M.N. Alam, and R. Ansari. Quasi-static study of thin aluminium frusta with linearly varying wall-thickness.*International Journal of Crashworthiness*, 25(5):473–484, 2020. doi: 10.1080/13588265.2019.1613762.

[4] A. Shiravand and M. Asgari. Hybrid metal-composite conical tubes for energy absorption; theoretical development and numerical simulation.*Thin-Walled Structures*, 145:106442, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.tws.2019.106442.

[5] P. Sadjad, E.M. Hossein, and E.M. Sobhan. Crashworthiness of double-cell conical tubes with different cross sections subjected to dynamic axial and oblique loads.*Journal of Central South University*, 25:632–645, 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11771-018-3766-z.

[6] G. Lu , J.L. Yu , J.J. Zhang, and T.X. Yu. Alexander revisited: upper- and lower-bound approaches for axial crushing of a circular tube.*International Journal of Mechanical Sciences*, 206:106610, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmecsci.2021.106610.

[7] A. Sadighi, A. Eyvazian, M. Asgari, and A.M. Hamouda. A novel axially half corrugated thin-walled tube for energy absorption under axial loading.*Thin-Walled Structures*, 145:106418, 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.tws.2019.106418.

[8] M.Y. Abbood, and R.N. Kiter. On the peak quasi-static load of axisymmetric buckling of circular tubes.*International Journal of Crashworthiness*, 27(2):367–375, 2022. doi: 10.1080/13588265.2020.1807679.

[9] T. Wierzbicki, S.U. Bhat, W. Abramowicz, and D. Brodkin. Alexander revisited–-A two folding elements model of progressive crushing of tubes.*International Journal of Solids and Structures*, 29(4):3269–3288, 1992. doi: 10.1016/0020-7683(92)90040-Z.

[10] A.A. Singace, H. Elsobky, and T.Y. Reddy. On the eccentricity factor in the progressive crushing of tubes.*International Journal of Solids and Structures*, 32(24):3589-3602, 1995. doi: 10.1016/0020-7683(95)00020-B.

[11] H.E. Postlethwaite and B. Mills. Use of collapsible structural elements as impact isolators, with special reference to automotive applications.*The Journal of Strain Analysis for Engineering Design*, 5(1):58–73,1970. doi: 10.1243/03093247V051058.

[12] A.G. Mamalis, D.E. Manolakos, S. Saigal, G. Viegelahn, and W. Johnson. Extensible plastic collapse of thin-wall frusta as energy absorbers.*International Journal of Mechanical Sciences*, 28(4):219–229, 1986. doi: 10.1016/0020-7403(86)90070-6.

[13] A.G. Mamalis, D.E. Manolakos, G.L. Viegelahn, and W. Johnson. The modeling of the progressive extensible plastic collapse of thin-wall shells.*International Journal of Mechanical Sciences*, 30(3-4):249–261, 1988. doi: 10.1016/0020-7403(88)90058-6.

[14] N.K. Gupta, G.L. Prasad, and S.K. Gupta. Plastic collapse of metallic conical frusta of large semi-apical angles.*International Journal of Crashworthiness*, 2(4):349–366, 1997. doi: 10.1533/cras.1997.0054.

[15] A.A.A. Alghamdi, A.A.N. Aljawi, and T.M.N. Abu-Mansour. Modes of axial collapse of unconstrained capped frusta.*International Journal of Mechanical Sciences*, 44(6):1145–1161, 2002. doi: 10.1016/S0020-7403(02)00018-8.

[16] N.M. Sheriff, N.K. Gupta, R. Velmurugan, and N. Shanmugapriyan. Optimization of thin conical frusta for impact energy absorption.*Thin-Walled Structures*, 46(6):653–666, 2008. doi: 10.1016/j.tws.2007.12.001.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] J.M. Alexander. An approximate analysis of the collapse of thin cylindrical shells under axial loading.

[3] A.A.K. Mohammed, M.N. Alam, and R. Ansari. Quasi-static study of thin aluminium frusta with linearly varying wall-thickness.

[4] A. Shiravand and M. Asgari. Hybrid metal-composite conical tubes for energy absorption; theoretical development and numerical simulation.

[5] P. Sadjad, E.M. Hossein, and E.M. Sobhan. Crashworthiness of double-cell conical tubes with different cross sections subjected to dynamic axial and oblique loads.

[6] G. Lu , J.L. Yu , J.J. Zhang, and T.X. Yu. Alexander revisited: upper- and lower-bound approaches for axial crushing of a circular tube.

[7] A. Sadighi, A. Eyvazian, M. Asgari, and A.M. Hamouda. A novel axially half corrugated thin-walled tube for energy absorption under axial loading.

[8] M.Y. Abbood, and R.N. Kiter. On the peak quasi-static load of axisymmetric buckling of circular tubes.

[9] T. Wierzbicki, S.U. Bhat, W. Abramowicz, and D. Brodkin. Alexander revisited–-A two folding elements model of progressive crushing of tubes.

[10] A.A. Singace, H. Elsobky, and T.Y. Reddy. On the eccentricity factor in the progressive crushing of tubes.

[11] H.E. Postlethwaite and B. Mills. Use of collapsible structural elements as impact isolators, with special reference to automotive applications.

[12] A.G. Mamalis, D.E. Manolakos, S. Saigal, G. Viegelahn, and W. Johnson. Extensible plastic collapse of thin-wall frusta as energy absorbers.

[13] A.G. Mamalis, D.E. Manolakos, G.L. Viegelahn, and W. Johnson. The modeling of the progressive extensible plastic collapse of thin-wall shells.

[14] N.K. Gupta, G.L. Prasad, and S.K. Gupta. Plastic collapse of metallic conical frusta of large semi-apical angles.

[15] A.A.A. Alghamdi, A.A.N. Aljawi, and T.M.N. Abu-Mansour. Modes of axial collapse of unconstrained capped frusta.

[16] N.M. Sheriff, N.K. Gupta, R. Velmurugan, and N. Shanmugapriyan. Optimization of thin conical frusta for impact energy absorption.

Słowa kluczowe:
coupled spring
mode coupling
serpentine spring
Sigitta spring theory
finite element method

In this paper, a spring system symmetrically arranged around a circular plate compliant to out-of-plane oscillation is proposed. The spring system consists of single serpentine springs mutually coupled in a plane. Three theoretical mechanical models for evaluating the stiffness of the spring system are built, which are based on the flexural beam, Sigitta, and serpentine spring theories and equivalent mechanical spring structure models. The theoretically calculated results are in good agreement with numerical solutions using the finite element method, with errors less than 10% in the appropriate dimension ranges of the spring. Compared to similar spring structures without mechanical coupling, the proposed mechanically coupled spring shows advantage in suppressing the mode coupling.

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] X. Liu, K. Kim, and Y. Sun. A MEMS stage for 3-axis nanopositioning. *Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering*, 17(9):1796–1802, 2007. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/17/9/007.

[2] R. Legtenberg, A.W. Groeneveld, and M. Elwenspoek. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements.*Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering*, 6(3):320–329, 1996. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/6/3/004.

[3] S. Abe, M.H. Chu, T. Sasaki, and K. Hane. Time response of a microelectromechanical silicon photonic waveguide coupler switch.*IEEE Photonics Technology Letters*, 26(15):1553–1556, 2014. doi: 10.1109/lpt.2014.2329033.

[4] T.Q. Trinh, L.Q. Nguyen, D.V. Dao, H.M. Chu, and H.N. Vu, Design and analysis of a z-axis tuning fork gyroscope with guided-mechanical coupling.*Microsystem Technologies*, 20(2):281–289, 2014. doi: 10.1007/s00542-013-1947-0.

[5] Y.J. Huang, T.L. Chang, and H.P. Chou. Novel concept design for complementary metal oxide semiconductor capacitive z-direction accelerometer.*Japanese Journal of Applied Physics*, 48(7):076508, 2009. doi: 10.1143/jjap.48.076508.

[6] A. Sharaf and S. Sedky. Design and simulation of a high-performance Z-axis SOI-MEMS accelerometer.*Microsystem Technologies*, 19(8):1153–1163, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s00542-012-1714-7.

[7] Y. Matsumoto, M. Nishimura, M. Matsuura, and M. Ishida. Three-axis SOI capacitive accelerometer with PLL C–V converter.*Sensors and Actuators A: Physical*, 75(1):77–85, 1999. doi: 10.1016/s0924-4247(98)00295-7.

[8] D. Peroulis, S.P. Pacheco, K. Sarabandi, and L.P.B. Katehi. Electromechanical considerations in developing low-voltage RF MEMS switches.*IEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques*, 51:259–270, 2003. doi: 10.1109/TMTT.2002.806514.

[9] Y. Liu. Stiffness Calculation of the microstructure with crab-leg flexural suspension.*Advanced Materials Research*, 317-319:1123–1126, 2011. doi: 10.4028/www.scientific.net/AMR.317-319.1123.

