Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2023 | vol. 49 | No 1

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Many countries, including Indonesia, face severe water scarcity and groundwater depletion. Monitoring and evaluation of water resources need to be done. In addition, it is also necessary to improve the method of calculating water, which was initially based on a biophysical approach, replaced by a socio-ecological approach. Water yields were estimated using the Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Trade-offs (InVEST) model. The Ordinary Least Square (OLS) and geographic weighted regression (GWR) methods were used to identify and analyze socio-ecological variables for changes in water yields. The purpose of this study was: (1) to analyze the spatial and temporal changes in water yield from 2000 to 2018 in the Citarum River Basin Unit (Citarum RBU) using the InVEST model, and (2) to identify socio-ecological variables as driving factors for changes in water yields using the OLS and GWR methods. The findings revealed the overall annual water yield decreased from 16.64 billion m3 year-1 in the year 2000 to 12.16 billion m3 year-1 in 2018; it was about 4.48 billion m3 (26.91%). The socio-ecological variables in water yields in the Citarum RBU show that climate and socio-economic characteristics contributed 6% and 44%, respectively. Land use/Land cover (LU/LC) and land configuration contribution fell by 20% and 40%, respectively.The main factors underlying the recent changes in water yields include average rainfall, pure dry agriculture, and bare land at 28.53%, 27.73%, and 15.08% for the biophysical model, while 30.28%, 23.77%, and 10.24% for the socio-ecological model, respectively. However, the social-ecological model demonstrated an increase in the contribution rate of climate and socio-economic factors and vice versa for the land use and landscape contribution rate. This circumstance demonstrates that the socio-ecological model is more comprehensive than the biophysical one for evaluating water scarcity.
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Authors and Affiliations

Irmadi Nahib
Wiwin Ambarwulan
Dewayany Sutrisno
Mulyanto Darmawan
Yatin Suwarno
Ati Rahadiati
Jaka Suryanta
Yosef Prihanto
Aninda W. Rudiastuti
Yustisi Lumban Gaol

  1. Research Center for Geospatial, Research Organization for Earth Sciences and Maritime,National Research and Innovation Agency, Cibinong Science Center,Jl. Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km 46, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia
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Ecotoxicological biotests were applied in order to evaluate their suitability as early warning systems in the continuous monitoring of lowland shallow dam reservoirs located in Central Europe. The following biotests were used: Daphtoxkit F™magna, Algaltoxkit F™, Ostracodtoxkit F, Phytotoxkit and MARA Test. The experiment was conducted from July 2010 to December 2012 in Goczalkowice Reservoir (the Vistula River, Poland), serving as a model. For the analysis, 41 out of 52 measured water indices were used to assess its toxicity to living organisms. The results of biotests were correlated with 41 hydrochemical indices of water quality. The pattern of relationships among the result of biotest and hydrochemical indices as well as Factor Analysis (FA) and Primary Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that: i) signs of ecotoxicity detected with biotests were associated with either low fl ow periods or spring surface runoff of water; ii) single events of increased ecotoxicity in the depression areas behind saddle dam pump stations appearedafter high fl ow periods; iii) elevated toxicity was accompanied by high concentrations of dissolved and suspended substances; iv) FA and PCA demonstrated correlations among the results of biotests and damming parameters, water conductivity, alkali and transitory metal metals (Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn), and several forms of nitrogen phosphorous and carbon compounds concentration. The relationships suggest that batteries of biotests may serve as a cost-eff ective tool for continuous monitoring of water quality in dam reservoirs and can detect eff ects of extreme hydrologic events, local toxic discharges, and signs of the trophic status of the reservoirs
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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Łaszczyca
Mirosław Nakonieczny
Maciej Kostecki

