Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2023 | vol. 49 | No 4

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The article deals with the possibilities of regenerating operating fluids, assessing the composition of new, used, and regenerated oils by evaluating their toxicity and proposing the environmentally friendly regeneration method. The focus lies on two methods of regeneration of waste operating fluids: distillation and electrostatic cleaning. Oil samples, regenerated through these methods, were analyzed using gas chromatography with mass detection. The variance in composition among new, used, and regenerated oils depends on the method of regeneration. Properties of hydrocarbons exhibiting ecotoxic, mutagenic, teratogenic, carcinogenic, and other effects were identified using safety data sheets and databases like Pubchem, ChemicalBook. Analyzing HLP 46 oil (samples of new, unused, used and regenerated oil) revealed that the most toxic hydrocarbons (acetane, heptacosane, nonacosane) were absent after regeneration through electrostatic cleaning. Comparing the composition of operating fluids before and after regeneration, it was established that the most environmentally favorable regeneration method is electrostatic cleaning, which maintains the original properties of the operating fluids intended for use. Operating fluids regenerated via electrostatic cleaning contain fewer toxic hydrocarbons, making them more favorable concerning human health and the environment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Helena Hybská
Eszter Turčániová
Martin Krempa
Pavel Timár
Ladislav Štibrányi
Tamás Rétfalvi
Martina Mordáčová

  1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University in Zvolen, Slovakia
  2. Hireco Fluid s.r.o., Bytča, Slovakia
  3. Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, Slovakia
  4. Department of Organic Chemistry, Slovak University of Technology, Bratislava, Slovakia
  5. Institute of Environment and Nature Protection, University of Sopron, Sopron, Hungary
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The galvanic sludges contain a number of toxic heavy metals, potentially mobilized as chemically active ions under environmental conditions as. This study explores the application of fly ash-based geopolymers for the removal of Zn ions from galvanizing sludge. In this study, geopolymers, synthesized via the geopolymerization method, were used to remove Zn from post-galvanized sewage sludge. Two types of geopolymers were used, derived from ash from coal combustion and biomass combustion. Structural, morphological, and surface properties were characterized using FTIR and SEM, respectively. In addition, BET and Langmuir isotherms, along with analyses such as t-Plot and BJH method for porous solids were conducted. The results indicate that the geopolymer derived from coal combustion ash is a more effective sorbent for Zn(II) ions, exhibiting a removal efficiency of 99.9%, compared to 40.7% for the geopolymer derived from biomass combustion ash. The FTIR spectra analysis reveals the presence of bonds between the -OH and/or Si-OH groups on the geopolymers’ surface and the Zn(II) ions. The environmentally and economically advantageous process maximizes the recovery of a valuable component at minimal cost, yielding relatively clean monometallic waste suitable for reuse.
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Authors and Affiliations

Elżbieta Sitarz-Palczak

  1. Rzeszow University of Technology, Poland
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When exposed to high cadmium concentrations applied to the soil, the abiotic stress-tolerant, semi-halophytic C3/CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) photosynthetic intermediate plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L. demonstrates negligible poisoning symptoms with well-protected photochemical activity. Gas exchange analysis of the soil-grown plants exposed to Cd concentrations ranging from 0.01 to 10.0 mM revealed stimulation of net photosynthesis in the C 3 metabolic state, and this observation coincided with an increase in the transpiration level. The obtained results suggest that the initial action of Cd after the administration of this heavy metal is the stimulation of stomata opening.
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Authors and Affiliations

Adriana Maria Kaczmarczyk
Michał Nosek
Paweł Kaszycki
Paulina Supel
Zbigniew Miszalski