[10] H.M. Chou, M.J. Lin, and R. Chen. Investigation of mechanics properties of an awl-shaped serpentine microspring for in-plane displacement with low spring constant-to-layout area.*Journal of Micro/Nanolithography MEMS and MOEMS*, 15(3):035003, 2016. doi: 10.1117/1.JMM.15.3.035003.

[11] D.V. Hieu, L.V. Tam, N.V. Duong, N.D. Vy, and C.M. Hoang. Design and simulation analysis of a z axis microactuator with low mode cross-talk.*Journal of Mechanics*, 36(6):881–888, 2020. doi: 10.1017/jmech.2020.48.

[12] D.V. Hieu, L.V. Tam, K. Hane, and M.H. Chu. Design and simulation analysis of an integrated XYZ micro-stage for controlling displacement of scanning probe.*Journal of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics*, 59(1):143–156, 2021. doi: 10.15632/jtam-pl/130549.

[13] F. Hu, W. Wang, and J. Yao. An electrostatic MEMS spring actuator with large stroke and out-of-plane actuation.*Micromechanics and Microengineering*, 21(11):115029, 2011. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/21/11/115029.

[14] W. Wai-Chi, A.A. Azid, and B.Y. Majlis. Formulation of stiffness constant and effective mass for a folded beam.*Archives of Mechanics*, 62(5):405–418, 2010.

[15] Y. Cao and Z. Xi. A review of MEMS inertial switches.*Microsystem Technologies*, 25(12):4405–4425, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00542-019-04393-4.

[16] K.R. Sudha, K. Uttara, P.C. Roshan, and G.K. Vikas. Design and analysis of serpentine based MEMS accelerometer.*AIP Conference Proceedings*, 1966:020026, 2018. doi: 10.1063/1.5038705.

[17] H.M. Chou, M.J. Lin, and R. Chen. Fabrication and analysis of awlshaped serpentine microsprings for large out-of-plane displacement.*Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering*, 25:095018, 2015. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/25/9/095018.

[18] C.M. Hoang, and K. Hane. Design fabrication and vacuum operation characteristics of two-dimensional comb-drive micro-scanner.*Sensors and Actuators A: Physical*, 165(2): 422–430, 2011. doi: 10.1016/j.sna.2010.11.004.

[19] G. Barillaro, A. Molfese, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri. Analysis simulation and relative performances of two kinds of serpentine springs.*Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering*, 15(4):736–746, 2005. doi: 10.1088/0960-1317/15/4/010.

[20] P.B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S.S. Lee, J.I. Dadap, S. Park, K.Bergman et al. Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch.*Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems*, 14(2):261–273, 2005. doi: 10.1109/JMEMS.2004.839827.

[21] G.D.J. Su, S.H. Hung, D. Jia, and F. Jiang. Serpentine Spring corner designs for micro-electro-mechanical systems optical switches with large mirror mass.*Optical Review*, 12(4):339–344, 2005. doi: 10.1007/s10043-005-0339-9.

[22] A. Khlifi, A. Ahmed, S. Pandit, B. Mezghani, R. Patkar, P. Dixit, and M.S. Baghini. Experimental and theoretical dynamic investigation of MEMS Polymer mass-spring systems.*IEEE Sensors Journal*, 20(19):11191–11203, 2020. doi: 10.1109/JSEN.2020.2996802.

[23] J. Wu, T. Liu, K. Wang, and K. Sørby. A measuring method for micro force based on MEMS planar torsional spring.*Measurement Science and Technology*, 32(3):035002, 2020. doi: 10.1088/1361-6501/ab9acd.

[24] Z. Rahimi, J. Yazdani, H. Hatami, W. Sumelka, D. Baleanu, and S. Najafi. Determination of hazardous metal ions in the water with resonant MEMS biosensor frequency shift – concept and preliminary theoretical analysis.*Bulletin of the Polish Academy of Sciences: Technical Sciences*, 68(3): 529–537, 2020. doi: 10.24425/bpasts.2020.133381.

[25] K.G. Sravani, D. Prathyusha, C. Gopichand, S.M. Maturi, A. Elsinawi, K. Guha, and K. S. Rao. Design, simulation and analysis of RF MEMS capacitive shunt switches with high isolation and low pull-in-voltage.*Microsystem Technologies*, 28:913–928, 2022. doi: 10.1007/s00542-020-05021-2.

[26] N. Lobontiu and E. Garcia.*Mechanics of Microelectromechanical Systems*. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2005. doi: 10.1007/b100026.

[27] H.A. Rouabah, C.O. Gollasch, and M. Kraft. Design optimisation of an electrostatic MEMS actuator with low spring constant for an “Atom Chip”. In*Technical Proceedings of the 2005 NSTI Nanotechnology Conference and Trade Show*, volume 3, pages 489–492, 2002.

[28] R. Raymond and J. Raymond.*Roark's Formulas for Stress and Strain*. McGraw-Hill, 1989.

[29] M.S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis. Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes.*Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems*, 15(3):479–491, 2006. doi: 10.1109/jmems.2006.876779.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] R. Legtenberg, A.W. Groeneveld, and M. Elwenspoek. Comb-drive actuators for large displacements.

[3] S. Abe, M.H. Chu, T. Sasaki, and K. Hane. Time response of a microelectromechanical silicon photonic waveguide coupler switch.

[4] T.Q. Trinh, L.Q. Nguyen, D.V. Dao, H.M. Chu, and H.N. Vu, Design and analysis of a z-axis tuning fork gyroscope with guided-mechanical coupling.

[5] Y.J. Huang, T.L. Chang, and H.P. Chou. Novel concept design for complementary metal oxide semiconductor capacitive z-direction accelerometer.

[6] A. Sharaf and S. Sedky. Design and simulation of a high-performance Z-axis SOI-MEMS accelerometer.

[7] Y. Matsumoto, M. Nishimura, M. Matsuura, and M. Ishida. Three-axis SOI capacitive accelerometer with PLL C–V converter.

[8] D. Peroulis, S.P. Pacheco, K. Sarabandi, and L.P.B. Katehi. Electromechanical considerations in developing low-voltage RF MEMS switches.

[9] Y. Liu. Stiffness Calculation of the microstructure with crab-leg flexural suspension.

[10] H.M. Chou, M.J. Lin, and R. Chen. Investigation of mechanics properties of an awl-shaped serpentine microspring for in-plane displacement with low spring constant-to-layout area.

[11] D.V. Hieu, L.V. Tam, N.V. Duong, N.D. Vy, and C.M. Hoang. Design and simulation analysis of a z axis microactuator with low mode cross-talk.

[12] D.V. Hieu, L.V. Tam, K. Hane, and M.H. Chu. Design and simulation analysis of an integrated XYZ micro-stage for controlling displacement of scanning probe.

[13] F. Hu, W. Wang, and J. Yao. An electrostatic MEMS spring actuator with large stroke and out-of-plane actuation.

[14] W. Wai-Chi, A.A. Azid, and B.Y. Majlis. Formulation of stiffness constant and effective mass for a folded beam.

[15] Y. Cao and Z. Xi. A review of MEMS inertial switches.

[16] K.R. Sudha, K. Uttara, P.C. Roshan, and G.K. Vikas. Design and analysis of serpentine based MEMS accelerometer.

[17] H.M. Chou, M.J. Lin, and R. Chen. Fabrication and analysis of awlshaped serpentine microsprings for large out-of-plane displacement.

[18] C.M. Hoang, and K. Hane. Design fabrication and vacuum operation characteristics of two-dimensional comb-drive micro-scanner.

[19] G. Barillaro, A. Molfese, A. Nannini, and F. Pieri. Analysis simulation and relative performances of two kinds of serpentine springs.

[20] P.B. Chu, I. Brener, C. Pu, S.S. Lee, J.I. Dadap, S. Park, K.Bergman et al. Design and nonlinear servo control of MEMS mirrors and their performance in a large port-count optical switch.

[21] G.D.J. Su, S.H. Hung, D. Jia, and F. Jiang. Serpentine Spring corner designs for micro-electro-mechanical systems optical switches with large mirror mass.

[22] A. Khlifi, A. Ahmed, S. Pandit, B. Mezghani, R. Patkar, P. Dixit, and M.S. Baghini. Experimental and theoretical dynamic investigation of MEMS Polymer mass-spring systems.

[23] J. Wu, T. Liu, K. Wang, and K. Sørby. A measuring method for micro force based on MEMS planar torsional spring.

[24] Z. Rahimi, J. Yazdani, H. Hatami, W. Sumelka, D. Baleanu, and S. Najafi. Determination of hazardous metal ions in the water with resonant MEMS biosensor frequency shift – concept and preliminary theoretical analysis.