  1. Retired university professor, University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
  2. University of Silesia in Katowice, Poland
  3. Institute of Environmental Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland
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Owing to its high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, the slurry from water hyacinth (Pontederia crassipes) biogas production cannot be discharged directly without further treatment. To achieve the target of water recycling, a new strategy of combining a Carrousel oxidation ditch with a water spinach wetland was developed in this study for the harmless treatment of Pontederia crassipes biogas slurry. First, the water quality characteristics of the biogas slurry were measured. Then, comprehensive tests of the combined slurry treatment system were carried out to verify pollutant removal performance and mechanism. The results showed that the Carrousel oxidation ditch reduced the inlet pollutant load of the subsequent water spinach wetland. The chemical oxygen demand (COD), and ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) contents of the average effluent from the combined system were less than 50 mg/L, 1.6 mg/L, 6 mg/L, and 0.5 mg/L, respectively, which means that all met urban sewage treatment standard of Level 1 Grade A (GB18918-2002). Gas chromatography – mass spectrometry analysis showed that the combined system had decreased various types of organic pollutants in the biogas slurry exponentially, efficiently removing alkane pollutants, aromatic hydrocarbons, and heterocyclic compounds. Scanning electron microscopy images revealed very large surface area of the water spinach roots in the wetland, which played important roles in enriching the microorganisms and trapping organic matter. Plant absorption, microbial degradation, and filtration were the primary ways in which the water spinach wetland purified the biogas slurry.
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Authors and Affiliations

Yaqin Yu
Xueyou Fang
Lanying Li
Yumeng Xu

  1. Yancheng Institute of Technology, China
  2. Xi'an University of Architecture and Technology, China
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The aim of the study was to assess the possibility of using natural carbonaceous materials such aspeat, lignite, and hard coal as low-cost sorbents for the removal of Direct Orange 26 azo dye from an aqueous solution. The adsorption kinetics and the influence of experimental conditions were investigated. The following materials were used in the research: azo dye Direct Orange 26, Spill-Sorb “Fison” peat (Alberta, Canada), lignite (Bełchatów, Poland), and hard coal (“Zofiówka” mine, Poland). The morphology and porous structure of the absorbents were tested. Dye sorption was carried out under static conditions, with different doses of sorbents, pH of the solution, and ionic strength. It was observed that the adsorption of Direct Orange 26 dye on all three adsorbents was strongly dependent on the pH of the solution, while the ionic strength of the solution did not affect the adsorption efficiency. The adsorption kinetics were consistent with the pseudo-second-order reaction model. The stage which determines the rate of adsorption is the diffusion of the dye in the near-surface layer. The process of equilibrium adsorption of Direct Orange 26 dye on all tested adsorbents is best described by the Langmuir isotherm. The maximum adsorption capacity for peat, brown coal and hard coal was 17.7, 15.1 and 13.8 mg/g, respectively. The results indicate that peat, lignite, and hard coal can be considered as alternative adsorbents for removing azo dyes from aqueous solutions.
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Authors and Affiliations

Krzysztof Kuśmierek
Lidia Dąbek
Andrzej Świątkowski

  1. Institute of Chemistry, Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland
  2. Faculty of Environmental Engineering, Geomatics and Renewable Energy,Kielce University of Technology, Poland
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The constructed wetland integrated with microbial fuel cell (CW-MFC) has gained attention in wastewater treatment and electricity generation owing to its electricity generation and xenobiotic removal efficiencies. This study aims to use the CW-MFC with different macrophytes for domestic wastewater treatment and simultaneously electricity generation without chemical addition. The various macrophytes such as Crinum asiaticum, Canna indica, Hanguana malayana, Philodendron erubescens, and Dieffenbachia seguine were used as a cathodic biocatalyst. The electrochemical properties such as half-cell potential and power density were determined. For wastewater treatment, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and other chemical compositions were measured. The results of electrochemical properties showed that the maximal half-cell potential was achieved from the macrophyte D. seguine. While the maximal power output of 5.42±0.17 mW/m2 (7.75±0.24 mW/m3) was gained from the CW-MFC with D. seguine cathode. Moreover, this CW-MFC was able to remove COD, ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate of 94.00±0.05%, 64.31±0.20%, 50.02±0.10%, 48.00±0.30%, and 42.05±0.10% respectively. This study gained new knowledge about using CW-MFC planted with the macrophyte D. seguine for domestic wastewater treatment and generation of electrical power as a by-product without xenobiotic discharge.
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Authors and Affiliations

