Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering


Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2022 | vol. 69 | No 4

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The aim of this work is to design the links‒spring mechanism for balancing, in the three positions of the operating range, a rotary disc subjected to a torque. An energy-related approach towards the conditions of the mechanical system balance for a discrete number of positions leads to the formulation of a task of searching for a four-bar linkage which guides a coupler point through the prescribed positions, where, at the same time, geometrical conditions (specifying the spring tension) and kinematic conditions (defining the radial component of the tension change rate) are satisfied. The finitely and infinitesimally separated position synthesis is considered, however, only a component of the coupler point velocity is essential. A general method was proposed for determining the four-bar mechanism geometry. Mechanism inversion was applied in order to reduce the number of designed variables and simplify the solution method. The system of complex algebraic equations defines the problem. Linear, symbolic transformations and a systematic search technique are utilized to find multiple local optimal solutions. The problem is solved using Mathematica software.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jacek Buśkiewicz

  1. Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland
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In this paper, neural networks are presented to solve the inverse kinematic models of continuum robots. Firstly, the forward kinematic models are calculated for variable curvature continuum robots. Then, the forward kinematic models are implemented in the neural networks which present the position of the continuum robot’s end effector. After that, the inverse kinematic models are solved through neural networks without setting up any constraints. In the same context, to validate the utility of the developed neural networks, various types of trajectories are proposed to be followed by continuum robots. It is found that the developed neural networks are powerful tool to deal with the high complexity of the non-linear equations, in particular when it comes to solving the inverse kinematics model of variable curvature continuum robots. To have a closer look at the efficiency of the developed neural network models during the follow up of the proposed trajectories, 3D simulation examples through Matlab have been carried out with different configurations. It is noteworthy to say that the developed models are a needed tool for real time application since it does not depend on the complexity of the continuum robots' inverse kinematic models.
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Authors and Affiliations

Abdelhamid Ghoul
Kamel Kara
Selman Djeffal
Mohamed Benrabah
Mohamed Laid Hadjili

  1. Université of Blida 1, Laboratoire des systèmes électriques et télécommande, Faculty of Technology, Blida, Algeria
  2. University of Larbi Ben M’hidi, Faculty of Science and Applied Sciences, Oum El Bouaghi, Algeria
  3. University of Sciences and Technology Houari Boumediene, Laboratoire des systèmes électriques et télécommande, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Algiers, Algeria
  4. Haute Ecole Bruxelles, Ecole Supérieure d’Informatique, Brussels, Belgium
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The axial crumpling of frusta in the axisymmetric "concertina" mode is examined. A new theoretical model is developed in which the inward folding in both cylinders and frusta is addressed. The results were compared with previous relevant models as well as experimental findings. The flexibility of the model was substantiated by its capability of describing and estimating the inward folding in frusta in general as well as in cylinders as a special case. A declining trend of the eccentricity dependence with the D/t ratio was found in contrast with a previous theory which suggests total independency. ABAQUS 14-2 finite element software was employed to simulate the thin tube as a 3-D thin shell part. Numerical simulations of the process were found to, firstly, underestimate the theoretical values of inward folding in general, secondly anticipate more underestimations as the tubes become thinner and/or have larger apex angle, and finally anticipate as low as 300 apical angle frusta to revert its mode of deformation to global inversion.
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Authors and Affiliations

Riyah N. Kiter
Mazin Y. Abbood
Omar H. Hassoon

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Iraq
  2. Department of Production and Metallurgy Engineering, University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
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In this paper, a spring system symmetrically arranged around a circular plate compliant to out-of-plane oscillation is proposed. The spring system consists of single serpentine springs mutually coupled in a plane. Three theoretical mechanical models for evaluating the stiffness of the spring system are built, which are based on the flexural beam, Sigitta, and serpentine spring theories and equivalent mechanical spring structure models. The theoretically calculated results are in good agreement with numerical solutions using the finite element method, with errors less than 10% in the appropriate dimension ranges of the spring. Compared to similar spring structures without mechanical coupling, the proposed mechanically coupled spring shows advantage in suppressing the mode coupling.
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Authors and Affiliations