  1. W. Szafer Institute of Botany, Polish Academy of Sciences, Kraków, Poland
  2. Institute of Biology, University of the National Education Comission Kraków, Poland
  3. Department of Plant Biology and Biotechnology, University of Agriculture in Kraków
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The contamination of the environment by antibiotics has become a serious problem, supported by abundant scientific evidence of its negative impact on both aquatic ecosystems and human health. Therefore, it is crucial to intensify research efforts towards developing effective and efficient processes for removing antibiotics from the aquatic environment. In this study, a bacterial consortium capable of breaking down penicillin was employed in a ceramic separator microbial fuel cell (MFC) to generate electricity. The consortium’s properties such as laccase activity, penicillin removal and microbial structure were studied. The SF11 bacterial consortium, with a laccase activity of 6.16±0.04 U/mL, was found to be effective in breaking down penicillin. The highest rate of penicillin removal (92.15±0.27%) was achieved when the SF11 consortium was incubated at 30 °C for 48 hours. Furthermore, when used as a whole-cell biocatalyst in a low-cost upflow MFC, the Morganella morganii-rich SF11 consortium demonstrated the highest voltage and power density of 964.93±1.86 mV and 0.56±0.00 W/m3, respectively. These results suggest that the SF11 bacterial consortium has the potential for use in ceramic separator MFCs for the removal of penicillin and electricity generation.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pimprapa Chaijak
Alisa Kongthong
Junjira Thipraksa
Panisa Michu

  1. Thaksin University, Thailand
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Indonesia is one of the largest contributors to global marine litter deposition, given its high population and the largest archipelagic country. The increasing problem of plastic littering has recently attracted the attention of researchers. This study aims to identify marine and macroplastic litter in Semarang City. A field survey was conducted by dividing the beach into 18 sampling grids, each with an area of 1 × 1 m2. A literature survey was also conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) methodology to identify literature that can be used to develop recommendations. The results showed that 6.26–11.16 grams/m2/ day of marine litter and approximately 1.61–4.89 items/m2/day of plastic litter would be deposited on Semarang City beaches. The greatest contributors to macroplastic litter were polypropylene (PP) and low-density polyethylene (LDPE), which should be considered for further intervention. Strategic recommendations were developed based on an in-depth literature survey and best practices in the current field. These also include recommendations that can be used as a reference by policymakers and other stakeholders to reduce marine pollution. The results of this study are expected to provide a multiplier effect on reducing marine pollution for the city.
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Authors and Affiliations

Badrus Zaman
Bimastyaji Surya Ramadan
2 3
Anik Sarminingsih
Ika Bagus Priyambada
Mochamad Arief Budihardjo

  1. Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro Jl.Prof. H. Sudarto, SH Tembalang, Semarang, Indonesia
  2. Graduate Programs in Environmental Systems, Graduate School of Environmental Engineering,The University of Kitakyushu, Kitakyushu, Japan
  3. Environmental Sustainability Research Group, Department of Environmental Engineering,Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Diponegoro, Indonesia
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Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activity is a huge environmental problem. Huge amounts of consumed medicinal substances cause them to get into the environment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are one of the most popular drugs in the world. This article presents the biodegradation of ibuprofen and isopropyl ester salts of various amino acids. Twelve ibuprofen isopropyl esters of L-amino acids were used in the research. The obtained derivatives may be a safer and more effective alternative to ibuprofen. Biodegradation tests were carried out using activated sludge. Sewage sludge was obtained from the local sewage treatment plant in Szczecin "Pomorzany". Ibuprofen derivatives, ibuprofenates of isopropyl amino acid esters, were used for the tests. It was checked how the type of structural modification of ibuprofen affects the biodegradation of the drug used. In this publication, it was verified how the type of amino acid affects biodegradation. Our evaluation of the biodegradation of ibuprofen derivatives by bacterial cultures revealed that six compounds are attractive carbon and energy sources for the active material utilized. These compounds were readily biodegradable within 28 days. There were no straightforward relationships between the structure, properties, and biodegradability of the obtained derivativesWater pollution caused by anthropogenic activity is a huge environmental problem. Huge amounts of consumed medicinal substances cause them to get into the environment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, including ibuprofen, are one of the most popular drugs in the world. This article presents the biodegradation of ibuprofen and isopropyl ester salts of various amino acids. Twelve ibuprofen isopropyl esters of L-amino acids were used in the research. The obtained derivatives may be a safer and more effective alternative to ibuprofen. Biodegradation tests were carried out using activated sludge. Sewage sludge was obtained from the local sewage treatment plant in Szczecin "Pomorzany". Ibuprofen derivatives, ibuprofenates of isopropyl amino acid esters, were used for the tests. It was checked how the type of structural modification of ibuprofen affects the biodegradation of the drug used. In this publication, it was verified how the type of amino acid affects biodegradation. Our evaluation of the biodegradation of ibuprofen derivatives by bacterial cultures revealed that six compounds are attractive carbon and energy sources for the active material utilized. These compounds were readily biodegradable within 28 days. There were no straightforward relationships between the structure, properties, and biodegradability of the obtained derivatives
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Authors and Affiliations

