Applied sciences

Archive of Mechanical Engineering

Content

Archive of Mechanical Engineering | 2020 | vol. 67 | No 3 |

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Abstract

This paper presents a new algorithm that approximates the forces that develop between a human hand and the handles of a climbing wall. A hand-to-handle model was developed using this algorithm for the Open Dynamics Engine physics solver, which can be plugged into a full-body climbing simulation to improve results. The model data are based on biomechanical measurements of the average population presented in previously published research. The main objective of this work was to identify maximum forces given hand orientation and force direction with respect to the climbing wall handles. Stated as a nonlinear programming problem, solution was achieved by applying a stochastic Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (CMA-ES). The algorithm for force approximation works consistently and provides reasonable results when gravity is neglected. However, including gravity results in a number of issues. Since the weight of the hand is small in relation to the hand-to-handle forces, neglecting gravity does not significantly affect the reliability and quality of the solution.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Orzechowski
Perttu Hämäläinen
Aki Mikkola
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Abstract

Shaft is a machine element which is used to transmit rotary motion or torque. During transmission of motion, however, the machine shaft doesn't always rotate with a constant angular velocity. Because of unstable current or due to sudden acceleration and deceleration, the machine shaft will rotate at a variable angular velocity. It is this rotary motion that generates the moment of inertial force, causing the machine shaft to have torsional deformation. However, due to the elasticity of the material, the shaft produces torsional vibration. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to determine the optimal parameters of dynamic vibration absorber to eliminate torsional vibration of the rotating shaft that varies with time. The new results in this paper are summarized as follows: Firstly, the author determines the optimal parameters by using the minimum quadratic torque method. Secondly, the maximization of equivalent viscous resistance method is used for determining the optimal parameters. Thirdly, the author gives the optimal parameters of dynamic vibration absorber based on the fixed-point method. In this paper, the optimum parameters are found in an explicit analytical solutions, helping the scientists to easily find the optimal parameters for eliminating torsional vibration of the rotating shaft.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nguyen Duy Chinh
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Abstract

In this work, transient and free vibration analyses are illustrated for a functionally graded Timoshenko beam (FGM) using finite element method. The governing equilibrium equations and boundary conditions (B-Cs) are derived according to the principle of Hamilton. The materials constituents of the FG beam that vary smoothly along the thickness of the beam (along beam thickness) are evaluated using the rule of mixture method. Power law index, slenderness ratio, modulus of elasticity ratio, and boundary conditions effect of the cantilever and simply supported beams on the dynamic response of the beam are studied. Moreover, the influence of mass distribution and continuous stiffness of the FGM beam are deeply investigated. Comparisons between the current free vibration results (fundamental frequency) and other available studies are performed to check the formulation of the current mathematical model. Good results have been obtained. A significant effect is noticed in the transient response of both simply supported and cantilever beams at the smaller values of the power index and the modulus elasticity ratio.

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Authors and Affiliations

Salwan Obaid Waheed Khafaji
Mohammed A. Al-Shujairi
Mohammed Jawad Aubad
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Abstract

The article describes a test stand with a spindle equipped with an active bearing preload system using piezoelectric actuators. The proper functioning of the spindle and the active system was associated with the correct alignment of the spindle shaft and the drive motor. The article presents two methods of shaft alignment. The use of commonly known shaft alignment methods with dial indicators is insufficient from the viewpoint of being able to control this preload. This work aims at making the readers aware that, for systems with active bearing preload, the latest measuring devices should be used to align the shaft. The use of commonly known methods of equalization with dial gauges is insufficient from the point of view of controlling this preload. Increasing the accuracy of shaft alignment from 0.1 to 0.01 mm made it possible to obtain a 50% reduction in the displacement of the outer bearing ring during spindle operation.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Turek
Marek Stembalski
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Abstract

In this paper, the energy losses in big band saw machines are investigated. These losses are caused by the geometric and angular inaccuracies with which the leading wheels are made. Expressions for calculating the kinetic energy of the mechanical system in the ideal and the real cases are obtained. For this purpose, expressions for calculating the velocities of the centers of the masses in two mutually perpendicular planes are obtained. A dependence for calculation of the kinetic energy losses of the mechanical system in final form is received. Optimization procedure is used to determine the values of the parameters at which these losses have minimum values. The proposed study can be used to minimize energy losses in other classes of woodworking machines.

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Authors and Affiliations

Boycho Marinov
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Abstract

In manufacturing industries, the selection of machine parameters is a very complicated task in a time-bound manner. The process parameters play a primary role in confirming the quality, low cost of manufacturing, high productivity, and provide the source for sustainable machining. This paper explores the milling behavior of MWCNT/epoxy nanocomposites to attain the parametric conditions having lower surface roughness (Ra) and higher materials removal rate (MRR). Milling is considered as an indispensable process employed to acquire highly accurate and precise slots. Particle swarm optimization (PSO) is very trendy among the nature-stimulated metaheuristic method used for the optimization of varying constraints. This article uses the non-dominated PSO algorithm to optimize the milling parameters, namely, MWCNT weight% (Wt.), spindle speed (N), feed rate (F), and depth of cut (D). The first setting confirmatory test demonstrates the value of Ra and MRR that are found as 1:62 μm and 5.69 mm3/min, respectively and for the second set, the obtained values of Ra and MRR are 3.74 μm and 22.83 mm3/min respectively. The Pareto set allows the manufacturer to determine the optimal setting depending on their application need. The outcomes of the proposed algorithm offer new criteria to control the milling parameters for high efficiency.

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Authors and Affiliations

Prakhar Kumar Kharwar
Rajesh Kumar Verma
Nirmal Kumar Mandal
Arpan Kumar Mondal

Instructions for authors

About the Journal
Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an international journal publishing works of wide significance, originality and relevance in most branches of mechanical engineering. The journal is peer-reviewed and is published both in electronic and printed form. Archive of Mechanical Engineering publishes original papers which have not been previously published in other journal, and are not being prepared for publication elsewhere. The publisher will not be held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation. The journal accepts papers in English.

Archive of Mechanical Engineering is an Open Access journal. The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Original high quality papers on the following topics are preferred:

  • Mechanics of Solids and Structures,
  • Fluid Dynamics,
  • Thermodynamics, Heat Transfer and Combustion,
  • Machine Design,
  • Computational Methods in Mechanical Engineering,
  • Robotics, Automation and Control,
  • Mechatronics and Micro-mechanical Systems,
  • Aeronautics and Aerospace Engineering,
  • Heat and Power Engineering.

All submissions to the AME should be made electronically via Editorial System - an online submission and peer review system at: https://www.editorialsystem.com/ame

More detailed instructions for Authors can be found there.

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