Applied sciences

Archives of Foundry Engineering

Content

Archives of Foundry Engineering | 2014 | No 4 |

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Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies on the development of correlation of solidification parameters and chemical composition of nickel

superalloy IN-713C, which is used i.a. on aircraft engine turbine blades. Previous test results indicate significant differences in

solidification parameters of the alloy, especially the temperatures Tliq and Tsol for each batch of ingots supplied by the manufacturer.

Knowledge of such a relationship has important practical significance, because of the ability to asses and correct the temperatures

of casting and heat treatment of casts on the basis of chemical composition. Using the statistical analysis it was found that the temperature

of the solidification beginning Tliq is mostly influenced by the addition of carbon (similar to iron alloys). The additions of Al and Nb have

smaller but still significant impact. Other alloying components do not have significant effect on Tliq. The temperature Teut is mostly

affected by Ni, Ti and Nb. The temperature Tsol is not in any direct correlation with the chemical composition, which is consistent with

previous research. The temperature Tsol depends primarily on the presence of non-metallic inclusions present in feed materials and

introduced during the melting and casting processes.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Szymszal
P. Gradoń
F. Binczyk
J. Cwajna
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Abstract

The study consisted in assessing the influence of surface and volume modification on the characteristics of high-temperature creep of

castings made of waste products of nickel-based superalloys IN 713C and the MAR-247. The results of high-temperature creep tests

performed under conditions of two variants of research were analysed. The characteristics of creep according to variant I were obtained on

the basis of earlier studies of these alloys with the parameters T=982o

C, σ=150MPa [1]. Variant II included carrying out creep tests of

alloy IN713C with the parameters T=760o

C, σ =400MPa and alloy MAR247 with the parameters: T=982o

C, σ=200MPa.Developed creep

characteristics were compared with the results of these alloys with the parameters according to variant I of the study. It was observed that

the conditions of experiments carried out depending upon the value of the creep test temperature and stress with the creep stability depends

on the size of the macrograin (I variant of the studies) or such influence was not observed (II variant of the studies). Stability of samples

with coarse structure in variant I of creep tests was significantly higher than the samples with fragmented grain. It was found that the

observed stability conditions are dependent on the dominant deformation mechanisms under creep tests carried out - diffusion mechanism

in variant I and a dislocation mechanism in variant II of the study. The conditions for the formation and growth of the cracks in the tested

materials, including the morphological characteristics of their macro-and microstructure were tested.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Cieśla
R. Findziński
F. Binczyk
M. Mańka
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Abstract

The investigation results of the mechanical reclamation of spent moulding sands from the Cordis technology are presented in the paper.

The quality assessment of the obtained reclaim and the influence of the reclaim fraction in a matrix on the core sand strength is given. The

reclaim quality assessment was performed on the basis of the determination of losses on ignition, Na2O content on reclaim grains and pH

values. The reclaim constituted 100%, 75% and 50% of the core sand matrix, for which the bending strength was determined. The matrix

reclamation treatment was performed in the experimental rotor reclaimer RD-6. Spent sands were applied in as-delivered condition and

after the heating to a temperature of 140 o

C. Shaped samples for strength tests were made by shooting and hardening of sands in the warmbox

technology.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Dańko
J. Dańko
M. Skrzyński
M. Dereń
Ł. Zygmunt
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Abstract

The paper presents the idea of the integrated recycling system of used moulding sands with organic resins. A combination of the method of

forecasting averaged ignition loss values of moulding sands after casting and defining the range of necessary matrix reclamation

treatments in order to obtain its full recycling constitutes the basics of this process.

The results of own investigations, allowing to combine ignition loss values of spent moulding sands after casting knocking out with

amounts of dusts generated during the mechanical reclamation treatment of such sands, were utilized in the system.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Dańko
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Abstract

The paper presents the results of studies on the development of manufacturing technologies to cast hearth plates operating in chamber

furnaces for heat treatment. Castings made from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 steel were poured in hand-made green sand molds.

