Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering


Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2022 | vol. 69 | No 3

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Human motion is required in many simulation models. However, generating such a motion is quite complex and in industrial simulation cases represents an overhead that often cannot be accepted. There are several common file formats that are used nowadays for saving motion data that can be used in gaming engines or 3D editing software. Using such motion sets still requires considerable effort in creating logic for motion playing, blending, and associated object manipulation in the scene. Additionally, every action needs to be described with the motion designed for the target scene environment. This is where the Motion Model Units (MMU) concept was created. Motion Model Units represent a new way of transferring human motion data together with logic and scene manipulation capabilities between motion vendors and simulation platforms. The MMU is a compact software bundle packed in a standardized way, provides machine-readable capabilities and interface description that makes it interchangeable, and is adaptable to the scene. Moreover, it is designed to represent common actions in a task-oriented way, which allows simplifying the scenario creation to a definition of tasks and their timing. The underlying Motion Model Interface (MMI) has become an open standard and is currently usable in MOSIM framework, which provides the implementation of the standard for the Unity gaming engine and works on implementation for the Unreal Engine are under way. This paper presents two implementation examples for the MMU using direct C# programming, and using C# for Unity and MOSIM MMU generator as a helping tool. The key points required to build a working MMU are presented accompanied by an open-source code that is available for download and experimenting.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Kłodowski
Ilya Kurinov
Grzegorz Orzechowski
Aki Mikkola

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland
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Autonomous manipulation of group objects requires the gripper/robot hand to achieve high productivity without poor outcomes such as object slippage and damage. This article develops the robot hand capable of achieving effective performance in each trial of grasping the group objects. Our proposed robot hand consists of two symmetrical groups of hybrid fingers having soft pads on the grasping interfaces, which operate as a comb. The grasping ability of this robot hand was theoretically and experimentally validated by handling three groups of objects showcases: tea packs, toothbrushes, and mixing sticks.Additionally, validation resultswere compared with those of another soft robot hand having soft Pneunet fingers. In each trial, the experimental results showed that the proposed robot hand with hybrid fingers achieved more stable grasping states characterized by a higher number of grasped objects than those in the case of the soft robot hand. Also, experimental results were in good agreement with the predictions of the proposed theoretical analysis. Finally, better performances of the hybrid robot hand in handling the group object provide the bases for developing a novel-robotic application in industrial production.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pho Van Nguyen
1 2
Phi N. Nguyen
Tan Nguyen
Thanh Lanh Le

  1. Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa, Japan
  2. Department of Technology, Dong Nai Technology University, Bien Hoa 810000, Vietnam
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A method of solving the inverse kinematics problem for a humanoid robot modeled as a tree-shaped manipulator is presented. Robot trajectory consists of a set of trajectories of the characteristic points (the robot’s center of mass, origins of feet and hands frames) in the discrete time domain. The description of motion in the frame associated with the supporting foot allows one to represent the robot as a composite of several serial open-loop redundant manipulators. Stability during the motion is provided by the trajectory of the robot’s center of mass which ensures that the zero moment point criterion is fulfilled. Inverse kinematics solution is performed offline using the redundancy resolution at the velocity level. The proposed method utilizes robot’s redundancy to fulfill joint position limits and to reduce gravity-related joint torques. The method have been tested in simulations and experiments on a humanoid robot Melson, and results are presented.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kacper Mikołajczyk
Maksymilian Szumowski
Łukasz Woliński

  1. Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
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The article describes optimization of the process of acceleration of the tower crane trolley movement mechanism during the steady mode of the slewing mechanism. A mathematical model of the boom system of the tower crane was used for the optimization of the trolley movement. The model was reduced to a sixth-order linear differential equation with constant coefficients, which represents the relationships between the drive torque and the coordinate of the load and its time derivatives. Non-dimensional complex criterion (objective function), which takes into account the drive torque and its rate of change in time during the transient process, was developed to optimize the mode of the trolley movement mechanism. Based on that, a variational problem was formulated and solved in an analytical form in which root-mean-square (RMS) values of the quantiles were applied. A complex optimal mode of acceleration of the trolley movement mechanism was obtained and compared with the modes optimized based on different criteria. Advantages and disadvantages of the solutions were discussed based on the analysis of the obtained optimal modes of motion. The analysis revealed low- and high-frequency elements oscillations of the trolley movement mechanism during the transient processes. The conditions for their elimination were formulated.
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Authors and Affiliations