Paula Elżbieta Ossowicz-Rupniewska
Edyta Kucharska
Joanna Klebeko
Ewelina Kopciuch
Karolina Bilska
Ewa Janus

  1. Department of Chemical Organic Technology and Polymeric Materials, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, Poland
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Groundwater resources are typically affected by both global climate factors and anthropogenic activities. This influence is most apparent in arid and semi-arid climates of the Saharan desert. With rising temperatures and minimal precipitation, climate variability in these regions has a particularly significant and systemic impact on the chemical composition of shallow aquifer water. In this regard, our study aims to evaluate the climatic effects on groundwater in Saharan environments, using the Ouargla basin as a prime example. Water samples taken from 45 observation piezometers in our selected study area in February and June 2021 were used to assess the overall impact of inter-annual climate variations on salinity within this shallow groundwater basin. The obtained results show that groundwater located in the first three meters of shallow aquifer depth is directly influenced by surface climate. This pattern holds true for both observed seasonal periods. Stratification indices within the saturated zone were found to be positive, indicating an increase in groundwater salinity at lower depths and negative in shallower depths. This suggests a direct climate influence on this groundwater. These findings can be used to enhance sustainable development strategies in such environments, notably by quantifying salt accumulation and efficiently managing salinity exchange between saturated and vadose horizons.
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Authors and Affiliations

Medjani Fethi
Zahi Faouzi
Djidel Mohamed
Labar Sofiane
Hamilton Cynthia Mei-Ling

  1. Laboratory of Geology of the Sahara, University Kasdi Merbah Ouargla, Algeria
  2. Laboratory of Geological Engineering, University of Jijel, Algeria
  3. Department of Geography and Territorial Planning, Houari Boumediene University of Science and Technology, Algeria
  4. Environmental Geochemist & Educator., Bakersfield, CA United States
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The aim of the work is to develop a method of landscape dynamics under anthropogenic impact. The developed methodology is tested on the territory of Kostanay region, which is one of the main regions of mining industry development, with a focus on iron ore mining and crop production. Space images and field survey results are used as input materials. In general, the work consists of the following six stages: the first stage includes the selection and processing of space images, the second stage includes the calculation of indices based on data from different channels of space images, the third stage includes field work aimed at collecting information for verification of the obtained results on the basis of RS data, the fourth stage includes the calculation of range values, the fifth stage comprises verification of the obtained indices, and the final sixth stage deals with calculation of the integral index of landscape degradation degree and analysis of landscape dynamics under anthropogenic impacts. The calculation of the integral indicator of the degree of degradation of the natural environment of the Kostanay region, based on the degradation of each indicator in the conditions of anthropogenic impact, allowed for identification of landscapes with different degrees of degradation (from weak to very strong). The research confirmed that landscapes with a high degree of degradation under anthropogenic impact are confined to semi-desert landscapes in the south of the study region. The degradation of these landscapes is associated not only with anthropogenic impacts but also with natural and climatic features that influence the development of landscape pollution processes. On the contrary, landscapes with a weak degree of degradation correspond to the forest-steppe and steppe zones, characterized by a high level of economic development and resistance to anthropogenic impacts. The verification of the obtained indicators by the values of the remaining 25% of field points determines the reliability of the obtained results, ranging from 87% to 92%, confirming the correct choice of methods and techniques for obtaining the results, especially the choice of field methods and vegetation and non-vegetation indices for assessing the selected indicators. Subsequently, based on the verified map of degradation of the natural environment, created through space monitoring for a certain period, it is possible to forecast the functioning of the natural environment in the conditions of anthropogenic impact.
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Authors and Affiliations