The following operations were performed: computer simulation to predict the distribution of internal defects in castings produced by the

above mentioned technology with risers bare and coated with exothermic and insulating sleeves, analysis of each variant of the technology,

and manufacture of experimental castings. As a result of the conducted studies and analysis it was found that the use of risers with

exothermic sleeves does not affect to a significant degree the quality of the produced castings of hearth plates, but it significantly improves

the metal yield.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Drotlew
B. Piekarski
M. Garbiak
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Abstract

Magnesium alloys are one of the lightest of all the structural materials. Because of their excellent physical and mechanical properties the

alloys have been used more and more often in various branches of industry. They are cast mainly (over 90%) on cold and hot chamber die

casting machines. One of the byproducts of casting processes is process scrap which amounts to about 40 to 60% of the total weight of a

casting. The process scrap incorporates all the elements of gating systems and fault castings. Proper management of the process scrap is

one of the necessities in term of economic and environmental aspects.

Most foundries use the process scrap, which involves adding it to a melting furnace, in a haphazard way, without any control of its content

in the melt. It can lead to many disadvantageous effects, e.g. the formation of a hard buildup at the bottom of the crucible, which in time

makes casting impossible due to the loss of the alloy rheological properties. The research was undertaken to determine the effect of an

addition of the process scrap on the mechanical properties of AZ91 and AM50 alloys. It has been ascertained that the addition of a specific

amount of process scrap to the melt increases the mechanical properties of the elements cast from AZ91 and AM50 alloys.

The increase in the mechanical properties is caused mainly by compounds which can work as nuclei of crystallization and are introduced

into the scrap from lubricants and anti-adhesive agents. Furthermore carbon, which was detected in the process scrap by means of SEM

examination, is a potent grain modifier in Mg alloys [1-3].

The optimal addition of the process scrap to the melt was determined based on the statistical analysis of the results of studies of the effect

of different process scrap additions on the mean grain size and mechanical properties of the cast parts.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Fajkiel
P. Dudek
T. Reguła
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Abstract

The object of the experimental studies was to determine the mechanical properties of a hypoeutectic EN AC - 42100 (EN ACAlSi7Mg0,3)

silumin alloy, where the said properties are changing as a result of subjecting the samples of different types to solution

treatment. An important aspect of the studies was the use type of device for the heat treatment. As a basic parameter representing the

mechanical properties, the tensile strength of the metal (Rm) was adopted.

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Authors and Affiliations

S. Kluska-Nawarecka
Z. Górny
D. Wilk-Kołodziejczyk
E. Czekaj
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Abstract

Small additions of Cr, Mo and W to aluminium-iron-nickel bronze are mostly located in phases κi (i=II; III; IV),and next in phase α

(in the matrix) and phase γ2. They raise the temperature of the phase transformations in aluminium bronzes as well as the casts’ abrasive

and adhesive wear resistance. The paper presents a selection of feeding elements and thermal treatment times which guarantees structure

stability, for a cast of a massive bush working at an elevated temperature (650–750°C) made by means of the lost foam technology out of

composite aluminium bronze. So far, there have been no analyses of the phenomena characteristic to the examined bronze which

accompany the process of its solidification during gasification of the EPS pattern. There are also no guidelines for designing risers and

steel internal chill for casts made of this bronze. The work identifies the type and location of the existing defects in the mould’s cast. It also

proposes a solution to the manner of its feeding and cooling which compensates the significant volume contraction of bronze and

effectively removes the formed gases from the area of mould solidification. Another important aspect of the performed research was

establishing the duration time of bronze annealing at the temperature of 750°C which guarantees stabilization of the changes in the bronze

microstructure – stabilization of the changes in the bronze HB hardness.

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Authors and Affiliations

P. Just
B.P. Pisarek
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Abstract

The modification is a widespread method of improving the strength properties of cast iron. The impact in terms of increasing amounts of

eutectic grains has been thoroughly studied while the issue of the impact on the mechanical properties of primary austenite grains has not

been studied in depth yet. The paper presents the study of both aspects. The methodology was to conduct the melting cast iron with flake

graphite, then modifying the alloy by two sets of modifiers: the commercial modifier, and a mixture of iron powder with a commercial

inoculant. The DAAS test was carried out to identify the primary austenite grains. The degree of supercooling was determined and the

UTS test was performed as well. Additionally carried out the metallographic specimen allowing for counting grains. It can be concluded

that the introduction of the iron powder significantly improved the number of austenite primary grains which resulted in an increase

in tensile strength UTS.