[25] K.G. Sravani, D. Prathyusha, C. Gopichand, S.M. Maturi, A. Elsinawi, K. Guha, and K. S. Rao. Design, simulation and analysis of RF MEMS capacitive shunt switches with high isolation and low pull-in-voltage.

[26] N. Lobontiu and E. Garcia.

[27] H.A. Rouabah, C.O. Gollasch, and M. Kraft. Design optimisation of an electrostatic MEMS actuator with low spring constant for an “Atom Chip”. In

[28] R. Raymond and J. Raymond.

[29] M.S. Weinberg and A. Kourepenis. Error sources in in-plane silicon tuning-fork MEMS gyroscopes.

Słowa kluczowe:
centrifugal forces
longitudinal forces
electrochemical machining
electrolyte flow
computer simulation
method of perturbation

This paper presents an analysis of the impact of inertial forces of the electrolyte flow in an interelectrode gap on the effects of ECM process of curvilinear rotary surfaces. Considering a laminar flow in the interelectrode gap, the equations of the flow of the mixture of electrolyte and hydrogen in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system have been defined. Two classes of equations of motion have been formulated, which differ in the estimates referred to the components of velocity and pressure, and which were analytically solved using the method of perturbation.

Using the machined surface shape evolution equation, the energy equation, and the analytical solutions for velocity and pressure, the ECM-characteristic distributions have been determined: of mean velocity, pressure, mean temperature, current density, gas phase concentration, the gap height after the set machining time for the case when there is no influence of inertial forces, the effect of centrifugal forces and, at the same time, centrifugal and longitudinal inertial forces.

Przejdź do artykułu
Using the machined surface shape evolution equation, the energy equation, and the analytical solutions for velocity and pressure, the ECM-characteristic distributions have been determined: of mean velocity, pressure, mean temperature, current density, gas phase concentration, the gap height after the set machining time for the case when there is no influence of inertial forces, the effect of centrifugal forces and, at the same time, centrifugal and longitudinal inertial forces.

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[24] T. Paczkowski and J. Zdrojewski. The mechanism of ECM technology design for curvilinear surfaces.*Procedia CIRP*, 42:356–361, 2016. doi: 10.1016/j.procir.2016.02.195.

[25] J. Sawicki. ECM machining of curvilinear rotary surfaces.*Journal of Polish CIMAC*. 5(3):88–98, 2010.

[26] J. Sawicki.*Analysis and Modeling of Electrochemical Machining of Curvilinear Rotary Surfaces*. University Publisher. UTP University of Science and Technology, Poznan, Poland, 2013.

[27] E.I. Filatov. The numerical simulation of the unsteady ECM process.*Journal of Materials Processing Technology*, 109(3):327–332, 2001. doi: 10.1016/S0924-0136(00)00817-7.

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[29] M. Chai, Z. Li, X. Song, J. Ren, and Q. Cui. Optimization and simulation of electrochemical machining of cooling holes on high temperature nickel-based alloy.*International Journal Electrochemical Science*, 16:210912, 2021. doi: 10.20964/2021.09.35.

[30] D. Mi and W. Natsu. Proposal of ECM method for holes with complex internal features by controlling conductive area ratio along tool electrode.*Precision Engineering*, 42:179–186, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.precisioneng.2015.04.015.

[31] D. Zhu, R. Zhang, and C. Liu. Flow field improvement by optimizing turning profile at electrolyte inlet in electrochemical machining.*International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing*, 18(1):15–22, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s12541-017-0002-y.

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Przejdź do artykułu
[2] M. Datta and L.T. Romankiw. Application of chemical and electrochemical micromachining in the electronics industry.

[3] A. Ruszaj. Electrochemical machining – state of the art and direction of development.

[4] A. Ruszaj, J. Gawlik, and S. Skoczypiec. Electrochemical machining – special equipment and applications in aircraft industry.

[5] K.P. Rajurkar, M.M. Sundaram,and A.P. Malshe. Review of electrochemical and electro discharge machining.

[6] J. Bannard. Electrochemical machining.

[7] J.A. McGeough.

[8] J.A. McGeough and H. Rasmussen. Theoretical analysis of the electroforming process.

[9] H.S.J. Altena.

[10] A. Budzyński and S. Seroka. Studies of unidirectional longitudinal electrochemical honing.

[11] L. Dąbrowski.

[12] J. Kozak and M. Zybura-Skrabalak. Some problems of surface roughness in electrochemical machining

[13] K. Łubkowski, L. Dąbrowski, J. Kozak, and M. Rozenek. Electrochemical machine tools for surface smoothing and deburring.

[14] X. Wang, H. Li, and S. Niu. Simulation and experimental research into combined electrochemical milling and electrochemical grinding machining of Ti40 titanium alloy.

[15] M. Singh and S. Singh. Electrochemical discharge machining: A review on preceding and perspective research.

[16] J.F. Wilson.

[17] J. Kozak. Mathematical models for computer simulation of electrochemical machining processes.

[18] J. Sawicki. ECM machining of curvilinear rotary surfaces by a shaping tool electrode performing composite motion.

[19] A.D. Davydov, V.M. Volgin, and V.V. Lyubimov. Electrochemical machining of metals: fundamentals of electrochemical shaping.

[20] J. Sawicki and T. Paczkowski. Effect of the hydrodynamic conditions of electrolyte flow on critical states in electrochemical machining.

[21] C.F. Noble.

[22] H. Demitras, O. Yilmaz, and B. Kanber. Controlling short circuiting, oxide layer and cavitation problems in electrochemical machining of freeform surfaces.

[23] T. Paczkowski and J. Sawicki. Electrochemical machining of curvilinear surfaces.

[24] T. Paczkowski and J. Zdrojewski. The mechanism of ECM technology design for curvilinear surfaces.

[25] J. Sawicki. ECM machining of curvilinear rotary surfaces.

[26] J. Sawicki.

[27] E.I. Filatov. The numerical simulation of the unsteady ECM process.

[28] C. Zhang, Z. Xu, Y. Hang, and J. Xing. Effect of solution conductivity on tool electrode wear in electrochemical discharge drilling of nickel-based alloy.

[29] M. Chai, Z. Li, X. Song, J. Ren, and Q. Cui. Optimization and simulation of electrochemical machining of cooling holes on high temperature nickel-based alloy.

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Słowa kluczowe:
permeability
porosity
compactness
compressive strength
cement

The study investigates the effect of Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) added in changed proportions as stabilising agents on soil parameters: uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Proctor compactness and permeability. The material included dredged clayey silts collected from the coasts of Timrå, Östrand. Soil samples were treated by different ratio of the stabilising agents and water and tested for properties. Study aimed at estimating variations of permeability, UCS and compaction of soil by changed ratio of binders. Permeability tests were performed on soil with varied stabilising agents in ratio H _{W}L _{B} (high water / low binder) with ratio 70/30%, 50/50%, and 30/70%. The highest level of permeability was achieved by ratio 70/30% of cement/slag, while the lowest - by 30/70%. Proctor compaction was assessed on a mixture of ash and green liquor sludge, to determine optimal moisture content for the most dense soil. The maximal dry density at 1.12 g/cm ^{3} was obtained by 38.75% of water in a binder. Shear strength and P-wave velocity were measured using ISO/TS17892-7 and visualised as a function of UCS. The results showed varying permeability and UCS of soil stabilised by changed ratio of CEM II/GGBS.

Przejdź do artykułu
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Słowa kluczowe:
cycloidal gearbox
backlash
dynamics
multibody dynamics
multibody simulation
discrete Fourier transform
spectral analysis
FFT

In this paper the analysis of backlash influence on the spectrum of torque at the output shaft of a cycloidal gearbox has been performed. The model of the single stage cycloidal gearbox was designed in the MSC Adams. The analysis for the excitation with the torque and the analysis with constant angular velocity of the input shaft were performed. For these analyses, the amplitude spectrums of the output torque for different backlashes was solved using FFT algorithm. The amplitude spectrums of the combined sine functions composed of the impact to impact times between the cycloidal wheel and the external sleeves were computed for verification. The performed studies show, that the backlash has significant influence on the output torque amplitude spectrum. Unfortunately the dependencies between the components of the spectrum and the backlash could not be expressed by linear equations, when vibrations of the output torque in the range of (350 Hz – 600 Hz) are considered. The gradual dependence can be found in the spectrum determined for the combined sine functions with half-periods equal impact-to-impact times. The spectrum is narrower for high values of backlash.

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] M. Blagojević, M. Matejić, and N. Kostić. Dynamic behaviour of a two-stage cycloidal speed reducer of a new design concept. *Tehnički Vjesnik*, 25(2):291–298, 2018, doi: 10.17559/TV- 20160530144431.

[2] M. Wikło, R. Król, K. Olejarczyk, and K. Kołodziejczyk. Output torque ripple for a cycloidal gear train.*Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science*, 233(21–22):7270–7281, 2019, doi: 10.1177/0954406219841656.