Duong Van Nguyen
1 2
Chien Quoc Nguyen
Hieu Van Dang
Hoang Manh Chu

  1. International Training Institute for Materials Science, Hanoi University of Science and Technology, Vietnam
  2. FPT University, Hanoi, Vietnam
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This paper presents an analysis of the impact of inertial forces of the electrolyte flow in an interelectrode gap on the effects of ECM process of curvilinear rotary surfaces. Considering a laminar flow in the interelectrode gap, the equations of the flow of the mixture of electrolyte and hydrogen in the curvilinear orthogonal coordinate system have been defined. Two classes of equations of motion have been formulated, which differ in the estimates referred to the components of velocity and pressure, and which were analytically solved using the method of perturbation.
Using the machined surface shape evolution equation, the energy equation, and the analytical solutions for velocity and pressure, the ECM-characteristic distributions have been determined: of mean velocity, pressure, mean temperature, current density, gas phase concentration, the gap height after the set machining time for the case when there is no influence of inertial forces, the effect of centrifugal forces and, at the same time, centrifugal and longitudinal inertial forces.
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Authors and Affiliations

Jerzy Sawicki
Tomasz Paczkowski
Jarosław Zdrojewski

  1. Department of Mechanics and Computer Methods, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  2. Department of Manufacturing Techniques, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Bydgoszcz, Poland
  3. Department of Digital Technology, Bydgoszcz University of Science and Technology, Bydgoszcz, Poland
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The study investigates the effect of Portland cement and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) added in changed proportions as stabilising agents on soil parameters: uniaxial compressive strength (UCS), Proctor compactness and permeability. The material included dredged clayey silts collected from the coasts of Timrå, Östrand. Soil samples were treated by different ratio of the stabilising agents and water and tested for properties. Study aimed at estimating variations of permeability, UCS and compaction of soil by changed ratio of binders. Permeability tests were performed on soil with varied stabilising agents in ratio H WL B (high water / low binder) with ratio 70/30%, 50/50%, and 30/70%. The highest level of permeability was achieved by ratio 70/30% of cement/slag, while the lowest - by 30/70%. Proctor compaction was assessed on a mixture of ash and green liquor sludge, to determine optimal moisture content for the most dense soil. The maximal dry density at 1.12 g/cm 3 was obtained by 38.75% of water in a binder. Shear strength and P-wave velocity were measured using ISO/TS17892-7 and visualised as a function of UCS. The results showed varying permeability and UCS of soil stabilised by changed ratio of CEM II/GGBS.
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Authors and Affiliations

Per Lindh
1 2
Polina Lemenkova

  1. Swedish Transport Administration, Malmö, Sweden
  2. Lund University (Lunds Tekniska Högskola, LTH), Faculty of Engineering, Department of Building and Environmental Technology, Division of Building Materials, Lund, Sweden
  3. Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), École polytechnique de Bruxelles (Brussels Faculty of Engineering), Laboratory of Image Synthesis and Analysis, Brussels, Belgium
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In this paper the analysis of backlash influence on the spectrum of torque at the output shaft of a cycloidal gearbox has been performed. The model of the single stage cycloidal gearbox was designed in the MSC Adams. The analysis for the excitation with the torque and the analysis with constant angular velocity of the input shaft were performed. For these analyses, the amplitude spectrums of the output torque for different backlashes was solved using FFT algorithm. The amplitude spectrums of the combined sine functions composed of the impact to impact times between the cycloidal wheel and the external sleeves were computed for verification. The performed studies show, that the backlash has significant influence on the output torque amplitude spectrum. Unfortunately the dependencies between the components of the spectrum and the backlash could not be expressed by linear equations, when vibrations of the output torque in the range of (350 Hz – 600 Hz) are considered. The gradual dependence can be found in the spectrum determined for the combined sine functions with half-periods equal impact-to-impact times. The spectrum is narrower for high values of backlash.
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Authors and Affiliations