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Authors and Affiliations

D. Kopyciński
E. Guzik
A. Szczęsny
J. Dorula
D. Siekaniec
M. Ronduda
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Abstract

Austenitization is the first step of heat treatment preceding the isothermal quenching of ductile iron in austempered ductile iron (ADI)

manufacturing. Usually, the starting material for the ADI production is ductile iron with more convenient pearlitic matrix. In this paper we

present the results of research concerning the austenitizing of ductile iron with ferritic matrix, where all carbon dissolved in austenite must

come from graphite nodules. The scope of research includedcarrying out the process of austenitization at 900o

Cusing a variable times

ranging from 5 to 240minutes,and then observations of the microstructure of the samples after different austenitizing times. These were

supplemented with micro-hardness testing. The research showed that the process of saturating austenite with carbon is limited by the rate

of dissolution of carbon from nodular graphite precipitates.

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Authors and Affiliations

A. Krzyńska
A. Kochański
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Abstract

Non-metallic inclusions found in steel can affect its performance characteristics. Their impact depends not only on their quality, but also,

among others, on their size and distribution in the steel volume. The literature mainly describes the results of tests on hard steels,

particularly bearing steels. The amount of non-metallic inclusions found in steel with a medium carbon content melted under industrial

conditions is rarely presented in the literature. The tested steel was melted in an electric arc furnace and then desulfurized and argonrefined.

Seven typical industrial melts were analyzed, in which ca. 75% secondary raw materials were used. The amount of non-metallic

inclusions was determined by optical and extraction methods. The test results are presented using stereometric indices. Inclusions are

characterized by measuring ranges. The chemical composition of steel and contents of inclusions in every melts are presented. The results

are shown in graphical form. The presented analysis of the tests results on the amount and size of non-metallic inclusions can be used to

assess them operational strength and durability of steel melted and refined in the desulfurization and argon refining processes.

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Authors and Affiliations

T. Lipiński
A. Wach
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Abstract

Trials of cast steel filtration using two types of newly-developed foam filters in which carbon was the phase binding ceramic particles have

been conducted. In one of the filters the source of carbon was flake graphite and coal-tar pitch, while in the other one graphite was

replaced by a cheaper carbon precursor. The newly-developed filters are fired at 1000o

C, i.e. at a much lower temperature than the

currently applied ZrO2-based filters. During filtration trials the filters were subjected to the attack of a flowing metal stream having

a temperature of 1650°C for 30 seconds.

Characteristic of the filters’ properties before and after the filtration trial were done. It was found, that the surface reaction of the filter

walls with molten metal, which resulted in local changes of the microstructure and phase composition, did not affect on expected filter

lifetime and filtration did not cause secondary contamination of cast steel.

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Authors and Affiliations

B. Lipowska
P. Wieliczko
M. Asłanowicz
J. Witek
T. Wala
A. Karwiński
A. Ościłowski
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Abstract

The investigation results of the influence of the selected parameters of the thermal reclaimer operations on the temperature changes in the

combustion chamber and the process energy consumption, are presented in the hereby paper. The analysis of the heat treatment was

performed with the application of a fresh foundry sand, since it was assumed that the dominating energy part was used for the grain matrix

heating and due to that, the energy used for burning small amounts of organic binder remained on sand grains could be omitted. Thermal

treatment processes performed under various conditions were analysed from the point of view of a gas consumption and temperatures

obtained in the experimental reclaimer. The recorded data allowed to point out the parameters having essential influence on the process of

the quartz matrix heating in the combustion chamber as a gas consumption function.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Łucarz
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Abstract

The performed examinations concerning the process of filling the plaster ceramic moulds with aluminium alloys allowed to assess the

influence of various methods of introducing the metal into the mould cavity on the macro- and microstructure of the obtained experimental

castings. The comparison was performed for castings with graded wall thickness made either of EN AC-44000 alloy or of EN AC-46000

alloy, produced either by gravity casting, or by gravity casting with negative pressure generated around the mould (according to the

Vacumetal technology), or by counter-gravity casting. It was found that the silicon crystals grow in size with an increase in wall thickness

due to the slower cooling and solidification of castings.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Nadolski
Z. Konopka
M. Łągiewka
A. Zyska
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Abstract

Simulation software dedicated for design of casting processes is usually tested and calibrated by comparisons of shrinkage defects

distribution predicted by the modelling with that observed in real castings produced in a given foundry. However, a large amount of

expertise obtained from different foundries, including especially made experiments, is available from literature, in the form of

recommendations for design of the rigging systems. This kind of information can be also used for assessment of the simulation predictions.