[3] N. Kumar, V. Kosse, and A. Oloyede. A new method to estimate effective elastic torsional compliance of single-stage Cycloidal drives.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 105:185–198, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2016.06.023.

[4] C.F. Hsieh. The effect on dynamics of using a new transmission design for eccentric speed reducers.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 80:1–16, 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2014.04.020.

[5] R. Król. Kinematics and dynamics of the two stage cycloidal gearbox.*AUTOBUSY – Technika, Eksploatacja, Systemy Transportowe*, 19(6):523–527, 2018, doi: 10.24136/atest.2018.125.

[6] K.S. Lin, K.Y. Chan, and J.J. Lee. Kinematic error analysis and tolerance allocation of cycloidal gear reducers.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 124:73–91, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2017.12.028.

[7] L.X. Xu, B.K. Chen, and C.Y. Li. Dynamic modelling and contact analysis of bearing-cycloid-pinwheel transmission mechanisms used in joint rotate vector reducers.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 137:432–458, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2019.03.035.

[8] D.C.H. Yang and J.G. Blanche. Design and application guidelines for cycloid drives with machining tolerances.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 25(5):487–501, 1990, doi: 10.1016/0094-114X(90) 90064-Q.

[9] J.W. Sensinger. Unified approach to cycloid drive profile, stress, and efficiency optimization.*Journal of Mechanical Design*, 132(2):024503, 2010, doi: 10.1115/1.4000832.

[10] Y. Li, K. Feng, X. Liang, and M.J. Zuo. A fault diagnosis method for planetary gearboxes under non-stationary working conditions using improved Vold-Kalman filter and multi-scale sample entropy.*Journal of Sound and Vibration*, 439:271–286, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.jsv.2018.09.054.

[11] Z.Y. Ren, S.M. Mao, W.C. Guo, and Z. Guo. Tooth modification and dynamic performance of the cycloidal drive.*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, 85:857–866, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2016.09.029.

[12] L.X. Xu and Y.H. Yang. Dynamic modeling and contact analysis of a cycloid-pin gear mechanism with a turning arm cylindrical roller bearing.*Mechanism and Machine Theory*, 104:327–349, 2016, doi: 10.1016/j.mechmachtheory.2016.06.018.

[13] S. Schmidt, P.S. Heyns, and J.P. de Villiers. A novelty detection diagnostic methodology for gearboxes operating under fluctuating operating conditions using probabilistic techniques, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 100, pp. 152–166, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.07.032.

[14] Y. Lei, D. Han, J. Lin, and Z. He. Planetary gearbox fault diagnosis using an adaptive stochastic resonance method.*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, 38(1):113–124, 2013, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2012.06.021.

[15] Y. Chen, X. Liang, and M.J. Zuo. Sparse time series modeling of the baseline vibration from a gearbox under time-varying speed condition.*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, 134:106342, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2019.106342.

[16] G. D’Elia, E. Mucchi, and M. Cocconcelli. On the identification of the angular position of gears for the diagnostics of planetary gearboxes.*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, 83:305–320, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2016.06.016.

[17] X. Chen and Z. Feng. Time-frequency space vector modulus analysis of motor current for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under variable speed conditions.*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, 121:636–654, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2018.11.049.

[18] S. Schmidt, P.S. Heyns, and K.C. Gryllias. A methodology using the spectral coherence and healthy historical data to perform gearbox fault diagnosis under varying operating conditions.*Applied Acoustics*, 158:107038, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.apacoust.2019.107038.

[19] D. Zhang and D. Yu. Multi-fault diagnosis of gearbox based on resonance-based signal sparse decomposition and comb filter.*Measurement*, 103:361–369, 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2017.03.006.

[20] C. Wang, H. Li, J. Ou, R. Hu, S. Hu, and A. Liu. Identification of planetary gearbox weak compound fault based on parallel dual-parameter optimized resonance sparse decomposition and improved MOMEDA.*Measurement*, 165:108079, 2020, doi: 10.1016/j.measurement.2020.108079.

[21] W. Teng, X. Ding, H. Cheng, C. Han, Y. Liu, and H. Mu. Compound faults diagnosis and analysis for a wind turbine gearbox via a novel vibration model and empirical wavelet transform.*Renewable Energy*, 136:393–402, 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2018.12.094.

[22] R. Król. Resonance phenomenon in the single stage cycloidal gearbox. Analysis of vibrations at the output shaft as a function of the external sleeves stiffness.*Archive of Mechanical Engineering*, 68(3):303–320, 2021, doi: 10.24425/ame.2021.137050.

[23] MSC Software. MSC Adams Solver Documentation.

[24] MSC Software. MSC Adams View Documentation.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] M. Wikło, R. Król, K. Olejarczyk, and K. Kołodziejczyk. Output torque ripple for a cycloidal gear train.

[3] N. Kumar, V. Kosse, and A. Oloyede. A new method to estimate effective elastic torsional compliance of single-stage Cycloidal drives.

[4] C.F. Hsieh. The effect on dynamics of using a new transmission design for eccentric speed reducers.

[5] R. Król. Kinematics and dynamics of the two stage cycloidal gearbox.

[6] K.S. Lin, K.Y. Chan, and J.J. Lee. Kinematic error analysis and tolerance allocation of cycloidal gear reducers.

[7] L.X. Xu, B.K. Chen, and C.Y. Li. Dynamic modelling and contact analysis of bearing-cycloid-pinwheel transmission mechanisms used in joint rotate vector reducers.

[8] D.C.H. Yang and J.G. Blanche. Design and application guidelines for cycloid drives with machining tolerances.

[9] J.W. Sensinger. Unified approach to cycloid drive profile, stress, and efficiency optimization.

[10] Y. Li, K. Feng, X. Liang, and M.J. Zuo. A fault diagnosis method for planetary gearboxes under non-stationary working conditions using improved Vold-Kalman filter and multi-scale sample entropy.

[11] Z.Y. Ren, S.M. Mao, W.C. Guo, and Z. Guo. Tooth modification and dynamic performance of the cycloidal drive.

[12] L.X. Xu and Y.H. Yang. Dynamic modeling and contact analysis of a cycloid-pin gear mechanism with a turning arm cylindrical roller bearing.

[13] S. Schmidt, P.S. Heyns, and J.P. de Villiers. A novelty detection diagnostic methodology for gearboxes operating under fluctuating operating conditions using probabilistic techniques, Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing, vol. 100, pp. 152–166, 2018, doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2017.07.032.

[14] Y. Lei, D. Han, J. Lin, and Z. He. Planetary gearbox fault diagnosis using an adaptive stochastic resonance method.

[15] Y. Chen, X. Liang, and M.J. Zuo. Sparse time series modeling of the baseline vibration from a gearbox under time-varying speed condition.

[16] G. D’Elia, E. Mucchi, and M. Cocconcelli. On the identification of the angular position of gears for the diagnostics of planetary gearboxes.

[17] X. Chen and Z. Feng. Time-frequency space vector modulus analysis of motor current for planetary gearbox fault diagnosis under variable speed conditions.

[18] S. Schmidt, P.S. Heyns, and K.C. Gryllias. A methodology using the spectral coherence and healthy historical data to perform gearbox fault diagnosis under varying operating conditions.

[19] D. Zhang and D. Yu. Multi-fault diagnosis of gearbox based on resonance-based signal sparse decomposition and comb filter.

[20] C. Wang, H. Li, J. Ou, R. Hu, S. Hu, and A. Liu. Identification of planetary gearbox weak compound fault based on parallel dual-parameter optimized resonance sparse decomposition and improved MOMEDA.

[21] W. Teng, X. Ding, H. Cheng, C. Han, Y. Liu, and H. Mu. Compound faults diagnosis and analysis for a wind turbine gearbox via a novel vibration model and empirical wavelet transform.

[22] R. Król. Resonance phenomenon in the single stage cycloidal gearbox. Analysis of vibrations at the output shaft as a function of the external sleeves stiffness.

[23] MSC Software. MSC Adams Solver Documentation.

[24] MSC Software. MSC Adams View Documentation.

Słowa kluczowe:
wind turbine
drive train
gear
structural analysis
dynamics
Fourier transform
reliability based design optimization

Although gear teeth give lots of advantages, there is a high possibility of failure in gear teeth in each gear stage in the drive train system. In this research, the authors developed proper gear teeth using the basic theorem of gear failure and reliability-based design optimization. A design variable characterized by a probability distribution was applied to the static stress analysis model and the dynamics analysis model to determine an objective function and constraint equations and to solve the reliability-based design optimization. For the optimization, the authors simulated the torsional drive train system which includes rotational coordinates. First, the authors established a static stress analysis model which gives information about endurance limit and bending strength. By expressing gear mesh stiffness in terms of the Fourier series, the equations of motion including the gear mesh models and kinematical relations in the drive train system were acquired in the form of the Lagrange equations and constraint equations. For the numerical analysis, the Newmark Beta method was used to get dynamic responses including gear mesh contact forces. From the results such as the gear mesh contact force, the authors calculated the probability of failure, arranged each probability and gear teeth, and proposed a reasonable and economic design of gear teeth.