Viatcheslav Loveikin
Yuriy Romasevych
Andriy Loveikin
Mykola Korobko

  1. National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv, Ukraine
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In this project, two types of treated and untreated alumina nanoparticles with different weight percentages (wt%) of 0.5, 1 and 3% were mixed with polycarbonate matrix; then, the impact ballistic properties of the nano-composite targets made from them were investigated. Three types of projectile noses -cylindrical, hemispherical, and conical, each with the same mass of 5.88\;gr -- were used in the ballistic tests. The results highlighted that ballistic limit velocities were improved by increasing the percentage of alumina nanoparticles and the treatment process; changing the projectile's nose geometry from conical to blunt nose increases the ballistic limit velocity, and ultimately, by increasing the initial velocity of conical and hemispherical nosed projectiles, the failure mechanism of the targets changed from dishing to petalling; whereas for the cylindrical projectile, the failure mode was always plugging.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Alavi Nia
Saeed Amirchakhmaghi

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Bu Ali Sina University, Hamedan, Iran
  2. Department of Mechanical Industrial and Aerospace engineering, Concordia University, Montreal, Canada
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The hydro-mechanical drawing combines conventional deep drawing and sheet hydroforming and is widely used in the automotive industry. In this study, we designed and fabricated an indigenous experimental set-up that is low cost, low weight and portable. This study investigated the deformation of sheet metals into hemispherical cup-shaped parts made of different materials, viz., aluminium 8011 alloys, copper C12200 and steel EN10130 alloys. The initial thickness of sheet metal was 0.4 mm, the most common thickness range used in automotive applications. The deformation behaviour in terms of dome height has been measured by varying the pressure of the fluids. Aluminium 8011 alloy sheets showed a maximum dome height of 11.46 mm at a pressure of 1.47 MPa with no rupture. Steel EN10130 sheets had a maximum dome height of 10.89 mm at a pressure of 9.31 MPa. It was concluded that the behaviours of materials are different in the hydro-mechanical drawing process than in mechanical tests. Copper C12200 sheet showed superior formability with a maximum dome height of 18.91 mm at a pressure of 7.06 MPa than other materials without fracture.
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Authors and Affiliations

Binayak Nahak
Anil Kumar
Anshul Yadav
Jerzy Winczek

  1. Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Prayagraj – 211004, India
  2. Kamla Nehru Institute of Technology, Sultanpur – 228118, India
  3. Częstochowa University of Technology, Częstochowa, Poland
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Thermally induced free vibration of sandwich beams with porous functionally graded material core embedded between two isotropic face sheets is investigated in this paper. The core, in which the porosity phase is evenly or unevenly distributed, has mechanical properties varying continuously along with the thickness according to the power-law distribution. Effects of shear deformation on the vibration behavior are taken into account based on both third-order and quasi-3D beam theories. Three typical temperature distributions, which are uniform, linear, and nonlinear temperature rises, are supposed. A mesh-free approach based on point interpolation technique and polynomial basis is utilized to solve the governing equations of motion. Examples for specific cases are given, and their results are compared with predictions available in the literature to validate the approach. Comprehensive studies are carried out to examine the effects of the beam theories, porosity distributions, porosity volume fraction, temperature rises, temperature change, span-to-height ratio, different boundary conditions, layer thickness ratio, volume fraction index on the vibration characteristics of the beam.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tran Quang Hung
Tran Minh Tu
Do Minh Duc