In the present work two parameters used in the design of feeding systems are considered: feeding ranges in horizontal and vertical plates as

well as efficiency (yield) of feeders of various shapes. The simulation tests were conducted using especially designed steel and aluminium

castings with risers and a commercial FDM based software. It was found that the simulations cannot predict appearance of shrinkage

porosity in horizontal and vertical plates of even cross-sections which would mean, that the feeding ranges are practically unlimited. The

yield of all types of feeders obtained from the simulations appeared to be much higher than that reported in the literature. It can be

concluded that the feeding flow modelling included in the tested software does not reflect phenomena responsible for the feeding processes

in real castings properly. Further tests, with different types of software and more fundamental studies on the feeding process modelling

would be desirable.

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Perzyk
A. Kochański
P. Mazurek
K. Karczewski
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Abstract

Nickel alloys belong to the group of most resistant materials when used under the extreme operating conditions, including chemically

aggressive environment, high temperature, and high loads applied over a long period of time. Although in the global technology market

one can find several standard cast nickel alloys, the vast majority of components operating in machines and equipment are made from

alloys processed by the costly metalworking operations. Analysis of the available literature and own studies have shown that the use of

casting technology in the manufacture of components from nickel alloys poses a lot of difficulty. This is due to the adverse technological

properties of these alloys, like poor fluidity, high casting shrinkage, and above all, high reactivity of liquid metal with the atmospheric air

over the bath and with the ceramic material of both the crucible and foundry mold. The scale of these problems increases with the expected

growth of performance properties which these alloys should offer to the user.

This article presents the results of studies of physico-chemical interactions that occur between theH282alloy melt and selected refractory

ceramic materials commonly used in foundry. Own methodology for conducting micro-melts on a laboratory scale was elaborated and

discussed. The results obtained have revealed that the alumina-based ceramics exhibits greater reactivity in contact with the H282 alloy

melt than the materials based on zirconium compounds. In the conducted experiments, the ceramic materials based on zirconium silicate

have proved to be a much better choice than the zirconia-silica mixture. Regardless of the type of the ceramic materials used, the time and

temperature of their contact with the nickel alloy melt should always be limited to an absolutely necessary minimum required by the

technological regime.

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Authors and Affiliations

Z. Pirowski
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Abstract

The paper is devoted to grain-refinement of the medium-aluminium zinc based alloys (MAl-Zn). The system examined was sand cast Zn10

wt. %. Al binary alloy (Zn-10Al) doped with commercial Al-3 wt. % Ti – 0.15 wt. % C grain refiner (Al-3Ti-0.15C GR). Basing on the

measured attenuation coefficient of ultrasonic wave it was stated that together with significantly increased structure fineness damping

decreases only by about 10 – 20%. The following examinations should establish the influence of the mentioned grain-refinement on

strength and ductility of MAl-Zn cast alloys.

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Authors and Affiliations

P.K. Krajewski
G. Piwowarski
W.K. Krajewski
J. Buraś
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Abstract

Some eutectic stripes have been generated in a hexagonal (Zn) - single crystal. The stripes are situated periodically with the constant interstripes

spacing. The eutectic structure in the stripes consists of strengthening inter-metallic compound, Zn16Ti, and (Zn) – solid solution.

The rod-like irregular eutectic structure (with branches) appears at low growth rates. The regular lamellar eutectic structure is observed at

middle growth rates. The regular rod-like eutectic structure exists exclusively in the stripes at some elevated growth rates. A new

thermodynamic criterion is recommended. It suggests that this eutectic regular structure is the winner in a morphological competition for

which the minimum entropy production is lower. A competition between the regular rod-like and the regular lamellar eutectic growth is

described by means of the proposed criterion. The formation of branches within irregular eutectic structure is referred to the state of

marginal stability. A continuous transitions from the marginal stability to the stationary state are confirmed by the continuous

transformations of the irregular eutectic structure into the regular one.

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Authors and Affiliations

J. Szajnar
W. Wołczyński
S. Kjelstrup
D. Bedeaux
B. Billia
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Abstract

Design of a compressed air system is a complex issue, involving the design of structures formed by the air sources, air receptors and

installations connecting all structure components. Another major task is to ensure the required quality of compressed air. The paper briefly

outlines the methodology of integrated and network structure design, using an objective function to find the optimal solution. In terms of

quality assurance, the technological aspects of compressed air generation, treatment and distribution are defined.