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] S. Wang, T. Moan, and Z. Jiang. Influence of variability and uncertainty of wind and waves on fatigue damage of a floating wind turbine drivetrain. *Renewable Energy*, 181:870–897, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.renene.2021.09.090.

[2] Z. Yu, C. Zhu, J. Tan, C. Song, and Y. Wang. Fully-coupled and decoupled analysis comparisons of dynamic characteristics of floating offshore wind turbine drivetrain.*Ocean Engineering*, 247:110639, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.oceaneng.2022.110639.

[3] F.K. Moghadam and A.R. Nejad. Online condition monitoring of floating wind turbines drivetrain by means of digital twin.*Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing*, 162:108087, 2022. doi: 10.1016/j.ymssp.2021.108087.

[4] W. Shi, C.W. Kim, C.W. Chung, and H.C. Park. Dynamic modeling and analysis of a wind turbine drivetrain using the torsional dynamic model.*International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing*, 14(1):153–159, 2013. doi: 10.1007/s12541-013-0021-2.

[5] M. Todorov and G. Vukov. Parametric torsional vibrations of a drive train in horizontal axis wind turbine. In*Proceeding of the 1st Conference Franco-Syrian about Renewable Energy*, pages 1–17, Damas, 24-28 October, 2010.

[6] R.C. Juvinall and K.M. Marshek.*Fundamentals of Machine Component Design*. John Wiley & Sons, 2020.

[7] Q. Zhang, J. Kang, W. Dong, and S. Lyu. A study on tooth modification and radiation noise of a manual transaxle.*International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing*, 13(6):1013–1020, 2012. doi: 10.1007/s12541-012-0132-1.

[8] B. Shlecht, T. Shulze, and T. Rosenlocher. Simulation of heavy drive trains with multimegawatt transmission power in SimPACK. In:*SIMPACK Users Meeting*, Baden-Baden, Germany, 21-22 March, 2006.

[9] M. Todorov and G. Vukov. Modal properties of drive train in horizontal axis wind turbine.*The Romanian Review Precision Mechanics, Optics & Mechatronics*, 40:267–275, 2011.

[10] D. Lee, D.H. Hodges, and M.J. Patil. Multi‐flexible‐body dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines.*Wind Energy*, 5(4):281–300, 2002. doi: 10.1002/we.66.

[11] F.L.J. Linden, P.H. Vazques, and S. Silva. Modelling and simulating the efficiency and elasticity of gearboxes, In Proceeding of the 7th Modelica Conference, pages 270–277, Como, 20-22 September, 2009.

[12] J. Wang, D. Qin, and Y. Ding. Dynamic behavior of wind turbine by a mixed flexible-rigid multi-body model.*Journal of System Design and Dynamics*, 3(3):403–419, 2009. doi: 10.1299/jsdd.3.403.

[13] A.A. Shabana.*Computational Dynamics*. John Wiley & Sons. 2009.

[14] A.K. Chopra.*Dynamics of Structures*. Pearson Education India. 2007.

[15] Y. Park, H. Park, Z. Ma, J. You, J. and W. Shi. Multibody dynamic analysis of a wind turbine drivetrain in consideration of the shaft bending effect and a variable gear mesh including eccentricity and nacelle movement.*Frontiers in Energy Research*, 8:604414, 2021. doi: 10.3389/fenrg.2020.604414.

[16] S.R. Singiresu.*Mechanical Vibrations*. Addison Wesley. 1995.

[17] R.R. Craig Jr and A.J. Kurdila.*Fundamentals of Structural Dynamics*. John Wiley & Sons. 2006.

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[19] Y. Kim, C.W. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Park. Dynamic modeling and numerical analysis of a cold rolling mill.*International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing*, 14(3):407–413. 2013. doi: 10.1007/s12541-013-0056-4.

[20] S.J. Yoon and D.H. Choi. Reliability-based design optimization of slider air bearings.*KSME International Journal*, 18(10):1722–1729, 2004. doi: 10.1007/BF02984320.

[21] H.H. Chun,S.J. Kwon, T. and Tak. Reliability-based design optimization of automotive suspension systems.*International Journal of Automotive Technology*, 8(6):713–722, 2007.

[22] J. Fang, Y. Gao, G. Sun, and Q. Li. Multiobjective reliability-based optimization for design of a vehicledoor.*Finite Elements in Analysis and Design*, 67:13–21, 2013. doi: 10.1016/j.finel.2012.11.007.

[23] Y.L. Young, J.W. Baker, and M.R. Motley. Reliability-based design and optimization of adaptive marine structures.*Composite Structures*, 92(2):244–253, 2010. doi: 10.1016/j.compstruct.2009.07.024.

[24] G. Liu, H. Liu, C. Zhu, T. Mao, and G. Hu. Design optimization of a wind turbine gear transmission based on fatigue reliability sensitivity.*Frontiers of Mechanical Engineering*, 16(1):61–79, 2021. doi: 10.1007/s11465-020-0611-5.

[25] H. Li, H. Cho, H. Sugiyama, K.K. Choi, and N.J. Gaul. Reliability-based design optimization of wind turbine drivetrain with integrated multibody gear dynamics simulation considering wind load uncertainty.*Structural and Multidisciplinary Optimization*, 56 (1):183–201, 2017. doi: 10.1007/s00158-017-1693-5.

[26] C. Luo, B. Keshtegar, S.P. Zhu, O. Taylan, O. and X.P. Niu. Hybrid enhanced Monte Carlo simulation coupled with advanced machine learning approach for accurate and efficient structural reliability analysis.*Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering*, 388:114218. doi: 10.1016/j.cma.2021.114218.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] Z. Yu, C. Zhu, J. Tan, C. Song, and Y. Wang. Fully-coupled and decoupled analysis comparisons of dynamic characteristics of floating offshore wind turbine drivetrain.

[3] F.K. Moghadam and A.R. Nejad. Online condition monitoring of floating wind turbines drivetrain by means of digital twin.

[4] W. Shi, C.W. Kim, C.W. Chung, and H.C. Park. Dynamic modeling and analysis of a wind turbine drivetrain using the torsional dynamic model.

[5] M. Todorov and G. Vukov. Parametric torsional vibrations of a drive train in horizontal axis wind turbine. In

[6] R.C. Juvinall and K.M. Marshek.

[7] Q. Zhang, J. Kang, W. Dong, and S. Lyu. A study on tooth modification and radiation noise of a manual transaxle.

[8] B. Shlecht, T. Shulze, and T. Rosenlocher. Simulation of heavy drive trains with multimegawatt transmission power in SimPACK. In:

[9] M. Todorov and G. Vukov. Modal properties of drive train in horizontal axis wind turbine.

[10] D. Lee, D.H. Hodges, and M.J. Patil. Multi‐flexible‐body dynamic analysis of horizontal axis wind turbines.

[11] F.L.J. Linden, P.H. Vazques, and S. Silva. Modelling and simulating the efficiency and elasticity of gearboxes, In Proceeding of the 7th Modelica Conference, pages 270–277, Como, 20-22 September, 2009.

[12] J. Wang, D. Qin, and Y. Ding. Dynamic behavior of wind turbine by a mixed flexible-rigid multi-body model.

[13] A.A. Shabana.

[14] A.K. Chopra.

[15] Y. Park, H. Park, Z. Ma, J. You, J. and W. Shi. Multibody dynamic analysis of a wind turbine drivetrain in consideration of the shaft bending effect and a variable gear mesh including eccentricity and nacelle movement.

[16] S.R. Singiresu.

[17] R.R. Craig Jr and A.J. Kurdila.

[18] K.J. Bathe.

[19] Y. Kim, C.W. Kim, S. Lee, and H. Park. Dynamic modeling and numerical analysis of a cold rolling mill.

[20] S.J. Yoon and D.H. Choi. Reliability-based design optimization of slider air bearings.

[21] H.H. Chun,S.J. Kwon, T. and Tak. Reliability-based design optimization of automotive suspension systems.

[22] J. Fang, Y. Gao, G. Sun, and Q. Li. Multiobjective reliability-based optimization for design of a vehicledoor.

[23] Y.L. Young, J.W. Baker, and M.R. Motley. Reliability-based design and optimization of adaptive marine structures.

[24] G. Liu, H. Liu, C. Zhu, T. Mao, and G. Hu. Design optimization of a wind turbine gear transmission based on fatigue reliability sensitivity.

[25] H. Li, H. Cho, H. Sugiyama, K.K. Choi, and N.J. Gaul. Reliability-based design optimization of wind turbine drivetrain with integrated multibody gear dynamics simulation considering wind load uncertainty.