  1. Faculty of Civil Engineering, The University of Da Nang - University of Science and Technology, Da Nang, Vietnam
  2. Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Hanoi, Vietnam
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To meet the continuous demand for energy of industrial as well as commercial sectors, researchers focus on increasing the power generating capacity of gas turbine power plants. In this regard, the combined cycle is a better solution in terms of environmental aspects and power generation as compared to a simple gas turbine power plant. The present study is the thermodynamic investigation of five possible air bottoming combined cycles in which the topping cycle is a simple gas turbine cycle, regenerative gas turbine cycle, inter-cool gas turbine cycle, reheat gas turbine cycle, and intercool-reheat gas turbine cycle. The effect of pressure ratio of the topping cycle, the turbine inlet temperature of topping cycle, and ambient temperature on net power output, thermal efficiency, total exergy destruction, and exergetic efficiency of the combined cycle have been analyzed. The ratio of the net power output of the combined cycle to that of the topping cycle is maximal in the case when the topping cycle is a simple gas turbine cycle. The ratio of net power output and the total exergy destruction of the combined cycle to those of the topping cycle decrease with pressure ratio for all the combinations under study except for the case when the topping cycle is the regenerative gas turbine cycle.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohammad N. Khan
Dhare Alzafiri

  1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, College of Engineering, Majmaah University, Al-Majmaah, Saudi Arabia
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Thermal error always exists in a machine tool and accounts for a large part of the total error in the machine. Thermal displacement in X-axis on a CNC lathe is controlled based on a rapid heating system. Positive Temperature Coefficient (PTC) heating plates are installed on the X-axis of the machine. A control temperature system is constructed for rapid heating which further helps the thermal displacement to quickly reach stability. The system then continuously maintains stable compensation of the thermal error. The presented rapid heating technique is simpler than the compensation of machine thermal errors by interference in the numerical control system. Results show that the steady state of the thermal displacement in the X-axis can be acquired in a shorter time. In addition, almost all thermal errors in constant and varying working conditions could be significantly reduced, by above 80% and 60%, respectively, compared to those without using the rapid heating. Therefore, the proposed method has a high potential for application on the CNC lathe machine for improving its precision.
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Authors and Affiliations

Van-The Than
Chi-Chang Wang
Thi-Thao Ngo
Guan-Liang Guo

  1. Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Khoai Chau District, Hung Yen Province, Vietnam
  2. Department of Mechanical and Computer-Adided Engineering, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C.
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The laminar flow around two side-by-side circular cylinders was numerically investigated using a vortex-in-cell method combined with a continuous-forcing immersed boundary method. The Reynolds number (Re) of the flow was examined in the range from 40 to 200, and the distance between the cylinders varies from 1.2 D to 6 D, where D is the cylinder diameter. Simulation results show that the vortex wake is classified into eight patterns, such as single-bluff-body, meandering-motion, steady, deflected-in-one-direction, flip-flopping, anti-phase-synchronization, in-phase-synchronization, and phase-difference-synchronization, significantly depending on the Re, the cylinder distance, and the initial external disturbance effects. The anti-phase-synchronization, in-phase-synchronization, and phase-difference-synchronization vortex patterns can be switched at a low Re after a long time evolution of the flow. In particular, the single-bluff-body and flip-flopping vortex patterns excite the oscillation amplitude of the drag and lift coefficients exerted on the cylinders.
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Authors and Affiliations

Van Luc Nguyen
Duy Knanh Ho

  1. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Thu Dau Mot University, Binh Duong Province, Vietnam

Instructions for authors

About the Journal
Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an international journal publishing works of wide significance, originality and relevance in most branches of mechanical engineering. The journal is peer-reviewed and is published both in electronic and printed form. Archive of Mechanical Engineering publishes original papers which have not been previously published in other journal, and are not being prepared for publication elsewhere. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. The journal accepts papers in English.

Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an Open Access journal. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Outline of procedures
  • To ensure that high scientific standards are met, the editorial office of Archive of Mechanical Engineering implements anti-ghost writing and guest authorship policy. Ghostwriting and guest authorship are indication of scientific dishonesty and all cases will be exposed: editorial office will inform adequate institutions (employers, scientific societies, scientific editors associations, etc.).
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[2] D.F. Author, B.D. Second Author, and P.C. Third Author. Title of the article. Full Name of the Journal in Italics, 52(4):89–96, 2017. doi: 1234565/3554. (where means: 52 – volume; 4 – number or issue; 89–96 – pages, and 1234565/3554 – doi number (if exists).)