Pimprapa Chaijak
Phachirarat Sola

  1. Thaksin University, Thailand
  2. Thailand Institute of Nuclear Technology (Public Organization) (TINT), Thailand
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Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to detect and analyze phenolic compounds in the surface waters of four urban lakes in Xi’an – Hancheng Lake, Xingqing Lake, Nanhu Lake, and Taohuatan Lake. A total of 5 phenolic compounds were detected from the water samples, with a concentration range of ND-100.32 ng/L, of which bisphenol A (BPA) and nonyl phenol (NP) were the main types of phenolic compounds pollution in the four lakes. Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the concentration of phenolic compounds in the lake waters of Xi’an City and the water quality indicators COD, TP, NH3-N, DO, and pH during the same period. It was found that there was a significant positive relationship between the concentration of BPA and COD, the concentration of estradiol (17-beta-E2), estrone (E1) and TP and TN, the concentration of octylphenol (4-t-OP) and pH. The ecological risk assessment (ERA) shows that the concentration of BPA, 4-t-OP and NP in the lakes is at a medium risk level( is between 0.1–1), and that of E1 is at a high risk level (is greater than 1). Female cells (breast cancer cells) and male germ cells (testis cells) of mice were used as research objects to explore BPA and NP Toxic effect on mouse germ cells. BPA and NP at a concentration of 10-8 mol/L were found to have the most value-inducing effect on MCF-7 breast cancer cells positive for estrogen receptor. Obviously, both BPA and NP can induce the proliferation of testicular Sertoli cells
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Authors and Affiliations

Min Wang
Yutong Zhang
Jingxin Sun
Chen Huang
Hongqin Zhai

  1. Xi’an University of Technology, China
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As a rule, nitrates are present in all natural water bodies. Their increased concentrations are connected with the discharge of insufficiently treated wastewater from industrial and communal enterprises, agricultural and livestock complexes. Recent scientific publications concerning treatment methods for nitrates removal from natural water and wastewater were analyzed in order to create effective and low-waste technology for obtaining high quality water. It has been established that the ion exchange method is quite effective for removing nitrates from water. In the paper, the processes of ion exchange removal of nitrates from water on low-axis anionite in DOWEX Marathon WBA in Сl- form were investigated. During the sorption of nitrates with a concentration of 186, 205, 223 and 2200 mg/dm3, it was established that the full exchangeable dynamic capacity was 1.075, 1.103, and 1.195, 1.698 g-eq/dm3, respectively. To regenerate anionite, solutions of ammonia as well as potassium chloride, ammonium chloride and potassium carbonate were used in this work. The choice of potassium and ammonium compounds is due to the prospect of further use of regeneration solutions for the production of liquid fertilizers.
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Authors and Affiliations

Inna Trus
Mukola Gomelya
Vita Halysh
Mariia Tverdokhlib
Iryna Makarenko
Tetiana Pylypenko
Yevhen Chuprinov
Daniel Benatov
Hennadii Zaitsev

  1. National Technical University of Ukraine «Igor Sikorsky Kyiv Polytechnic Institute», Kyiv, Ukraine
  2. State University of Economics and Technology: Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine
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The uncertainty in the supply of crude oil, increasing the number of vehicles and rising air pollution, especially in urban areas, has prompted us to look for alternative fuels. It is understood that using Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) in IC engines could be a mid-term solution to these problems. It is well established that CNG has better combustion characteristics and low emissions compared to conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. In the present study, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the engine performance and exhaust emissions using various percentages of CNG in dual fuel mode. CNG was mixed in the intake manifold’s air stream, and diesel was injected after the compression of the CNG air mixture. This paper presents experimental results of 40%,60%, and 80% CNG in the air stream. Engine performance and emissions are presented and discussed at a speed of 1200 rpm to 1500 rpm in steps of 50 rpm. The results of the experiments showed that adding CNG to diesel engines in dual-fuel combustion significantly impacted performance and emissions. Compared to single diesel fuel combustion, dual fuel combustion increases brake thermal efficiency (BTE) and brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) at all CNG energy shares and engine speeds. Carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were increased, while nitrogen oxide (NOX) and smoke opacity were decreased in dual fuel combustion compared to single diesel fuel.
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Authors and Affiliations