[26] C. Luo, B. Keshtegar, S.P. Zhu, O. Taylan, O. and X.P. Niu. Hybrid enhanced Monte Carlo simulation coupled with advanced machine learning approach for accurate and efficient structural reliability analysis.

Słowa kluczowe:
solar air collector
double-pass
CFD
finite volume
thermal performance

A numerical investigation of thermal prediction of double-pass solar air heater of-counter flow is developed in the present study. The main idea of the current study is that the collector consists of two layers of glass so that the middle layer is glass instead of the usual metal plate. The performance of double-pass solar air heater is studied for a wide range of solar radiation intensities (600, 750 and 900 W/m ^{2}). A FORTRAN-90 program is built to simulate the mathematical model of double-pass solar air heater based on solving steady state two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation based on finite volume method. Turbulence effect is simulated by two equations k-ε module. The results are compared with the results of a previous experimental study and a good agreement was found. From compression calculating efficiency of the present and traditional collector for each solar intensity, it was found that the efficiency of the current collector is higher than that of the traditional one, where the efficiency of the current collector at the solar intensity of (600, 750 and 900) W/m ^{2} are (0.529, 0.514 and 0.503), respectively, while those of the traditional collector (0.508, 0.492 and 0.481), respectively. In addition to this, the effect of the mass flow rate on the temperature difference of the current proposed collector was studied. Three values of the mass flow rate were studied (0.009,0.018, and 0.027) kg/s at solar intensity of 750 W/m ^{2}. From this it was found that the temperature difference decreases with increasing mass flow rate. Accordingly, the efficiency decreases

Przejdź do artykułu
[1] J.M. Jalil, A.H. Ayaal, and A.A. Hardan. Numerical investigation of thermal performance for air solar collector with multi inlets.

[2] A. Abene, V. Dubois, M. Le Ray, and A. Ouagued. Study of a solar air flat plate collector: use of obstacles and application for the drying of grape.

[3] R.S. Gill, S. Singh, and P.P. Singh. Low cost solar air heater.

[4] A.E. Kabeel, A. Khalil, S.M. Shalaby, and M.E. Zayed. Experimental investigation of thermal performance of flat and v-corrugated plate solar air heaters with and without PCM as thermal energy storage.

[5] A. Sakhrieh and A. Al-Ghandoor. Experimental investigation of the performance of five types of solar collectors.

[6] J.M. Jalil, K.F. Sultan, and L.A. Rasheed. Numerical and experimental investigation of solar air collectors performance connected in series.

[7] J. Assadeg J, A.H.A. Al-Waeli, A. Fudholi, and K. Sopian. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a new double pass solar air collector with fins and phase change material.

[8] J.M. Jalil and S.J. Ali. Thermal investigations of double pass solar air heater with two types of porous media of different thermal conductivity.

[9] S. Bassem, J.M. Jalil, and S.J. Ismael. Experimental study of double pass water passage in evacuated tube with parabolic trough collector.

[10] J.M. Jalil, R.F. Nothim, and M.M. Hameed. Effect of wavy fins on thermal performance of double pass solar air heater.

[11] W. Siddique, A. Raheem, M. Aqeel, S. Qayyum, T, Salamen, K. Waheed, and K. Qureshi. Evaluation of thermal performance factor for solar air heaters with artificially roughened channels.

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Słowa kluczowe:
free convective flow
vertical flat plate
similarity solution
boundary layer flow
dimensionless temperature
Prandtl number
Runge-Kutta method

In this present work, the laminar free convection boundary layer flow of a two-dimensional fluid over the vertical flat plate with a uniform surface temperature has been numerically investigated in detail by the similarity solution method. The velocity and temperature profiles were considered similar to all values and their variations are as a function of distance from the leading edge measured along with the plate. By taking into account this thermal boundary condition, the system of governing partial differential equations is reduced to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The latter was solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth-order, the solution of which was obtained by using the FORTRAN code on a computer. The numerical analysis resulting from this simulation allows us to derive some prescribed values of various material parameters involved in the problem to which several important results were discussed in depth such as velocity, temperature, and rate of heat transfer. The definitive comparison between the two numerical models showed us an excellent agreement concerning the order of precision of the simulation. Finally, we compared our numerical results with a certain model already treated, which is in the specialized literature.

Przejdź do artykułu
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[25] A. Ouahouah, N. Labsi, X. Chesneau, and Y.K. Benkahla. Natural convection within a non-uniformly heated cavity partly filled with a shear-thinning nanofluid and partly with air.*Journal of Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics*, 289:104490, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.jnnfm.2021.104490.

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[35] J. Zhang and F. Lin. An efficient Legendre-Galerkin spectral method for the natural convection in two-dimensional cavities.*International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids*, 90(12):651–659, 2019.doi: 10.1002/fld.4742.

[36] J.C.F. Wong and P. Yuan. A FE-based algorithm for the inverse natural convection problem.*International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids*, 68(1):48–82, 2012. doi: 10.1002/fld.2494.

[37] H.S. Panda and S.G. Moulic. An analytical solution for natural convective gas micro flow in a tall vertical enclosure.*Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science*, 225(1):145–154, 2011. doi: 10.1243/09544062JMES1768.

[38] M. Saleem, S. Asghar, and M.A. Hossain. Natural convection flow in an open rectangular cavity with cold sidewalls and constant volumetric heat source.*Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science,* 225(5):1191–1201, 2011. doi: 10.1177/09544062JMES2648.

[39] A. Koca, H.F. Oztop, and Y. Varol. Natural convection analysis for both protruding and flush-mounted heaters located in triangular enclosure.*Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part C: Journal of Mechanical Engineering Science*, 222(7):1203–1214, 2008. doi: 10.1243/09544062JMES886.

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[42] A. Belhocine and W.Z. Wan Omar. An analytical method for solving exact solutions of the convective heat transfer in fully developed laminar flow through a circular tube.*Heat Transfer Asian Research*, 46(8):1342–1353, 2017. doi: 10.1002/htj.21277.

[43] A. Belhocine and W. Z. Wan Omar. Numerical study of heat convective mass transfer in a fully developed laminar flow with constant wall temperature.*Case Studies in Thermal Engineering*, 6:116–127, 2015. doi: 10.1016/j.csite.2015.08.003.

[44] A. Belhocine and O.I. Abdullah. Numerical simulation of thermally developing turbulent flow through a cylindrical tube.*International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology*, 102(5-8):2001–2012, 2019. doi: 10.1007/s00170-019-03315-y.

[45] A. Belhocine and W.Z. Wan Omar. Analytical solution and numerical simulation of the generalized Levèque equation to predict the thermal boundary layer.*Mathematics and Computers in Simulation*, 180:43–60, 2021. doi: 10.1016/j.matcom.2020.08.007.

[46] A. Belhocine, N.Stojanovic, and O.I. Abdullah. Numerical simulation of laminar boundary layer flow over a horizontal flat plate in external incompressible viscous fluid.*European Journal of Computational Mechanics*, 30(4-6):337–386, 2021.doi: 10.13052/ejcm2642-2085.30463.

[47] S. Ostrach. An analysis of laminar free convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the generating body force. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Report 1111, 1953.

[48] T.L. Bergman, A.S. Lavine, F.P. Incropera, and D.P. Dewitt.*Fundamentals of Heat and Mass Transfer*, 7th ed., John Wiley & Sons, New York, 2011.

Przejdź do artykułu
[2] J.A. Esfahani and B. Bagherian. Similarity solution for unsteady free convection from a vertical plate at constant temperature to power law fluids.

[3] Y.Z. Boutros, M.B. Abd-el-Malek, and N.A. Badran. Group theoretic approach for solving time-independent free-convective boundary layer flow on a nonisothermal vertical flat plate.

[4] M. Modather, A.M. Rashad, and A.J. Chamkha. An analytical study of MHD heat and mass transfer oscillatory flow of a micropolar fluid over a vertical permeable plate in a porous medium.

[5] M.V. Krishna and A.J. Chamkha. Hall and ion slip effects on MHD rotating flow of elastico-viscous fluid through porous medium.

[6] M.V. Krishna and A.J. Chamkha. Hall and ion slip effects on MHD rotating boundary layer flow of nanofluid past an infinite vertical plate embedded in a porous medium.

[7] M.V. Krishna, N.A. Ahamad, and A.J. Chamkha. Hall and ion slip effects on unsteady MHD free convective rotating flow through a saturated porous medium over an exponential accelerated plate.

[8] A.J. Chamkha. Non-Darcy fully developed mixed convection in a porous medium channel with heat generation/absorption and hydromagnetic effects.

[9] A.J. Chamkha. Thermal radiation and buoyancy effects on hydromagnetic flow over an accelerating permeable surface with heat source or sink.

[10] G. Rasool, T. Zhang, A.J. Chamkha, A. Shafiq, I. Tlili, and G. Shahzadi. Entropy generation and consequences of binary chemical reaction on MHD Darcy–Forchheimer Williamson nanofluid flow over non-linearly stretching surface.