Zhanar Ozgeldinova
Zhandos Mukayev
Altyn Zhanguzhina
Assel Bektemirova
Meruyert Ulykpanova

  1. L.N.Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Kazakhstan
  2. Shakarim University of Semey, Kazakhstan
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The paper presents an assessment of the mycological air quality in classrooms of school buildings located in Lesser Poland. In 10 schools, 5 sampling points were designated: 4 indoors and 1 as an "outdoor background". A 6-stage Andersen impactor was used to collect fungal aerosol samples. During sampling, dust measurements were made (using the DustTrak II dust meter) as well as temperature and relative humidity. The predominant genera of fungi were determined by the MALDI-TOF MS method. The results indicated no statistically significant differences in indoor air fungal concentrations among the tested locations (p>0.05). The highest concentrations were observed in large classrooms (max. 2,678 CFU∙m-3), however, these differences were not statistically significant across different types of school rooms (Kruskal-Wallis test: p>0.05). All rooms exhibited similar levels of fungal aerosol contamination. Relative air humidity had a significant influence on the number of microorganisms. The most frequently isolated fungi belonged to Cladosporium, Penicillium, and Aspergillus genera. Fungal aerosol concentrations in the tested classrooms did not exceed proposed limit values for this type of indoor environment. The results suggest that natural ventilation in classrooms is insufficient to ensure adequate microbiological quality of indoor air.
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[22]. Jiayu, C., Qiaoqiao, R., Feilong, C., Chen, L., Jiguo, W., Zhendong, W., Lingyun, C., Liu, R. & Guoxia, Z. (2019). Microbiology Community Structure in Bioaerosols and the Respiratory Diseases. J. Environ. Sci. Public Health, 3, pp. 347-357. DOI:10.26502/jesph.96120068 23. Jo, W.K. & Seo, Y.J. (2005). Indoor and outdoor bioaerosol levels at recreation facilities, elementary schools, and homes. Chemosphere, 61(11), pp. 1570–1579. DOI:10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.103
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[27]. Lang-Yona, N., Shuster-Meiseles, T., Mazar, Y., Yarden, O. & Rudich, Y. (2016). Impact of urban air pollution on the allergenicity of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia: outdoor exposure study supported by laboratory experiments. Sci. Total Environ., 541, pp. 365-371. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.09.058
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[30]. Mainka, A., Zajusz-Zubek, E., Kozielska, B. & Brągoszewska, E. (2015). Study of air pollution affecting children in a municipal kindergarten located on a road with heavy traffic. Engineering and Environmental Protection (Inżynieria i Ochrona Środowiska), 18(1), pp. 119-133. (in Polish)
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Frączek
Karol Bulski
Maria Chmiel

  1. Department of Microbiology and Biomonitoring, Faculty of Agriculture and Economics,Hugo Kołłątaj University of Agriculture, Krakow, Poland

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection
Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
– Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
– Wastewater treatment and utilization;
– Waste management;
– Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
– Soil protection and remediation;
– Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
– Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
– Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

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Preparation of the manuscript
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• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
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For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

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Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Studies, Zabrze 2019.

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Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and
initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
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For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

6. Materials published in language other than English:
Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
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Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

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By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited.

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Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

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Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice

Peer-review Procedure

The reviewing procedure for papers published in Archives of Environmental Protection

1) After accepting the paper as matching to the scope of the Journal Editor-in-Chief with Section Editors choose two independent Reviewers (authorities in the domain/discipline). The chosen Reviewers (from professors and senior academic staff members) have to guarantee:

  • autonomous opinion,
  • the lack of interests conflict – especially the lack of personal and business relations with the Authors of the paper,
  • the preservation of confidentiality about the paper content and the Reviewer opinion about the paper.