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Authors and Affiliations

R. Wrona
E. Ziółkowski
M. Brzeziński
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Abstract

Presence of iron in Al-Si cast alloys is common problem mainly in secondary (recycled) aluminium alloys. Better understanding of iron

influence in this kind of alloys can lead to reduction of final castings cost. Presented article deals with examination of detrimental iron

effect in AlSi10MgMn cast alloy. Microstructural analysis and ultimate tensile strength testing were used to consider influence of iron to

microstructure and mechanical properties of selected alloy

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Authors and Affiliations

M. Žihalová
D. Bolibruchová

Instructions for authors

Submission


To submit the article, please use the Editorial System provided here:

https://www.editorialsystem.com/afe


Papers submitted in any other way will not be accepted.



The Journal does not have submission charges.


The APC Article Processing Charge is 110 euros (500zł for Polish authors). In some cases, the APC is paid as a part of the scientific conference fee, for which the AFE journal is a supportive one. If not, it is payable after the acceptance of the final article by direct money transfer.


Bank account details:


Account holder: Stowarzyszenie Wychowankow Politechniki Slaskiej Kolo Odlewnikow
Account holder address: ul. Towarowa 7, 44-100 Gliwice, Poland
Account numbers: BIC BPKOPLPW IBAN PL17 1020 2401 0000 0202 0183 3748


Instructions for the preparation of an Archives of Foundry Engineering Paper

Publication Ethics Policy


Publication Ethics Policy

The standards of expected ethical behavior for all parties involved in publishing in the Archives of Foundry Engineering journal: the author, the journal editor and editorial board, the peer reviewers and the publisher are listed below.

All the articles submitted for publication in Archives of Foundry Engineering are peer reviewed for authenticity, ethical issues and usefulness as per Review Procedure document.

Duties of Editors
1. Monitoring the ethical standards: Editorial Board monitors the ethical standards of the submitted manuscripts and takes all possible measures against any publication malpractices.
2. Fair play: Submitted manuscripts are evaluated for their scientific content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, citizenship, political ideology or any other issues that is a personal or human right.
3. Publication decisions: The Editor in Chief is responsible for deciding which of the submitted articles should or should not be published. The decision to accept or reject the article is based on its importance, originality, clarity, and its relevance to the scope of the journal and is made after the review process.
4. Confidentiality: The Editor in Chief and the members of the Editorial Board t ensure that all materials submitted to the journal remain confidential during the review process. They must not disclose any information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the parties involved in the publishing process i.e., authors, reviewers, potential reviewers, other editorial advisers, and the publisher.
5. Disclosure and conflict of interest: Unpublished materials disclosed in the submitted manuscript must not be used by the Editor and the Editorial Board in their own research without written consent of authors. Editors always precludes business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards.
6. Maintain the integrity of the academic record: The editors will guard the integrity of the published academic record by issuing corrections and retractions when needed and pursuing suspected or alleged research and publication misconduct. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable. Editorial Board always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed.

Retractions of the articles: the Editor in Chief will consider retracting a publication if:
- there are clear evidences that the findings are unreliable, either as a result of misconduct (e.g. data fabrication) or honest error (e.g. miscalculation or experimental error)
- the findings have previously been published elsewhere without proper cross-referencing, permission or justification (cases of redundant publication)
- it constitutes plagiarism or reports unethical research.
Notice of the retraction will be linked to the retracted article (by including the title and authors in the retraction heading), clearly identifies the retracted article and state who is retracting the article. Retraction notices should always mention the reason(s) for retraction to distinguish honest error from misconduct.
Retracted articles will not be removed from printed copies of the journal nor from electronic archives but their retracted status will be indicated as clearly as possible.

Duties of Authors
1. Reporting standards: Authors of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the paper. The paper should contain sufficient details and references to permit others to replicate the work. The fabrication of results and making of fraudulent or inaccurate statements constitute unethical behavior and will cause rejection or retraction of a manuscript or a published article.
2. Originality and plagiarism: Authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others they need to be cited or quoted. Plagiarism and fraudulent data is not acceptable.
3. Data access retention: Authors may be asked to provide the raw data for editorial review, should be prepared to provide public access to such data, and should be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable time after publication of their paper.
4. Multiple or concurrent publication: Authors should not in general publish a manuscript describing essentially the same research in more than one journal. Submitting the same manuscript to more than one journal concurrently constitutes unethical publishing behavior and is unacceptable.
5. Authorship of the manuscript: Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the report study. All those who have made contributions should be listed as co-authors. The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the paper, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.
6. Acknowledgement of sources: The proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. The authors should cite publications that have been influential in determining the scope of the reported work.
7. Fundamental errors in published works: When the author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal editor or publisher and cooperate with the editor to retract or correct the paper.