[11] A.J. Chamkha, C. Issa, and K. Khanafer. Natural convection from an inclined plate embedded in a variable porosity porous medium due to solar radiation.

[12] A.J. Chamkha and A. Ben-Nakhi. MHD mixed convection-radiation interaction along a permeable surface immersed in a porous medium in the presence of Soret and Dufour's effects.

[13] A.J. Chamkha. Hydromagnetic natural convection from an isothermal inclined surface adjacent to a thermally stratified porous medium.

[14] A. Wakif, A.J. Chamkha, I.L. Animasaun, M. Zaydan, H. Waqas, and R. Sehaqui. Novel physical insights into the thermodynamic irreversibilities within dissipative EMHD fluid flows past over a moving horizontal Riga plate in the coexistence of wall suction and Joule heating effects: A comprehensive numerical investigation.

[15] N.A. Ahammad, I.A. Badruddin, S.Z. Kamangar, H.M.T. Khaleed, C.A. Saleel, and T.M.I. Mahlia. Heat Transfer and entropy in a vertical porous plate subjected to suction velocity and MHD.

[16] M.V. Krishna, N.A. Ahamad, and A.J. Chamkha. Numerical investigation on unsteady MHD convective rotating flow past an infinite vertical moving porous surface.

[17] P. Kandaswamy, A.K.A. Hakeem, and S.Saravanan. Internal natural convection driven by an orthogonal pair of differentially heated plates.

[18] S.E. Ahmed, H.F. Oztop, and K. Al-Salem. Natural convection coupled with radiation heat transfer in an inclined porous cavity with corner heater.

[19] S. Siddiqa, M.A. Hossain, and R.S.R. Gorla. Natural convection flow of viscous fluid over triangular wavy horizontal surface.

[20] L. Zhou, S.W. Armfield, N. Williamson, M.P. Kirkpatrick, and W. Lin. Natural convection in a cavity with time-dependent flux boundary.

[21] K.M. Talluru, H.F. Pan, J.C. Patterson, and K.A. Chauhan. Convection velocity of temperature fluctuations in a natural convection boundary layer.

[22] M. Chakkingal, S. Kenjereš, I. Ataei-Dadavi, M.J. Tummers, and C.R. Kleijn. Numerical analysis of natural convection with conjugate heat transfer in coarse-grained porous media.

[23] N. Mahir and Z. Altaç. Numerical investigation of flow and combined natural-forced convection from an isothermal square cylinder in cross flow.

[24] M.A. Ezan and M. Kalfa. Numerical investigation of transient natural convection heat transfer of freezing water in a square cavity.

[25] A. Ouahouah, N. Labsi, X. Chesneau, and Y.K. Benkahla. Natural convection within a non-uniformly heated cavity partly filled with a shear-thinning nanofluid and partly with air.

[26] M.H. Matin, I. Pop, and S. Khanchezar. Natural convection of power-law fluid between two-square eccentric duct annuli

[27] M.T. Nguyen, A.M. Aly, and S.W. Lee. A numerical study on unsteady natural/ mixed convection in a cavity with fixed and moving rigid bodies using the ISPH method.

[28] Y. Guo, R. Bennacer, S. Shen, D.E. Ameziani, and M. Bouzidi. Simulation of mixed convection in slender rectangular cavity with lattice Boltzmann method.

[29] N.B. Balam and A. Gupta. A fourth-order accurate finite difference method to evaluate the true transient behaviour of natural convection flow in enclosures.

[30] L. Lukose and T. Basak. Numerical heat flow visualization analysis on enhanced thermal processing for various shapes of containers during thermal convection.

[31] P. Pichandi, and S. Anbalagan. Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow analysis in a 2D square enclosure with sinusoidal wave and different convection mechanism.

[32] M. Salari, M.M. Rashidi,. E.H. Malekshah, and M.H. Malekshah. Numerical analysis of turbulent/transitional natural convection in trapezoidal enclosures.

[33] A. Salama, M. El Amin, and S. Sun. Numerical investigation of natural convection in two enclosures separated by anisotropic solid wall.

[34] N. Kim and J.N. Reddy. Least-squares finite element analysis of three-dimensional natural convection of generalized Newtonian fluids.

[35] J. Zhang and F. Lin. An efficient Legendre-Galerkin spectral method for the natural convection in two-dimensional cavities.

[36] J.C.F. Wong and P. Yuan. A FE-based algorithm for the inverse natural convection problem.

[37] H.S. Panda and S.G. Moulic. An analytical solution for natural convective gas micro flow in a tall vertical enclosure.

[38] M. Saleem, S. Asghar, and M.A. Hossain. Natural convection flow in an open rectangular cavity with cold sidewalls and constant volumetric heat source.

[39] A. Koca, H.F. Oztop, and Y. Varol. Natural convection analysis for both protruding and flush-mounted heaters located in triangular enclosure.

[40] M.K. Mansour. Effect of natural convection on conjugate heat transfer characteristics in liquid mini channel during phase change material melting.

[41] E.F. Kent. Numerical analysis of laminar natural convection in isosceles triangular enclosures.

[42] A. Belhocine and W.Z. Wan Omar. An analytical method for solving exact solutions of the convective heat transfer in fully developed laminar flow through a circular tube.

[43] A. Belhocine and W. Z. Wan Omar. Numerical study of heat convective mass transfer in a fully developed laminar flow with constant wall temperature.

[44] A. Belhocine and O.I. Abdullah. Numerical simulation of thermally developing turbulent flow through a cylindrical tube.

[45] A. Belhocine and W.Z. Wan Omar. Analytical solution and numerical simulation of the generalized Levèque equation to predict the thermal boundary layer.

[46] A. Belhocine, N.Stojanovic, and O.I. Abdullah. Numerical simulation of laminar boundary layer flow over a horizontal flat plate in external incompressible viscous fluid.

[47] S. Ostrach. An analysis of laminar free convection flow and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the direction of the generating body force. National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Report 1111, 1953.

[48] T.L. Bergman, A.S. Lavine, F.P. Incropera, and D.P. Dewitt.

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Hong-Lae JANG – Changwon National University, Korea (South)

Łukasz JANKOWSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland

Albizuri JOSEBA – University of the Basque Country, Spain

Łukasz KAPUSTA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland

Panagiotis KARMIRIS-OBRATAŃSKI – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

Sivakumar KARTHIKEYAN – SRM Nagar

Tarek KHELFA – Hunan University of Humanities Science and Technology, China

Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany

Thomas KLETSCHKOWSKI – HAW Hamburg, Germany

Piotr KLONOWICZ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland

Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Mariusz KOSTRZEWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Maria KOTELKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Michał KOWALIK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Zbigniew KRZEMIANOWSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland

Slawomir KUBACKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – The Koszalin University of Technology, Poland

Rafał KUDELSKI – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

Rajesh KUMAR – Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India

Mustafa KUNTOĞLU – Selcuk University, Turkey

Anna LEE – Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea, Korea (South)

Guolong LI – Chongqing University, China

Luxian LI – Xi'an Jiaotong University, China

Yingchao LI – Ludong University, Yantai, China

Xiaochuan LIN – Nanjing Tech University, China

Zhihong LIN – HuaQiao University, China

Yakun LIU – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States

Jinjun LU – Northwest University, Xiʼan, China

Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Emil MANOACH – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria

Mihaela MARIN – “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galati, Romania

Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia

Krzysztof MIANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Tran MINH TU – Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Viet Nam

Farhad Sadegh MOGHANLOU – University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran

Mohsen MOTAMEDI – University of Isfahan, Iran

Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

Huu-That NGUYEN – Nha Trang University, Viet Nam

Tan-Luy NGUYEN – Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Viet Nam

Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania

Nicolae PANC – Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Van Vinh PHAM – Le Quy Don Technical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam

Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Lei QIN – Beijing Information Science & Technology University, China

Milan RACKOV – University of Novi Sad, Serbia

Yuriy ROMASEVYCH – National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine

Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Mirosław SEREDYŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Biswajit SWAIN – National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India

Tadeusz SZYMCZAK – Motor Transport Institute, Warsaw, Poland

Reza TAHERDANGKOO – Institute of Geotechnics, Freiberg, Germany

Rulong TAN – Chongqing University of Technology, China

Daniel TOBOŁA – Łukasiewicz Research Network - Cracow Institute of Technology, Poland

Milan TRIFUNOVIĆ – University of Niš, Serbia

Duong VU – Duy Tan University, Viet Nam

Shaoke WAN – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

Dong WEI – Northwest A&F University, Yangling , China

Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Mateusz WRZOCHAL – Kielce University of Technology, Poland

Hugo YAÑEZ-BADILLO – TecNM: Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Tianguistenco, Mexico

Guichao YANG – Nanjing Tech University, China

Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China

Yusuf Furkan YAPAN – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Luhe ZHANG – Chongqing University, China