2) After the Reviewers selection, Assistant Editor send them (via e-mail) requests to review the paper. Reviewers receive the full text of the paper (without Author personal data) qualified for the reviewing process and referee form, sometimes supplemented with the additional questions connected with the article. In the e-mail Assistant Editor also determine the extent of the review and the deadline (usually a month).

3) The personal data of Reviewers are not open (double-blind review). It can be declassify only on Author’s special request and after the Reviewer agreement. It sometimes happen when the review outcome is: manuscript rejection or when the paper contain controversial issues.

4) The reviewer send the review to the Editorial Office via e-mail. After receiving the review the Assistant Editor:

  • inform Authors about it (in the case of the review without corrections or when there are only small, editorial changes needed),
  • send the reviews to Authors. Authors have to correct the paper according to Reviewers comment and prepare the reply to Reviewers,
  • send the paper corrected by Authors to Reviewers again – when Reviewer wanted to review it again.

5) The final decision about manuscript is made by the Editorial Board on the basis of the analysis of remarks contained in the review and the final version of the paper send by Authors. 6) The final version of the paper, after typesetting and text makeup is being sent to Authors, who make an author’s corrections. Afterwards the paper is ready to be printed in the specific issue.


All Reviewers in 2022

Alonso Rosa (University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain), Alwaeli Mohamed (Silesian University of Technology), Arora Amarpreet (Sherpa Space Inc., Republic of Korea), Babu A.( Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea), Barbieri Maurizio (Sapienza University of Rome), Bień Jurand (Wydział Infrastruktury i Środowiska, Politechnika Częstochowska), Bogacki Jan (Wydział Instalacji Budowlanych, Hydrotechniki i Inżynierii Środowiska, Politechnika Warszawska), Bogumiła Pawluśkiewicz (Katedra Kształtowania Środowiska, SGGW), Boutammine Hichem (Laboratory of Industrial Process Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Process Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria), Burszta-Adamiak Ewa (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu), Cassidy Daniel (Western Michigan University, United States), Chowaniec Józef (Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute), Czerniawski Robert (Instytut Biologii, Uniwersytet Szczeciński), da Silva Elaine (Fluminense Federal University, UFF, Brazil), Dąbek Lidia (Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska, Geodezji i Energetyki Odnawialnej, Politechnika Świętokrzyska), Dannowski Ralf (Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung: Müncheberg, Brandenburg, DE), Delgado-González Cristián Raziel (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Tulancingo , Mexico), Dewil Raf (KU Leuven, Belgium), Djemli Samir (University Badji Mokhtar Annaba, Algeria), Du Rui (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China), Egorin AM (Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Russia), Fadillah‬ ‪Ganjar‬‬ (Universitas Islam Indonesia, Indonesia), Gangadharan Praveena (Indian Institute of Technology Palakkad, India), Garg Manoj (Amity University, Noida, India), Gębicki Jacek (Politechnika Gdańska, Poland), Generowicz Agnieszka (Politechnika Krakowska, Poland), Gnida Anna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Golovatyi Sergey (Belarusian State University, Belarus), Grabda Mariusz (General Tadeusz Kosciuszko Military Academy of Land Forces, Poland), Guo Xuetao (Northwest A&F University, China), Gusiatin Mariusz (Uniwersytet Warminsko-Mazurski, Polska), Han Lujia (Instytut Badań Systemowych PAN, Polska), Holnicki Piotr (Systems Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland), Houali Karim (University Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi-Ouzou , Algeria), Iwanek Małgorzata (Lublin University of Technology, Poland), Janczukowicz Wojciech (University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland), Jan-Roblero J. (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n. Col. Sto. Tomás, Mexico), Jarosz-Krzemińska Elżbieta (AGH, Wydział Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska, Katedra Ochrony Środowiska), Jaspal Dipika (Symbiosis Institute of Technology (SIT), Symbiosis International (Deemed University), (SIU), Jorge Dominguez (Universidade de Vigo, Spain), Kabała Cezary (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland), Kalka Joanna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Karaouzas Ioannis (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece), Khadim Hussein (University of Baghdad, Iraq), Khan Moonis Ali (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia), Kojić Ivan (University of Belgrade, Serbia), Kongolo Kitala Pierre (University of Lubumbashi, Congo), Kozłowski Kamil (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Poland), Kucharski Mariusz (IUNG Puławy, Poland), Lu Fan (Tongji University, China), Łukaszewski Zenon (Politechnika Poznańska; Wydział Technologii Chemicznej), Majumdar Pradeep (Addis Ababa Sciennce and Technology University, Ethiopia), Mannheim Viktoria (University of Miskolc, Hungary), Markowska-Szczupak Agata (Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie; Wydział Technologii i Inżynierii Chemicznej), Mehmood Andleeb (Shenzhen University, China), Mol Marcos (Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Brazil), Mrowiec Bożena (Akademia Techniczno-Humanistyczna w Bielsku-Białej, Poland), Nałęcz-Jawecki Grzegorz (Zakład Toksykologii i Bromatologii, Wydział Farmaceutyczny, WUM), Ochowiak Marek (Politechnika Poznańska, Poland), Ogbaga Chukwuma (Nile University of Nigeria, Nigeria), Oleniacz Robert (AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland), Pan Ligong (Northeast Forestry University, China) Paruch Adam (Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway), Pietras Dariusz (ATH Bielsko-Biała, Poland), Piotrowska-Seget Zofia (Uniwersytet Ślaski, Polska), Płaza Grażyna (IETU Katowice, Poland), Pohl Alina (IPIS PAN Zabrze, Poland), Poikane Sandra (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy), Poluszyńska Joanna (Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Poland), Dudzińska Marzenna (Katedra Jakości Powietrza Wewnętrznego i Zewnętrznego, Politechnika Lubelska), Rawtani Deepak (National Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar, India) Rehman Khalil (GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan), Rogowska Weronika (Bialystok University of Technology, Poland), Rzeszutek Mateusz (AGH, Wydział Geodezji Górniczej i Inżynierii Środowiska, Katedra Kształtowania i Ochrony Środowiska), Saenboonruang Kiadtisak (Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok), Sebakhy Khaled (University of Groningen, Netherlands), Sengupta D.K. (Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar. India), Shao Jing (Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chile), Sočo Eleonora (Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland), Sojka Mariusz (Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland), Sonesten Lars (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden), Song Wencheng (Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Chinese), Song ZhongXian (Henan University of Urban Construction, China), Spiak Zofia (Uniwersyet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu, Poland), Srivastav Arun (Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh, India), Steliga Teresa (Instytut Nafty i Gazu -Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Poland), Surmacz-Górska Joanna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Świątkowski Andrzej (Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna, Poland), Symanowicz Barbara (Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland), Szklarek Sebastian (European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology, Polish Academy of Sciences), Tabina Amtul (GC University,Lahore, Pakistan), Tang Lin (Hunan University, China), Torrent Sergi (Innovación, Aigües de Manresa, S.A, Manresa, Spain, Spain), Trafiałek Joanna (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland), Vijay U. (Department of Microb, Jaipur, India, India), Vojtkova Hana (University of Ostrava, Czech Republic), Wang Qi (City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong), Wielgosiński Grzegorz (Wydziału Inżynierii Procesowej i Ochrony Środowiska, Politechnika Łódzka), Wilk Pawel (IMGW-PIB, Poland), Wiśniewska Marta (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Yin Xianqiang (Northwest A&F University, Yangling China), Zając Grzegorz (University Of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland), Zalewski Maciej (European Regional Centre for Ecohydrologyunder the auspices of UNESCO, Poland), Zegait Rachid (Ziane Achour University of Djelfa), Zerafat Mohammad (Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran), Zgórska Aleksandra (Central Mining Institute, Poland), Zhang Chunhui (China University of Mining & Technology, China), Zhang Wenbo (Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou China), Zhu Guocheng (Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China), Zwierzchowski Ryszard (Zakład Systemów Ciepłowniczych i Gazowniczych, Politechnika Warszawska)