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The Editorial Board of the Archive of Mechanical Engineering (AME) sincerely expresses gratitude to the following individuals who devoted their time to review papers submitted to the journal. Particularly, we express our gratitude to those who reviewed papers several times.

List of reviewers in 2023

Sara I. ABDELSALAM – University of California Riverside, United States
M. ARUNA – Liwa College of Technology, United Arab Emirates
Krzysztof BADYDA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Nathalie BÄSCHLIN – Kunstmuseum Bern, Germany
Joanna BIJAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Tomas BODNAR – The Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague, Czech Republic
Dariusz BUTRYMOWICZ – Białystok University of Technology, Poland
Suleyman CAGAN – Mechanical Engineering, Mersin University, Turkey
Claudia CASAPULLA – University of Naples Federico II, Italy
Peng CHEN – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Yao CHENG – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Jan de JONG – University of Twente, Netherlands
Mariusz DEJA – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Jerzy EJSMONT – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
İsmail ESEN – Karabuk University, Turkey
Pedro Javier GAMEZ-MONTERO – Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain
Aman GARG – National Institute of Technology, Kurukshetra, India
Michał HAĆ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Satoshi ISHIKAWA – Kyushu University, Japan
Jacek JACKIEWICZ – Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
Krzysztof JAMROZIAK – Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
Hong-Lae JANG – Changwon National University, Korea (South)
Łukasz JANKOWSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland
Albizuri JOSEBA – University of the Basque Country, Spain
Łukasz KAPUSTA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland
Panagiotis KARMIRIS-OBRATAŃSKI – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Sivakumar KARTHIKEYAN – SRM Nagar
Tarek KHELFA – Hunan University of Humanities Science and Technology, China
Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
Thomas KLETSCHKOWSKI – HAW Hamburg, Germany
Piotr KLONOWICZ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, PAS, Gdansk, Poland
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Mariusz KOSTRZEWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maria KOTELKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Michał KOWALIK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Zbigniew KRZEMIANOWSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland
Slawomir KUBACKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – The Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Rafał KUDELSKI – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Rajesh KUMAR – Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, India
Mustafa KUNTOĞLU – Selcuk University, Turkey
Anna LEE – Pohang University of Science and Technology, South Korea, Korea (South)
Guolong LI – Chongqing University, China
Luxian LI – Xi'an Jiaotong University, China
Yingchao LI – Ludong University, Yantai, China
Xiaochuan LIN – Nanjing Tech University, China
Zhihong LIN – HuaQiao University, China
Yakun LIU – Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States
Jinjun LU – Northwest University, Xiʼan, China
Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emil MANOACH – Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia, Bulgaria
Mihaela MARIN – “Dunărea de Jos” University of Galati, Romania
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Krzysztof MIANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Tran MINH TU – Hanoi University of Civil Engineering, Viet Nam
Farhad Sadegh MOGHANLOU – University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran
Mohsen MOTAMEDI – University of Isfahan, Iran
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Huu-That NGUYEN – Nha Trang University, Viet Nam
Tan-Luy NGUYEN – Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology, Viet Nam
Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Nicolae PANC – Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Van Vinh PHAM – Le Quy Don Technical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam
Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Lei QIN – Beijing Information Science & Technology University, China
Milan RACKOV – University of Novi Sad, Serbia
Yuriy ROMASEVYCH – National University of Life and Environmental Sciences of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Mirosław SEREDYŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Biswajit SWAIN – National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India
Tadeusz SZYMCZAK – Motor Transport Institute, Warsaw, Poland
Reza TAHERDANGKOO – Institute of Geotechnics, Freiberg, Germany
Rulong TAN – Chongqing University of Technology, China
Daniel TOBOŁA – Łukasiewicz Research Network - Cracow Institute of Technology, Poland
Milan TRIFUNOVIĆ – University of Niš, Serbia
Duong VU – Duy Tan University, Viet Nam
Shaoke WAN – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Dong WEI – Northwest A&F University, Yangling , China
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Mateusz WRZOCHAL – Kielce University of Technology, Poland
Hugo YAÑEZ-BADILLO – TecNM: Tecnológico de Estudios Superiores de Tianguistenco, Mexico
Guichao YANG – Nanjing Tech University, China
Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China
Yusuf Furkan YAPAN – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Luhe ZHANG – Chongqing University, China
Xiuli ZHANG – Shandong University of Technology, Zibo, China