Xiuli ZHANG – Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China

Isam Tareq ABDULLAH – Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq

Ahmed AKBAR – University of Technology, Iraq

Nandalur AMER AHAMMAD – University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia

Ali ARSHAD – Riga Technical University, Latvia

Ihsan A. BAQER – University of Technology, Iraq

Thomas BAR – Daimler AG, Stuttgart, Germany

Huang BIN – Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, China

Zbigniew BULIŃSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Onur ÇAVUSOGLU – Gazi University, Turkey

Ali J CHAMKHA – Duy Tan University, Da Nang , Vietnam

Dexiong CHEN – Putian University, China

Xiaoquan CHENG – Beihang University, Beijing, China

Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Agnieszka DĄBSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Raphael DEIMEL – Berlin University of Technology, Germany

Zhe DING – Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China

Anselmo DINIZ – University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil

Paweł FLASZYŃSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland

Jerzy FLOYRAN – University of Western Ontario, London, Canada

Xiuli FU – University of Jinan, China

Piotr FURMAŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Ahmad Reza GHASEMI– University of Kashan, Iran

P.M. GOPAL – Anna University, Regional Campus Coimbatore, India

Michał GUMNIAK – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Bali GUPTA – Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, India

Dmitriy GVOZDYAKOV – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia

Jianyou HAN – University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China

Tomasz HANISZEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Juipin HUNG – National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan

T. JAAGADEESHA – National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India

Jacek JACKIEWICZ – Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland

JC JI – University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Feng JIAO – Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China

Daria JÓŹWIAK-NIEDŹWIEDZKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland

Rongjie KANG – Tianjin University, China

Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland

Leif KARI – KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden

Daria KHANUKAEVA – Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Russia

Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany

Yeong-Jin KING – Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia

Kaushal KISHORE – Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India

Nataliya KIZILOVA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Adam KLIMANEK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia

Maria KOTEŁKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Roman KRÓL – Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Poland

Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Airforce Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Paweł KWIATOŃ – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

Lihui Lang – Beihang University, China

Rafał LASKOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Guolong Li – Chongqing University, China

Leo Gu LI – Guangzhou University, China

Pengnan LI – Hunan University of Science and Technology, China

Nan LIANG – University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada

Michał LIBERA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Wen-Yi LIN – Hungkuo Delin University of Technology, Taiwan

Wojciech LIPINSKI – Austrialian National University, Canberra, Australia

Linas LITVINAS – Vilnius University, Lithuania

Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Krishna Prasad MADASU – National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India

Trent MAKI – Amino North America Corporation, Canada

Marco MANCINI – Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik, Germany

Piotr MAREK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia

Phani Kumar MEDURI – VIT-AP University, Amaravati, India

Fei MENG – University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China

Saleh MOBAYEN – University of Zanjan, Iran

Vedran MRZLJAK – Rijeka University, Croatia

Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Mohamed Fawzy NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

Paweł OCŁOŃ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Yusuf Aytaç ONUR – Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Turkey

Grzegorz ORZECHOWSKI – LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland

Halil ÖZER – Yıldız Technical University, Turkey

Muthuswamy PADMAKUMAR – Technology Centre Kennametal India Ltd., Bangalore, India

Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania

Andrzej PANAS – Warsaw Military Academy, Poland

Carmine Maria PAPPALARDO – University of Salerno, Italy

Paweł PARULSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Antonio PICCININNI – Politecnico di Bari, Italy

Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic

Grzegorz PRZYBYŁA – Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

K.P. RAJURKARB – University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States

Michał REJDAK – Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland

Krzysztof ROGOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Juan RUBIO – University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil

Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Wagner Figueiredo SACCO – Universidade Federal Fluminense, Petropolis, Brazil

Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland

Bikash SARKAR – NIT Meghalaya, Shillong, India

Bozidar SARLER – University of Lubljana, Slovenia

Veerendra SINGH – TATA STEEL, India

Wieńczysław STALEWSKI – Institute of Aviation, Warsaw, Poland

Cyprian SUCHOCKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland

Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracov University of Technology, Poland

Wojciech SUMELKA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Tomasz SZOLC – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland

Oskar SZULC – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland

Rafał ŚWIERCZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Raquel TABOADA VAZQUEZ – University of Coruña, Spain

Halit TURKMEN – Istanbul Technical University, Turkey

Daniel UGURU-OKORIE – Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria

Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Yeqin WANG – Syndem LLC, United States

Xiaoqiong WEN – Dalian University of Technology, China

Szymon WOJCIECHOWSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland

Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Guenter WOZNIAK – Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany

Guanlun WU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Xiangyu WU – University of California at Berkeley, United States

Guang XIA – Hefei University of Technology, China

Jiawei XIANG – Wenzhou University, China

Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University,China

Jianwei YANG – Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, China

Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China

Oguzhan YILMAZ – Gazi University, Turkey

Aznifa Mahyam ZAHARUDIN – Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia

Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland

S.H. ZHANG – Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

Yu ZHANG – Shenyang Jianzhu University, China

Shun-Peng ZHU – University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China

Yongsheng ZHU – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

Ahmad ABDALLA – Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China

Sara ABDELSALAM – University of California, Riverside, United States

Muhammad Ilman Hakimi Chua ABDULLAH – Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia

Hafiz Malik Naqash AFZAL – University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia

Reza ANSARI – University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran

Jeewan C. ATWAL – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India

Hadi BABAEI – Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

Sakthi BALAN – K. Ramakrishnan college of Engineering, Trichy, India

Leszek BARANOWSKI – Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Elias BRASSITOS – Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon

Tadeusz BURCZYŃSKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland

Nguyen Duy CHINH – Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, Vietnam

Dorota CHWIEDUK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Adam CISZKIEWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Meera CS – University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Duhradun, India

Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Abanti DATTA – Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India

Piotr DEUSZKIEWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Dinesh DHANDE – AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune, India

Sufen DONG – Dalian University of Technology, China

N. Godwin Raja EBENEZER – Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India

Halina EGNER – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Fehim FINDIK – Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey

Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland

Peng GAO – Northeastern University, Shenyang, China

Rafał GOŁĘBSKI – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

Andrzej GRZEBIELEC – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Ngoc San HA – Curtin University, Perth, Australia

Mehmet HASKUL – University of Sirnak, Turkey

Michal HATALA – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic

Dewey HODGES – Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States

Hamed HONARI – Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States

Olga IWASINSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Emmanuelle JACQUET – University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France

Maciej JAWORSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Xiaoling JIN – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China

Halil Burak KAYBAL – Amasya University, Turkey

Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia

Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Air Force Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – Koszalin University of Technology, Poland

Igor KURYTNIK – State Higher School in Oswiecim, Poland

Daniel LESNIC – University of Leeds, United Kingdom

Witold LEWANDOWSKI – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Guolu LI – Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China

Jun LI – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

Baiquan LIN – China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China

Dawei LIU – Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China

Luis Norberto LÓPEZ DE LACALLE – University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain

Ming LUO – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China

Xin MA – Shandong University, Jinan, China

Najmuldeen Yousif MAHMOOD – University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq

Arun Kumar MAJUMDER – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India

Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia

Norkhairunnisa MAZLAN – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia

Dariusz MAZURKIEWICZ – Lublin University of Technology, Poland

Florin MINGIREANU – Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania

Vladimir MITYUSHEV – Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland

Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina

Baraka Olivier MUSHAGE – Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo (DRC)

Tomasz MUSZYŃSKI – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland

Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt

Driss NEHARI – University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria

Oleksii NOSKO – Bialystok University of Technology, Poland

Grzegorz NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Iwona NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Samy ORABY – Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt

Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Bo PENG – University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom

Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Maciej PIKULIŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

T.V.V.L.N. RAO – The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur, India

Andrzej RUSIN – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Benjamin SCHLEICH – Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany

Jerzy SĘK – Lodz University of Technology, Poland

Reza SERAJIAN – University of California, Merced, USA

Artem SHAKLEIN – Udmurt Federal Research Center, Izhevsk, Russia

G.L. SHI – Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, China

Muhammad Faheem SIDDIQUI – Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium

Jarosław SMOCZEK – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland

Josip STJEPANDIC – PROSTEP AG, Darmstadt, Germany

Pavel A. STRIZHAK – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia

Vadym STUPNYTSKYY – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine

Miklós SZAKÁLL – Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany

Agnieszka TOMASZEWSKA – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland

Artur TYLISZCZAK – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland

Aneta USTRZYCKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland

Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey

Gabriel WĘCEL – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Marek WĘGLOWSKI – Welding Institute, Gliwice, Poland

Frank WILL – Technische Universität Dresden, Germany

Michał WODTKE – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Włodzimierz WRÓBLEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland

Hongtao WU – Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China

Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China

Zhiwu XU – Harbin Institute of Technology, China

Zbigniew ZAPAŁOWICZ – West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland

Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland

Wanming ZHAI – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China

Xin ZHANG – Wenzhou University of Technology, China

Su ZHAO – Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, China