Neeraj Kumar
Bharat Bhushan Arora
Sagar Maji

  1. Delhi Technological University, Delhi, India
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Many paper-related products are in daily use all over the world. Although paper is one of the most recycled materials in the European Union, no end-of-waste criteria have been defi ned. Typical paper and cardboard should be recycled, but paper materials with impurities, such as cooking oil, sand, or plastic, are much more problematic. In particular, paper contaminated with cooking oil or butter (e.g., pizza boxes) is diffi cult waste. Also baking parchment paper cannot be stored as waste paper after use. Composting could be a solution, but in many municipal solid waste collection systems, this waste types are collected with the mixed waste stream, what fi nally leads this material to landfi lling or incinerating processes. Parchment paper and pizza box cardboard contain a lot of cellulose and in landfi lls are a source of CO2 and CH4. Incineration of these materials also leads to CO2 emission. The aim of this study was to investigate the degradation of cooking-oil-contaminated paper in media with a low inorganic nitrogen content. Cardboard usually used for packaging purposes was used as pre-test material. Two types of paper usually used in the kitchen were used: pizza box cardboard and parchment paper highly contaminated with cooking oil. Two types of low inorganic nitrogen media were tested: mature municipal waste compost (MSWC) and leaf mold (LM). The decrease of mass of both paper sample types was correlated with process time. Both tested sample types: dry cellulose materials and paper with cooking oil added, were partly or completely decomposed after 6 weeks of bioprocessing in aerobic conditions without an additional dose of inorganic nitrogen. According to waste separation rules, wet paper or paper contaminated with cooking oil have to be stored with other wastes which are „not possible for further use”. This work show possibility to change these rules.
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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Ciesielczuk
Czesława Rosik-Dulewska

  1. Opole University, Poland
  2. Institute of Environmental Engineering, Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland
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There are currently large quantities of heterogeneous contaminated sites and the in-situ thermal conductive heating (TCH) technology have been widely used in soil remediation. Some engineering cases have shown that when soil remediation of heterogeneous sites use TCH technology, the gases carrying contaminants migrate laterally and contaminate clean areas. However, there are relatively few domestic studies on this phenomenon. Some international scholars have confirmed the occurrence of this phenomenon on the laboratory scale, but have not proposed an effective solution to the above scientific question. This study first introduced the heating mechanism and heating process of TCH. Meanwhile, the forms and transformation mechanism of organic contaminants were fully expounded during soil remediation by TCH. In addition, the formation, migration, accumulation, and lateral diffusion of gaseous contaminants were comprehensively reviewed during the in-situ thermal desorption of heterogeneous strata. Finally, arrangement methods of extraction pipes to effectively capture gas are provided for the heterogeneous contaminated soils remediated by TCH. The results of this study will provide theoretical and technical support for in-depth understanding of steam movement in heterogeneous formations and the remediation of heterogeneous contaminated sites by TCH technology.
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Authors and Affiliations

Wei Ji
Rong-Bing Fu
Cai-Hong Gao
Jia-Bin Yao

  1. State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse,College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, ChinaCentre for Environmental Risk Management and Remediation of Soil and Groundwater,Tongji University, Shanghai 200092, China
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The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has wreaked havoc especially in 2020 and the first half of 2021 and has left severe after-effects affecting not only the health sector but also all aspects of human life. The aim of this study is to inspect the current trends of the quantities of household waste produced during the first four waves of the pandemic. The study was carried out in Guelma city, northeastern of Algeria, where the first containment was registered on February 25, 2020, it concerns an Italian national (Mohamed et al. 2021). An increase in the production of household waste of approximately 14% during the first containment was recorded in the study area, with the interruption of recycling, which caused an enormous pressure on the technical landfill center of Guelma. The results showed that the trend of waste production decreased at the following averages: 205.80; 198.92; 196.69 and 192.43 tons, for the first four waves of COVID-19 respectively. Therefore, a return to the pre-pandemic state would be close, which dampens the impact and pressure on the landfill and the environment. This research allows for perceiving the waste management status in Algeria, between the pandemic and post-pandemic period.
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Authors and Affiliations