Roman Król

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Poland
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Although gear teeth give lots of advantages, there is a high possibility of failure in gear teeth in each gear stage in the drive train system. In this research, the authors developed proper gear teeth using the basic theorem of gear failure and reliability-based design optimization. A design variable characterized by a probability distribution was applied to the static stress analysis model and the dynamics analysis model to determine an objective function and constraint equations and to solve the reliability-based design optimization. For the optimization, the authors simulated the torsional drive train system which includes rotational coordinates. First, the authors established a static stress analysis model which gives information about endurance limit and bending strength. By expressing gear mesh stiffness in terms of the Fourier series, the equations of motion including the gear mesh models and kinematical relations in the drive train system were acquired in the form of the Lagrange equations and constraint equations. For the numerical analysis, the Newmark Beta method was used to get dynamic responses including gear mesh contact forces. From the results such as the gear mesh contact force, the authors calculated the probability of failure, arranged each probability and gear teeth, and proposed a reasonable and economic design of gear teeth.
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Authors and Affiliations

Changwoo Lee
Yonghui Park

  1. Pohang Institute of Metal Industry Advancement, Pohang, Republic of Korea
  2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Yuhan University, Bucheon, Republic of Korea
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A numerical investigation of thermal prediction of double-pass solar air heater of-counter flow is developed in the present study. The main idea of the current study is that the collector consists of two layers of glass so that the middle layer is glass instead of the usual metal plate. The performance of double-pass solar air heater is studied for a wide range of solar radiation intensities (600, 750 and 900 W/m 2). A FORTRAN-90 program is built to simulate the mathematical model of double-pass solar air heater based on solving steady state two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and energy equation based on finite volume method. Turbulence effect is simulated by two equations k-ε module. The results are compared with the results of a previous experimental study and a good agreement was found. From compression calculating efficiency of the present and traditional collector for each solar intensity, it was found that the efficiency of the current collector is higher than that of the traditional one, where the efficiency of the current collector at the solar intensity of (600, 750 and 900) W/m 2 are (0.529, 0.514 and 0.503), respectively, while those of the traditional collector (0.508, 0.492 and 0.481), respectively. In addition to this, the effect of the mass flow rate on the temperature difference of the current proposed collector was studied. Three values of the mass flow rate were studied (0.009,0.018, and 0.027) kg/s at solar intensity of 750 W/m 2. From this it was found that the temperature difference decreases with increasing mass flow rate. Accordingly, the efficiency decreases
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Authors and Affiliations

Hussein Majeed Salih

  1. Electromechanical Engineering Department, University of Technology, Iraq
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In this present work, the laminar free convection boundary layer flow of a two-dimensional fluid over the vertical flat plate with a uniform surface temperature has been numerically investigated in detail by the similarity solution method. The velocity and temperature profiles were considered similar to all values and their variations are as a function of distance from the leading edge measured along with the plate. By taking into account this thermal boundary condition, the system of governing partial differential equations is reduced to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The latter was solved numerically using the Runge-Kutta method of the fourth-order, the solution of which was obtained by using the FORTRAN code on a computer. The numerical analysis resulting from this simulation allows us to derive some prescribed values of various material parameters involved in the problem to which several important results were discussed in depth such as velocity, temperature, and rate of heat transfer. The definitive comparison between the two numerical models showed us an excellent agreement concerning the order of precision of the simulation. Finally, we compared our numerical results with a certain model already treated, which is in the specialized literature.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Belhocine
Nadica Stojanovic
Oday Ibraheem Abdullah

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sciences and the Technology of Oran, Algeria
  2. University of Kragujevac, Faculty of Engineering, Department for Motor Vehicles and Motors, Serbia
  3. System Technologies and Mechanical Design Methodology, Hamburg University of Technology, Hamburg, Germany

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  • References.
Affiliations should include department, university, city and country. ORCID identifiers of all Authors should be added.
We suggest the title should be as short as possible but still informative.

An abstract should accompany every article. It should be a brief summary of significant results of the paper and give concise information about the content of the core idea of the paper. It should be informative and not only present the general scope of the paper, but also indicate the main results and conclusions. An abstract should not exceed 200 words.

