Archive of Mechanical Engineering

Keywords:

Abstract

This paper presents an extended finite element method applied to solve phase change problems taking into account natural convection in the liquid phase. It is assumed that the transition from one state to another, e.g., during the solidification of pure metals, is discontinuous and that the physical properties of the phases vary across the interface. According to the classical Stefan condition, the location, topology and rate of the interface changes are determined by the jump in the heat flux. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation of the natural convection flow are solved for the liquid phase. The no-slip condition for velocity and the melting/freezing condition for temperature are imposed on the interface using penalty method. The fractional four-step method is employed for analysing conjugate heat transfer and unsteady viscous flow. The phase interface is tracked by the level set method defined on the same finite element mesh. A new combination of extended basis functions is proposed to approximate the discontinuity in the derivative of the temperature, velocity and the pressure fields. The single-mesh approach is demonstrated using three two-dimensional benchmark problems. The results are compared with the numerical and experimental data obtained by other authors.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Stąpór
1

1. Faculty of Management and Computer Modelling, Kielce University of Technology, Kielce, Poland.
Keywords:

Abstract

LED light must be cooled to avoid reaching a certain temperature. Two different 3D practical domains of LED light are modelled, (i) square aluminium plate with a cylindrical plate and an LED module (model I), (ii) the same provision of model I with 25 fins (model II). ANSYS 16.0 is used for solving the problem. Temperature distribution, junction temperature (Tj) and heat flux are estimated. Analyses are carried out for various ambient temperatures (Ta) and for different LED power dissipations (Q) to identify the safe operating conditions. In model I, it is found that 38% of working conditions go beyond the critical limit of Tj and it is reduced to 21.4% in model II. In model II, for low Ta of 30 and 40ºC with all Q considered in this analysis are safer. If Ta is between 30 and 80ºC, then Q must be maintained at 0.5 to 1.25 W. Beyond this, conditions are not safe.

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Authors and Affiliations

Manbodh Kumar Mishra
1
V.P. Chandramohan
1
Karthik Balasubramanian
1

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Warangal, Telangana, India.
Keywords:

Abstract

This work is devoted to the plotting of coupler curves in the environment of graphical programs. As there is a large variety of shapes, for the purpose of this study, the authors selected those curves that feature a cusp form. In the research, two software programs were used, i.e., AutoCAD and Rhinoceros with the Grasshopper plug-in. Two types of curves were defined: a fixed and a moving centrode, in which the points of the moving centrode define the coupler curves whose cusps are located on the fixed centrode. In conclusion, two design tools were compared and the curves in question were discussed in detail.

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Authors and Affiliations

Krystyna Romaniak
1
Michał Nessel
1

1. Department of Architecture, Cracow University of Technology, Cracow, Poland.
Keywords:

Abstract

In the present work, an experimental investigation of a transverse fatigue crack has been carried out. A mathematical modelling of cracked rotor system along with the measured vibration is used to find crack parameters that not only detect the fault but also quantify it. Many experimental studies on cracks considered the crack as a slit or notch, which remains open. However, such flaws do not mimic a fatigue crack behavior, in which crack front opens and closes (i.e., breathes in a single revolution of the rotor). The fatigue crack in rotors commonly depicts 2x frequency component in the response, as well as higher frequency components, such as 3x, 4x and so on. In rotors, both forward and backward whirling take place due to asymmetry in rotor, and thus the fatigue crack gives the forward and backward whirl for all such harmonics. A rotor test rig was developed with a fatigue crack in it; rotor motions in two orthogonal directions were captured from the rig at discrete rotor angular speeds using proximity probes. The directional-spectrum processing technique has been utilized to the measured displacements to get its forward and backward whirl components. Subsequently, it is executed in a mathematical model-based estimation procedure to obtain the crack forces, residual unbalances, and remaining rotor system unknown variables. Estimation of crack forces during rotation of the shaft gives its characteristics, which can be used further to develop newer crack models.

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Authors and Affiliations

C. Shravankumar
1
Rajiv Tiwari
1

1. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Guwahati, Guwahati – 781039, India.
Keywords:

Abstract

In times of rapidly progressing globalization, the possibility of fast long-distance travel between high traffic cities has become an extremely important issue. Currently, available transportation systems have numerous limitations, therefore, the idea of a high-speed transportation system moving in reduced-pressure conditions has emerged recently. This paper presents an approach to the modelling and simulation of the dynamic behaviour of a simplified high-speed vehicle that hovers over the track as a magnetically levitated system. The developed model is used for control system design. The purpose of passive and active suspension discussed in the text is to improve both the performance and stability of the vehicle as well as ride comfort of passengers travelling in a compartment. Comparative numerical studies are performed and the results of the simulations are reported in the paper with the intent to demonstrate the benefits of the approach employed here.

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Authors and Affiliations

Natalia Strawa
1
Paweł Malczyk
1

1. Institute of Aeronautics and Applied Mechanics, Faculty of Power and Aeronautical Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland.
Keywords:

Abstract

The paper describes the dynamics of a composite cantilever beam with an active element. The vibrations of the kinematically excited beam are controlled with the use of a Macro Fiber Composite actuator. A proportional control algorithm is considered. During the analysis, actuator is powered by a time-varying voltage signal that is changed proportionally to the beam deflection. The MFC element control system with the implemented algorithm allowed for changing the stiffness of the tested structure. This is confirmed by the numerical and experimental results. Resonance curves for the beam with and without control are determined. The results show a very good agreement in qualitative terms.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Gawryluk
1
Andrzej Mitura
1
Andrzej Teter
1

1. Department of Applied Mechanics, Mechanical Engineering Faculty, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland.

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