Duties of Reviewers
1. Contribution to editorial decisions: Peer reviews assist the editor in making editorial decisions and may also help authors to improve their manuscript.
2. Promptness: Any selected reviewer who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should notify the editor and excuse himself/herself from the review process.
3. Confidentiality: All manuscript received for review must be treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except those authorized by the editor.
4. Standards of objectivity: Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inappropriate. Reviewers should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.
5. Acknowledgement of sources: Reviewers should identify the relevant published work that has not been cited by authors. Any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published paper should be reported to the editor.
6. Disclosure and conflict of Interest: Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review must be kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relations with any of the authors, companies, or institutions involved in writing a paper.

Peer-review Procedure


Review Procedure


The Review Procedure for articles submitted to the Archives of Foundry Engineering agrees with the recommendations of the Ministry of Science and Higher Education published in a booklet: ‘Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce’ (MNiSW, Dobre praktyki w procedurach recenzyjnych w nauce, Warszawa 2011).

Papers submitted to the Editorial System are primarily screened by editors with respect to scope, formal issues and used template. Texts with obvious errors (formatting other than requested, missing references, evidently low scientific quality) will be rejected at this stage or will be sent for the adjustments.

Once verified each article is checked by the anti-plagiarism system Cross Check powered by iThenticate®. After the positive response, the article is moved into: Initially verified manuscripts. When the similarity level is too high, the article will be rejected. There is no strict rule (i.e., percentage of the similarity), and it is always subject to the Editor’s decision.
Initially verified manuscripts are then sent to at least four independent referees outside the author’s institution and at least two of them outside of Poland, who:

have no conflict of interests with the author,
are not in professional relationships with the author,
are competent in a given discipline and have at least a doctorate degree and respective
scientific achievements,
have a good reputation as reviewers.


The review form is available online at the Journal’s Editorial System and contains the following sections:

1. Article number and title in the Editorial System

2. The statement of the Reviewer (to choose the right options):

I declare that I have not guessed the identity of the Author. I declare that I have guessed the identity of the Author, but there is no conflict of interest

3. Detailed evaluation of the manuscript against other researches published to this point:

Do you think that the paper title corresponds with its contents?
Yes No
Do you think that the abstract expresses the paper contents well?
Yes No
Are the results or methods presented in the paper novel?
Yes No
Do the author(s) state clearly what they have achieved?
Yes No
Do you find the terminology employed proper?
Yes No
Do you find the bibliography representative and up-to-date?
Yes No
Do you find all necessary illustrations and tables?
Yes No
Do you think that the paper will be of interest to the journal readers?
Yes No

4. Reviewer conclusion

Accept without changes
Accept after changes suggested by reviewer.
Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review
Reject


5. Information for Editors (not visible for authors).

6. Information for Authors


Reviewing is carried out in the double blind process (authors and reviewers do not know each other’s names).

The appointed reviewers obtain summary of the text and it is his/her decision upon accepting/rejecting the paper for review within a given time period 21 days.

The reviewers are obliged to keep opinions about the paper confidential and to not use knowledge about it before publication.

The reviewers send their review to the Archives of Foundry Engineering by Editorial System. The review is archived in the system.

Editors do not accept reviews, which do not conform to merit and formal rules of scientific reviewing like short positive or negative remarks not supported by a close scrutiny or definitely critical reviews with positive final conclusion. The reviewer’s remarks are sent to the author. He/she has to consider all remarks and revise the text accordingly.

The author of the text has the right to comment on the conclusions in case he/she does not agree with them. He/she can request the article withdrawal at any step of the article processing.

The Editor-in-Chief (supported by members of the Editorial Board) decides on publication based on remarks and conclusions presented by the reviewers, author’s comments and the final version of the manuscript.

The final Editor’s decision can be as follows:
Accept without changes
Reject


The rules for acceptance or rejection of the paper and the review form are available on the Web page of the AFE publisher.

Once a year Editorial Office publishes present list of cooperating reviewers.
Reviewing is free of charge.
All articles, including those rejected and withdrawn, are archived in the Editorial System.

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