Please follow the general rules for writing the main text of the paper:
  • use simple and declarative sentences, avoid long sentences, in which the meaning may be lost by complicated construction,
  • divide the main text into sections and subsections (if needed the subsections may be divided into paragraphs),
  • be concise, avoid idle words,
  • make your argumentation complete; use commonly understood terms; define all nonstandard symbols and abbreviations when you introduce them;
  • explain all acronyms and abbreviations when they first appear in the text;
  • use all units consistently throughout the article;
  • be self-critical as you review your drafts.
The authors are advised to use the SI system of units.


You may use line diagrams and photographs to illustrate theses from your text. The figures should be clear, easy to read and of good quality (300 dpi). The figures are preferred in a vector format (bitmap formats are acceptable, but not recommended). The size of the figures should be adequate to their contents. Use 8-9pt font size of the text within the figures.

You should use tables only to improve conciseness or where the information cannot be given satisfactorily in other ways. Tables should be numbered consecutively and referred to within the text by numbers. Each table should have an explanatory caption which should be as concise as possible. The figures and tables should be inserted in the text file, where they are mentioned.

Displayed equations should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numbers in parentheses. They should be centered, leaving a small space above and below to separate it from the surrounding text.


We encourage authors to restrict the use of footnotes. Information concerning research grant support should appear in a separate Acknowledgements section at the end of the paper. Acknowledgements of the assistance of colleagues or similar notes of appreciation should also appear in the Acknowledgements section.

References should be numbered and listed in the order that they appear in the text. References indicated by numerals in square brackets should complete the paper in the following style:

[1] R.O. Author. Title of the Book in Italics. Publisher, City, 2018.

Articles in Journals:
[2] D.F. Author, B.D. Second Author, and P.C. Third Author. Title of the article. Full Name of the Journal in Italics, 52(4):89–96, 2017. doi: 1234565/3554. (where means: 52 – volume; 4 – number or issue; 89–96 – pages, and 1234565/3554 – doi number (if exists).)

[3] W. Author. Title of the thesis. Ph.D. Thesis, University, City, Country, 2010.

Conference Proceedings:
[4] H. Author. Title of the paper. In Proc. Conference Name in Italics, pages 001–005, Conference Place, 10-15 Jan. 2015. doi: 98765432/7654vd.

English language

Archive of Mechanical Engineering is published in English. Make sure that your manuscript is clearly and grammatically written. The content should be understandable and should not cause any confusion to the readers, including the reviewers. After accepting the manuscript for a publication in the AME, we offer a free language check service, for correcting small language mistakes.

Submission of Revised Articles

When revision of a manuscript is requested, authors are expected to deliver the revised version of the manuscript as soon as possible. The manuscript should be uploaded directly to the Editorial System as an answer to the Editor's decision, and not as a new manuscript. If it is the 1st revision, the authors are expected to return revised manuscript within 60 days; if it is the 2nd revision, the authors are expected to return revised manuscript within 14 days. Additional time for resubmission must be requested in advance. If the above mentioned deadlines are not met, the manuscript may be treated as a new submission.

Outline of the Production Process

Once an article has been accepted for publication, the manuscript is transferred into our production system to be language-edited and formatted. Language/technical editors reserve the privilege of editing manuscripts to conform with the stylistic conventions of the journal. Once the article has been typeset, PDF proofs are generated so that authors can approve all editing and layout.


Proofreading should be carried out once a final draft has been produced. Since the proofreading stage is the last opportunity to correct the article to be published, the authors are requested to make every effort to check for errors in their proofs before the paper is posted online. Authors may be asked to address remarks and queries from the language and/or technical editors. Queries are written only to request necessary information or clarification of an unclear passage. Please note that language/technical editors do not query at every instance where a change has been made. It is the author's responsibility to read the entire text, tables, and figure legends, not just items queried. Major alterations made will always be submitted to the authors for approval. The corresponding author receives e-mail notification when a PDF is available and should return the comments within 3 days of receipt. Comments must be uploaded to Editorial System.


The Editorial Board of the Archive of Mechanical Engineering (AME) sincerely expresses gratitude to the following individuals who devoted their time to review papers submitted to the journal. Particularly, we express our gratitude to those who reviewed papers several times.