List of reviewers in 2022
Isam Tareq ABDULLAH – Middle Technical University, Baghdad, Iraq
Ahmed AKBAR – University of Technology, Iraq
Nandalur AMER AHAMMAD – University of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia
Ali ARSHAD – Riga Technical University, Latvia
Ihsan A. BAQER – University of Technology, Iraq
Thomas BAR – Daimler AG, Stuttgart, Germany
Huang BIN – Zhejiang University, Zhoushan, China
Zbigniew BULIŃSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Onur ÇAVUSOGLU – Gazi University, Turkey
Ali J CHAMKHA – Duy Tan University, Da Nang , Vietnam
Dexiong CHEN – Putian University, China
Xiaoquan CHENG – Beihang University, Beijing, China
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Agnieszka DĄBSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Raphael DEIMEL – Berlin University of Technology, Germany
Zhe DING – Wuhan University of Science and Technology, China
Anselmo DINIZ – University of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil
Paweł FLASZYŃSKI – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdańsk, Poland
Jerzy FLOYRAN – University of Western Ontario, London, Canada
Xiuli FU – University of Jinan, China
Piotr FURMAŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Ahmad Reza GHASEMI– University of Kashan, Iran
P.M. GOPAL – Anna University, Regional Campus Coimbatore, India
Michał GUMNIAK – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Bali GUPTA – Jaypee University of Engineering and Technology, India
Dmitriy GVOZDYAKOV – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Jianyou HAN – University of Science and Technology, Beijing, China
Tomasz HANISZEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Juipin HUNG – National Chin-Yi University of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan
T. JAAGADEESHA – National Institute of Technology, Calicut, India
Jacek JACKIEWICZ – Kazimierz Wielki University, Bydgoszcz, Poland
JC JI – University of Technology, Sydney, Australia
Feng JIAO – Henan Polytechnic University, Jiaozuo, China
Daria JÓŹWIAK-NIEDŹWIEDZKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Rongjie KANG – Tianjin University, China
Dariusz KARDAŚ – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland
Leif KARI – KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden
Daria KHANUKAEVA – Gubkin Russian State University of Oil and Gas, Russia
Sven-Joachim KIMMERLE – Universität der Bundeswehr München, Germany
Yeong-Jin KING – Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia
Kaushal KISHORE – Tata Steel Limited, Jamshedpur, India
Nataliya KIZILOVA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam KLIMANEK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Australia
Maria KOTEŁKO – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Roman KRÓL – Kazimierz Pulaski University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Poland
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Airforce Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Mieczysław KUCZMA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Paweł KWIATOŃ – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Lihui Lang – Beihang University, China
Rafał LASKOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Guolong Li – Chongqing University, China
Leo Gu LI – Guangzhou University, China
Pengnan LI – Hunan University of Science and Technology, China
Nan LIANG – University of Toronto, Mississauga, Canada
Michał LIBERA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Wen-Yi LIN – Hungkuo Delin University of Technology, Taiwan
Wojciech LIPINSKI – Austrialian National University, Canberra, Australia
Linas LITVINAS – Vilnius University, Lithuania
Paweł MACIĄG – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Krishna Prasad MADASU – National Institute of Technology Raipur, Chhattisgarh, India