All Reviewers in 2021

Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Aksoy Özlem, Alwaeli Mohamed, Aneta Luczkiewicz, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Babbar Deepakshi, Badura Marek, Bajda Tomasz, Biedka Paweł, Błaszczak Barbara, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cheng Gan, Chojecka Agnieszka, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Chwojnowski Andrzej, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Cimochowicz-Rybicka Małgorzata, Curren Emily, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska Agnieszka, Czajka Agnieszka, Danielewicz Jan, Dannowski Ralf, Daoud Mounir, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Demirbaş Ahmet, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Franus Wojciech, G. Uchrin Christopher, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gębicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Gierszewski Piotr, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Godłowska Jolanta, Gokalp Fulya, Gospodarek Janina, Górecki Tadeusz, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Grifoni M., Gromiec Marek, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Hartmann Peter, He Jianzhong, He Yong, Heese Tomasz, Hybská Helena, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Janowski Mirosław, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Juśkiewicz Włodzimierz, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Kapusta Paweł, Karczewska Anna, Karczmarczyk Agnieszka, Kicińska Alicja, Kiciński Jan, Kijowska-Strugała Małgorzata, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Kłosok-Bazan Iwona, Kolada Agnieszka, Konieczny Krystyna, Kostecki Maciej, Kowalczewska-Madura Katarzyna, Kowalczuk Marek, Kozielska Barbara, Kozłowski Kamil, Krzemień Alicja, Kulig Andrzej, Kwaśny Justyna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Leites Luchese Claudia, Leszczyńska-Sejda Katarzyna, Li Mingyang, Liu Chao, Mahmood Khalid, Majewska-Nowak Katarzyna, Makisha Nikolay, Malina Grzegorz, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mocek Andrzej, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molenda Tadeusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Myrta Anna, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Nzila Alexis, OIkuski Tadeusz, Oleniacz Robert, Pacyna Jozef, Pająk Tadeusz, Pal Subodh Chandra, Panagopoulos Argyris, Paruch Adam, Paszkowski Waldemar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paz-Ferreiro Jorge, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Piątkiewicz Wojciech, Piechowicz Janusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Piwowar Arkadiusz, Pleban Dariusz, Policht-Latawiec Agnieszka, Polkowska Żaneta, Poluszyńska Joanna, Rajca Mariola, Reizer Magdalena, Riesgo Fernández Pedro, Rith Monorom, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzepa Grzegorz, Rzeźnik Wojciech, Rzętała Mariusz, Sabovljevic Marko, Scudiero Rosaria, Sekret Robert, Sheng Yanqing, Sławomir Stelmach, Słowik Leszek, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sophonrat Nanta, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stachowski Piotr, Stańczyk-Mazanek Ewa, Stebel Adam, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szopińska Kinga, Szymański Kazimierz, Ślipko Katarzyna, Tepe Yalçin, Tórz Agnieszka, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Urošević Mira, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Vakili Mohammadtaghi, Van Harreveld A.P., Voutchkova Denitza, Wang Gang, Wang X.K., Werbińska-Wojciechowska Sylwia, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Wiśniowska Ewa, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojnowska-Baryła Irena, Wolska Małgorzata, Wszołek Tadeusz, Wu Yonghua, Yusuf Mohammad, Zuberi Amina, Zuwała Jarosław, Zwoździak Jerzy.