List of reviewers in 2022
Isam Tareq ABDULLAH – Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq
Ahmed AKBAR – University of Technology, Iraq
Nandalur AMER AHAMMAD – University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Ali ARSHAD – Riga Technical University, Latvia
Ihsan A. BAQER – University of Technology, Iraq
Thomas BAR – Daimler AG, Stuttgart, Germany
Huang BIN – Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, China
Zbigniew BULIŃSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Onur ÇAVUSOGLU – Gazi University, Turkey
Ali J CHAMKHA – Duy Tan University, Da Nang , Vietnam
Dexiong CHEN – Putian University, China
Xiaoquan CHENG – Beihang University, Beijing, China
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Agnieszka DĄBSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Raphael DEIMEL – Berlin University of Technology, Germany
Zhe DING – Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China
Anselmo DINIZ – University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Paweł FLASZYŃSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland
Jerzy FLOYRAN – University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Xiuli FU – University of Jinan, China
Piotr FURMAŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Ahmad Reza GHASEMI– University of Kashan, Iran
P.M. GOPAL – Anna University, Regional Campus Coimbatore, India
Michał GUMNIAK – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Bali GUPTA – Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, India
Dmitriy GVOZDYAKOV – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Jianyou HAN – University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China
Tomasz HANISZEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Juipin HUNG – National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan
T. JAAGADEESHA – National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India
Jacek JACKIEWICZ – Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
JC JI – University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Feng JIAO – Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China
Daria JÓŹWIAK-NIEDŹWIEDZKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Rongjie KANG – Tianjin University, China
Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland
Leif KARI – KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Daria KHANUKAEVA – Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Russia
Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
Yeong-Jin KING – Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
Kaushal KISHORE – Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India
Nataliya KIZILOVA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam KLIMANEK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Maria KOTEŁKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Roman KRÓL – Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Poland
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Airforce Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Paweł KWIATOŃ – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Lihui Lang – Beihang University, China
Rafał LASKOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Guolong Li – Chongqing University, China
Leo Gu LI – Guangzhou University, China
Pengnan LI – Hunan University of Science and Technology, China
Nan LIANG – University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada
Michał LIBERA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Wen-Yi LIN – Hungkuo Delin University of Technology, Taiwan
Wojciech LIPINSKI – Austrialian National University, Canberra, Australia
Linas LITVINAS – Vilnius University, Lithuania
Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krishna Prasad MADASU – National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Trent MAKI – Amino North America Corporation, Canada
Marco MANCINI – Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik, Germany
Piotr MAREK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Phani Kumar MEDURI – VIT-AP University, Amaravati, India
Fei MENG – University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China
Saleh MOBAYEN – University of Zanjan, Iran
Vedran MRZLJAK – Rijeka University, Croatia
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mohamed Fawzy NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Paweł OCŁOŃ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Yusuf Aytaç ONUR – Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Turkey
Grzegorz ORZECHOWSKI – LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland
Halil ÖZER – Yıldız Technical University, Turkey
Muthuswamy PADMAKUMAR – Technology Centre Kennametal India Ltd., Bangalore, India
Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Andrzej PANAS – Warsaw Military Academy, Poland
Carmine Maria PAPPALARDO – University of Salerno, Italy
Paweł PARULSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Antonio PICCININNI – Politecnico di Bari, Italy
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
Grzegorz PRZYBYŁA – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
K.P. RAJURKARB – University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States
Michał REJDAK – Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland
Krzysztof ROGOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Juan RUBIO – University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Wagner Figueiredo SACCO – Universidade Federal Fluminense, Petropolis, Brazil
Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Bikash SARKAR – NIT Meghalaya, Shillong, India
Bozidar SARLER – University of Lubljana, Slovenia
Veerendra SINGH – TATA STEEL, India
Wieńczysław STALEWSKI – Institute of Aviation, Warsaw, Poland
Cyprian SUCHOCKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracov University of Technology, Poland
Wojciech SUMELKA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Tomasz SZOLC – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Oskar SZULC – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland
Rafał ŚWIERCZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Raquel TABOADA VAZQUEZ – University of Coruña, Spain
Halit TURKMEN – Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Daniel UGURU-OKORIE – Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Yeqin WANG – Syndem LLC, United States
Xiaoqiong WEN – Dalian University of Technology, China
Szymon WOJCIECHOWSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Guenter WOZNIAK – Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany
Guanlun WU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Xiangyu WU – University of California at Berkeley, United States
Guang XIA – Hefei University of Technology, China
Jiawei XIANG – Wenzhou University, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University,China
Jianwei YANG – Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, China
Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China
Oguzhan YILMAZ – Gazi University, Turkey
Aznifa Mahyam ZAHARUDIN – Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
S.H. ZHANG – Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Yu ZHANG – Shenyang Jianzhu University, China
Shun-Peng ZHU – University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
Yongsheng ZHU – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