Amina Mesbahi-Salhi
Mohamed Kaizouri
Bachir El Mouaz Madoui
Wafa Rezaiguia
Zihad Bouslama

  1. Laboratory of Ecology of Earth and Aquatic Systems, University of Badji Mokhtar,Annaba, 23052, Algeria
  2. University of Mohamed Cherif Messaadia, Souk-Ahras, 41043, Algeria

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Archives of Environmental Protection
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Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
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Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited.

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline.
Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges

The publication fee in the Journal of an article up to 20 pages is 520 EUR/2500 zł

Payments in Polish zlotys
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Payments in Euros
Bank BGK
Account no.: 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001
IBAN: PL 20 1130 1091 0003 9111 7820 0001

Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice

Peer-review Procedure

The reviewing procedure for papers published in Archives of Environmental Protection

1) After accepting the paper as matching to the scope of the Journal Editor-in-Chief with Section Editors choose two independent Reviewers (authorities in the domain/discipline). The chosen Reviewers (from professors and senior academic staff members) have to guarantee:

  • autonomous opinion,
  • the lack of interests conflict – especially the lack of personal and business relations with the Authors of the paper,
  • the preservation of confidentiality about the paper content and the Reviewer opinion about the paper.

2) After the Reviewers selection, Assistant Editor send them (via e-mail) requests to review the paper. Reviewers receive the full text of the paper (without Author personal data) qualified for the reviewing process and referee form, sometimes supplemented with the additional questions connected with the article. In the e-mail Assistant Editor also determine the extent of the review and the deadline (usually a month).

3) The personal data of Reviewers are not open (double-blind review). It can be declassify only on Author’s special request and after the Reviewer agreement. It sometimes happen when the review outcome is: manuscript rejection or when the paper contain controversial issues.

4) The reviewer send the review to the Editorial Office via e-mail. After receiving the review the Assistant Editor:

  • inform Authors about it (in the case of the review without corrections or when there are only small, editorial changes needed),
  • send the reviews to Authors. Authors have to correct the paper according to Reviewers comment and prepare the reply to Reviewers,
  • send the paper corrected by Authors to Reviewers again – when Reviewer wanted to review it again.

5) The final decision about manuscript is made by the Editorial Board on the basis of the analysis of remarks contained in the review and the final version of the paper send by Authors. 6) The final version of the paper, after typesetting and text makeup is being sent to Authors, who make an author’s corrections. Afterwards the paper is ready to be printed in the specific issue.