Trent MAKI – Amino North America Corporation, Canada
Marco MANCINI – Institut für Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik, Germany
Piotr MAREK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Phani Kumar MEDURI – VIT-AP University, Amaravati, India
Fei MENG – University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, China
Saleh MOBAYEN – University of Zanjan, Iran
Vedran MRZLJAK – Rijeka University, Croatia
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Mohamed Fawzy NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Paweł OCŁOŃ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Yusuf Aytaç ONUR – Zonguldak Bulent Ecevit University, Turkey
Grzegorz ORZECHOWSKI – LUT University, Lappeenranta, Finland
Halil ÖZER – Yıldız Technical University, Turkey
Muthuswamy PADMAKUMAR – Technology Centre Kennametal India Ltd., Bangalore, India
Viorel PALEU – Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iasi, Romania
Andrzej PANAS – Warsaw Military Academy, Poland
Carmine Maria PAPPALARDO – University of Salerno, Italy
Paweł PARULSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Antonio PICCININNI – Politecnico di Bari, Italy
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Vaclav PISTEK – Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
Grzegorz PRZYBYŁA – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Paweł PYRZANOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
K.P. RAJURKARB – University of Nebraska-Lincoln, United States
Michał REJDAK – Institute of Chemical Processing of Coal, Zabrze, Poland
Krzysztof ROGOWSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Juan RUBIO – University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Wagner Figueiredo SACCO – Universidade Federal Fluminense, Petropolis, Brazil
Andrzej SACHAJDAK – Silesian University of Technology, Poland
Bikash SARKAR – NIT Meghalaya, Shillong, India
Bozidar SARLER – University of Lubljana, Slovenia
Veerendra SINGH – TATA STEEL, India
Wieńczysław STALEWSKI – Institute of Aviation, Warsaw, Poland
Cyprian SUCHOCKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Maciej SUŁOWICZ – Cracov University of Technology, Poland
Wojciech SUMELKA – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Tomasz SZOLC – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Oskar SZULC – Institute of Fluid-Flow Machinery, Gdansk, Poland
Rafał ŚWIERCZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Raquel TABOADA VAZQUEZ – University of Coruña, Spain
Halit TURKMEN – Istanbul Technical University, Turkey
Daniel UGURU-OKORIE – Federal University, Oye Ekiti, Nigeria
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Yeqin WANG – Syndem LLC, United States
Xiaoqiong WEN – Dalian University of Technology, China
Szymon WOJCIECHOWSKI – Poznan University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Guenter WOZNIAK – Technische Universität Chemnitz, Germany
Guanlun WU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Xiangyu WU – University of California at Berkeley, United States
Guang XIA – Hefei University of Technology, China
Jiawei XIANG – Wenzhou University, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University,China
Jianwei YANG – Beijing University of Civil Engineering and Architecture, China
Xiao YANG – Chongqing Technology and Business University, China
Oguzhan YILMAZ – Gazi University, Turkey
Aznifa Mahyam ZAHARUDIN – Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam, Malaysia
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
S.H. ZHANG – Institute of Metal Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China
Yu ZHANG – Shenyang Jianzhu University, China
Shun-Peng ZHU – University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu, China
Yongsheng ZHU – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China