All Reviewers in 2020

Adamiec Ewa, Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Ahammed M. Mansoor, Akcicek Ekrem, Ameur Houari, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Badura Marek, Barabasz Wiesław, Barthakur Manoj, Battegazzore Daniele, Biedka Paweł, Bilek Maciej, Bisschop Lieselot, Błaszczak Barbara, Błażejewski Ryszard, Bochoidze Inga, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Borella Paola, Borowiak Klaudia, Borralho Teresa, Boyacioglu Hülya, Bunjongsiri Kultida, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Calderon Raul, Chatveera Burachat Chatveera, Cheng Gan, Chiwa Masaaki, Chojnicki Józef, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Czajka Agnieszka, Czaplicka Marianna, Daoud Mounir, Dąbek Lidia, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Dereszewska Alina, Dębowski Marcin, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Dymaczewski Zbysław, El-Maradny Amr, Farfan-Cabrera Leonardo, Filizok Işık, Franus Wojciech, García-Ávila Fernando, Gariglio N.F., Gaya M.S, Gebicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Gnida Anna, Gospodarek Janina, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Harnisz Monika, Hartmann Peter, Hawrot-Paw Małgorzata, He Jianzhong, Hirabayashi Satoshi, Hulisz Piotr, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Jacukowicz-Sobala Irena, Jeż-Walkowiak Joanna, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kajda-Szcześniak Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Karczewska Anna, Karwowska Ewa, Kim Ki-Hyun, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata, Korniłłowicz-Kowalska Teresa, Korus Irena, Kostecki Maciej, Koszelnik Piotr, Koter Stanisław, Kowalska Beata, Kowalski Zygmunt, Kozielska Barbara, Krzyżyńska Renata, Kulig Andrzej, Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Lagzdins Ainis, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Ligęza Sławomir, Liu Xingpo, Loga Małgorzata, Łebkowska Maria, Macherzyński Mariusz, Makisha Nikolay, Makowska Małgorzata, Masłoń Adam, Mazur Zbigniew, Michel Monika, Miechówka Anna, Miksch Korneliusz, Mnuchin Nathan, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Muntean Edward, Myrta Anna, Nahorski Zbigniew, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Naumczyk Jeremi, Nawalany Marek, Noubactep C., Nowakowski Piotr, Obarska-Pempkowiak Hanna, Orge C.A., Paul Lothar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Peña A., Pietr Stanisław, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Płaza Grażyna, Polkowska Żaneta, Reizer Magdalena, Renman Gunno, Rith Monorom, Romanovski Valentin, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzętała Mariusz, Sadeghi Mahdi, Sakakibara Yutaka, Scudiero Rosaria, Semaan Mary, Seredyński Franciszek, Sergienko Ruslan, Shen Yujun, Sheng Yanqing, Sidełko Robert, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stegenta-Dąbrowska Sylwia, Steliga Teresa, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Suryadevara Nagaraja, Suska-Malawska Małgorzata, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szpyrka Ewa, Szulczyński Bartosz, Szwast Maciej, Szyszlak-Bargłowicz Joanna, Ślipko Katarzyna, Świetlik Ryszard, Tabernacka Agnieszka, Tepe Yalçin, Tobiszewski Marek, Treichel Wiktor, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Van Harreveld A.P., Wang X. K., Wasielewski Ryszard, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Witczak Joanna, Witkiewicz Zygfryd, Włodarczyk Małgorzata, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojtkowska Małgorzata, Xinhui Duan, Yang Chunping, Yaqian Zhao Yaqian, Załęska-Radziwiłł Monika, Zamorska Justyna, Zasina Damian, Zawadzki Jarosław, Zdeb Monika M., Zheng Guodi, Zhu Ivan X., Ziułkiewicz Maciej, Zuberi Amina, Zwoździak Jerzy, Żabczyński Sebastian, Żukowski Witold, Żygadło Maria.

Plagiarism Policy

Anti-plagiarism policy

In accordance with AEP requirements, the authors of all articles submitted to the Editorial Office declare that the paper is an original work. Articles that have been approved by the Editorial Board for further processing are checked for originality using the program and iThenticate. As plagiarism, the Editorial Board (according to the definition of plagiarism/anti-plagiarism) recognizes:

• claiming someone else's work or parts of it as your own;
• copying someone else's or your own (self-plagiarism) fragments of articles without reference to the publication (title of the work, names of authors) from which it was taken
• inserting fragments of other works into the article, changing only the order of the sentence or introducing only minor changes to it
• an article in which the copied fragments, despite citing their sources, constitute a significant/major part of the article.

In case of plagiarism/self-plagiarism, further work on this article is stopped and it is removed from the Editorial System. The authors of the article (via the corresponding author) submitted to the Editorial Office of the AEP are informed about the reasons for removing the article.

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