List of reviewers of volume 68 (2021)
Ahmad ABDALLA – Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China
Sara ABDELSALAM – University of California, Riverside, United States
Muhammad Ilman Hakimi Chua ABDULLAH – Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
Hafiz Malik Naqash AFZAL – University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Reza ANSARI – University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Jeewan C. ATWAL – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
Hadi BABAEI – Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Sakthi BALAN – K. Ramakrishnan college of Engineering, Trichy, India
Leszek BARANOWSKI – Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Elias BRASSITOS – Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
Tadeusz BURCZYŃSKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Nguyen Duy CHINH – Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, Vietnam
Dorota CHWIEDUK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam CISZKIEWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Meera CS – University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Duhradun, India
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Abanti DATTA – Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India
Piotr DEUSZKIEWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dinesh DHANDE – AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune, India
Sufen DONG – Dalian University of Technology, China
N. Godwin Raja EBENEZER – Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India
Halina EGNER – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Fehim FINDIK – Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Peng GAO – Northeastern University, Shenyang, China
Rafał GOŁĘBSKI – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej GRZEBIELEC – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Ngoc San HA – Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Mehmet HASKUL – University of Sirnak, Turkey
Michal HATALA – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
Dewey HODGES – Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States
Hamed HONARI – Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
Olga IWASINSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emmanuelle JACQUET – University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
Maciej JAWORSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Xiaoling JIN – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Halil Burak KAYBAL – Amasya University, Turkey
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Air Force Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Igor KURYTNIK – State Higher School in Oswiecim, Poland
Daniel LESNIC – University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Witold LEWANDOWSKI – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Guolu LI – Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
Jun LI – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Baiquan LIN – China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Dawei LIU – Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
Luis Norberto LÓPEZ DE LACALLE – University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain
Ming LUO – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Xin MA – Shandong University, Jinan, China
Najmuldeen Yousif MAHMOOD – University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Arun Kumar MAJUMDER – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Norkhairunnisa MAZLAN – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Dariusz MAZURKIEWICZ – Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Florin MINGIREANU – Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Vladimir MITYUSHEV – Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Baraka Olivier MUSHAGE – Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo (DRC)
Tomasz MUSZYŃSKI – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Driss NEHARI – University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria
Oleksii NOSKO – Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
Grzegorz NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Iwona NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Samy ORABY – Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Bo PENG – University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej PIKULIŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
T.V.V.L.N. RAO – The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur, India
Andrzej RUSIN – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Benjamin SCHLEICH – Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Jerzy SĘK – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Reza SERAJIAN – University of California, Merced, USA
Artem SHAKLEIN – Udmurt Federal Research Center, Izhevsk, Russia
G.L. SHI – Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, China
Muhammad Faheem SIDDIQUI – Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium
Jarosław SMOCZEK – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Josip STJEPANDIC – PROSTEP AG, Darmstadt, Germany
Pavel A. STRIZHAK – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Vadym STUPNYTSKYY – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Miklós SZAKÁLL – Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany
Agnieszka TOMASZEWSKA – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Artur TYLISZCZAK – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Aneta USTRZYCKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Gabriel WĘCEL – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Marek WĘGLOWSKI – Welding Institute, Gliwice, Poland
Frank WILL – Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Michał WODTKE – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Włodzimierz WRÓBLEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Hongtao WU – Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Zhiwu XU – Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Zbigniew ZAPAŁOWICZ – West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
Wanming ZHAI – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Xin ZHANG – Wenzhou University of Technology, China
Su ZHAO – Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, China

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