List of reviewers of volume 68 (2021)
Ahmad ABDALLA – Huaiyin Institute of Technology, China
Sara ABDELSALAM – University of California, Riverside, United States
Muhammad Ilman Hakimi Chua ABDULLAH – Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, Malaysia
Hafiz Malik Naqash AFZAL – University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia
Reza ANSARI – University of Guilan, Rasht, Iran
Jeewan C. ATWAL – Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi, India
Hadi BABAEI – Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran
Sakthi BALAN – K. Ramakrishnan college of Engineering, Trichy, India
Leszek BARANOWSKI – Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Elias BRASSITOS – Lebanese American University, Byblos, Lebanon
Tadeusz BURCZYŃSKI – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Nguyen Duy CHINH – Hung Yen University of Technology and Education, Hung Yen, Vietnam
Dorota CHWIEDUK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Adam CISZKIEWICZ – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Meera CS – University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Duhradun, India
Piotr CYKLIS – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Abanti DATTA – Indian Institute of Engineering Science and Technology, Shibpur, India
Piotr DEUSZKIEWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Dinesh DHANDE – AISSMS College of Engineering, Pune, India
Sufen DONG – Dalian University of Technology, China
N. Godwin Raja EBENEZER – Loyola-ICAM College of Engineering and Technology, Chennai, India
Halina EGNER – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Fehim FINDIK – Sakarya University of Applied Sciences, Turkey
Artur GANCZARSKI – Cracow University of Technology, Poland
Peng GAO – Northeastern University, Shenyang, China
Rafał GOŁĘBSKI – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Andrzej GRZEBIELEC – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Ngoc San HA – Curtin University, Perth, Australia
Mehmet HASKUL – University of Sirnak, Turkey
Michal HATALA – Technical University of Košice, Slovak Republic
Dewey HODGES – Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, United States
Hamed HONARI – Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, United States
Olga IWASINSKA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Emmanuelle JACQUET – University of Franche-Comté, Besançon, France
Maciej JAWORSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Xiaoling JIN – Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China
Halil Burak KAYBAL – Amasya University, Turkey
Vladis KOSSE – Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane, Australia
Krzysztof KUBRYŃSKI – Air Force Institute of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
Waldemar KUCZYŃSKI – Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
Igor KURYTNIK – State Higher School in Oswiecim, Poland
Daniel LESNIC – University of Leeds, United Kingdom
Witold LEWANDOWSKI – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Guolu LI – Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin, China
Jun LI – Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
Baiquan LIN – China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou, China
Dawei LIU – Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao, China
Luis Norberto LÓPEZ DE LACALLE – University of the Basque Country, Bilbao, Spain
Ming LUO – Northwestern Polytechnical University, Xi’an, China
Xin MA – Shandong University, Jinan, China
Najmuldeen Yousif MAHMOOD – University of Technology, Baghdad, Iraq
Arun Kumar MAJUMDER – Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, India
Paweł MALCZYK – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Miloš MATEJIĆ – University of Kragujevac, Serbia
Norkhairunnisa MAZLAN – Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Malaysia
Dariusz MAZURKIEWICZ – Lublin University of Technology, Poland
Florin MINGIREANU – Romanian Space Agency, Bucharest, Romania
Vladimir MITYUSHEV – Pedagogical University of Cracow, Poland
Adis MUMINOVIC – University of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Baraka Olivier MUSHAGE – Université Libre des Pays des Grands Lacs, Goma, Congo (DRC)
Tomasz MUSZYŃSKI – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Mohamed NASR – National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
Driss NEHARI – University of Ain Temouchent, Algeria
Oleksii NOSKO – Bialystok University of Technology, Poland
Grzegorz NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Iwona NOWAK – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Samy ORABY – Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt
Marcin PĘKAL – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Bo PENG – University of Huddersfield, United Kingdom
Janusz PIECHNA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Maciej PIKULIŃSKI – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
T.V.V.L.N. RAO – The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur, India
Andrzej RUSIN – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Artur RUSOWICZ – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Benjamin SCHLEICH – Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany
Jerzy SĘK – Lodz University of Technology, Poland
Reza SERAJIAN – University of California, Merced, USA
Artem SHAKLEIN – Udmurt Federal Research Center, Izhevsk, Russia
G.L. SHI – Guangxi University of Science and Technology, Liuzhou, China
Muhammad Faheem SIDDIQUI – Vrije University, Brussels, Belgium
Jarosław SMOCZEK – AGH University of Science and Technology, Cracow, Poland
Josip STJEPANDIC – PROSTEP AG, Darmstadt, Germany
Pavel A. STRIZHAK – Tomsk Polytechnic University, Russia
Vadym STUPNYTSKYY – Lviv Polytechnic National University, Ukraine
Miklós SZAKÁLL – Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Germany
Agnieszka TOMASZEWSKA – Gdansk University of Technology, Poland
Artur TYLISZCZAK – Czestochowa University of Technology, Poland
Aneta USTRZYCKA – Institute of Fundamental Technological Research, Warsaw, Poland
Alper UYSAL – Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
Gabriel WĘCEL – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Marek WĘGLOWSKI – Welding Institute, Gliwice, Poland
Frank WILL – Technische Universität Dresden, Germany
Michał WODTKE – Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Marek WOJTYRA – Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Włodzimierz WRÓBLEWSKI – Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
Hongtao WU – Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, China
Jinyang XU – Shanghai Jiao Tong University, China
Zhiwu XU – Harbin Institute of Technology, China
Zbigniew ZAPAŁOWICZ – West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin, Poland
Zdzislaw ZATORSKI – Polish Naval Academy, Gdynia, Poland
Wanming ZHAI – Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, China
Xin ZHANG – Wenzhou University of Technology, China
Su ZHAO – Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, China

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