All Reviewers in 2022

Alonso Rosa (University of the Basque Country/EHU, Bilbao, Spain), Alwaeli Mohamed (Silesian University of Technology), Arora Amarpreet (Sherpa Space Inc., Republic of Korea), Babu A.( Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan, Republic of Korea), Barbieri Maurizio (Sapienza University of Rome), Bień Jurand (Wydział Infrastruktury i Środowiska, Politechnika Częstochowska), Bogacki Jan (Wydział Instalacji Budowlanych, Hydrotechniki i Inżynierii Środowiska, Politechnika Warszawska), Bogumiła Pawluśkiewicz (Katedra Kształtowania Środowiska, SGGW), Boutammine Hichem (Laboratory of Industrial Process Engineering and Environment, Faculty of Process Engineering, University of Science and Technology, Bab-Ezzouar, Algiers, Algeria), Burszta-Adamiak Ewa (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu), Cassidy Daniel (Western Michigan University, United States), Chowaniec Józef (Polish Geological Institute - National Research Institute), Czerniawski Robert (Instytut Biologii, Uniwersytet Szczeciński), da Silva Elaine (Fluminense Federal University, UFF, Brazil), Dąbek Lidia (Wydział Inżynierii Środowiska, Geodezji i Energetyki Odnawialnej, Politechnika Świętokrzyska), Dannowski Ralf (Leibniz-Zentrum für Agrarlandschaftsforschung: Müncheberg, Brandenburg, DE), Delgado-González Cristián Raziel (Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Tulancingo , Mexico), Dewil Raf (KU Leuven, Belgium), Djemli Samir (University Badji Mokhtar Annaba, Algeria), Du Rui (University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, China), Egorin AM (Institute of Chemistry FEBRAS, Russia), Fadillah‬ ‪Ganjar‬‬ (Universitas Islam Indonesia, Indonesia), Gangadharan Praveena (Indian Institute of Technology Palakkad, India), Garg Manoj (Amity University, Noida, India), Gębicki Jacek (Politechnika Gdańska, Poland), Generowicz Agnieszka (Politechnika Krakowska, Poland), Gnida Anna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Golovatyi Sergey (Belarusian State University, Belarus), Grabda Mariusz (General Tadeusz Kosciuszko Military Academy of Land Forces, Poland), Guo Xuetao (Northwest A&F University, China), Gusiatin Mariusz (Uniwersytet Warminsko-Mazurski, Polska), Han Lujia (Instytut Badań Systemowych PAN, Polska), Holnicki Piotr (Systems Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland), Houali Karim (University Mouloud MAMMERI, Tizi-Ouzou , Algeria), Iwanek Małgorzata (Lublin University of Technology, Poland), Janczukowicz Wojciech (University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland), Jan-Roblero J. (Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Carpio y Plan de Ayala s/n. Col. Sto. Tomás, Mexico), Jarosz-Krzemińska Elżbieta (AGH, Wydział Geologii, Geofizyki i Ochrony Środowiska, Katedra Ochrony Środowiska), Jaspal Dipika (Symbiosis Institute of Technology (SIT), Symbiosis International (Deemed University), (SIU), Jorge Dominguez (Universidade de Vigo, Spain), Kabała Cezary (Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland), Kalka Joanna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Karaouzas Ioannis (Hellenic Centre for Marine Research, Greece), Khadim Hussein (University of Baghdad, Iraq), Khan Moonis Ali (King Saud University, Saudi Arabia), Kojić Ivan (University of Belgrade, Serbia), Kongolo Kitala Pierre (University of Lubumbashi, Congo), Kozłowski Kamil (Uniwersytet Przyrodniczy w Poznaniu, Poland), Kucharski Mariusz (IUNG Puławy, Poland), Lu Fan (Tongji University, China), Łukaszewski Zenon (Politechnika Poznańska; Wydział Technologii Chemicznej), Majumdar Pradeep (Addis Ababa Sciennce and Technology University, Ethiopia), Mannheim Viktoria (University of Miskolc, Hungary), Markowska-Szczupak Agata (Zachodniopomorski Uniwersytet Technologiczny w Szczecinie; Wydział Technologii i Inżynierii Chemicznej), Mehmood Andleeb (Shenzhen University, China), Mol Marcos (Fundação Ezequiel Dias, Brazil), Mrowiec Bożena (Akademia Techniczno-Humanistyczna w Bielsku-Białej, Poland), Nałęcz-Jawecki Grzegorz (Zakład Toksykologii i Bromatologii, Wydział Farmaceutyczny, WUM), Ochowiak Marek (Politechnika Poznańska, Poland), Ogbaga Chukwuma (Nile University of Nigeria, Nigeria), Oleniacz Robert (AGH University of Science and Technology in Krakow, Poland), Pan Ligong (Northeast Forestry University, China) Paruch Adam (Norwegian Institute of Bioeconomy Research, Norway), Pietras Dariusz (ATH Bielsko-Biała, Poland), Piotrowska-Seget Zofia (Uniwersytet Ślaski, Polska), Płaza Grażyna (IETU Katowice, Poland), Pohl Alina (IPIS PAN Zabrze, Poland), Poikane Sandra (European Commission, Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy), Poluszyńska Joanna (Łukasiewicz Research Network - Institute of Ceramics and Building Materials, Poland), Dudzińska Marzenna (Katedra Jakości Powietrza Wewnętrznego i Zewnętrznego, Politechnika Lubelska), Rawtani Deepak (National Forensic Sciences University, Gandhinagar, India) Rehman Khalil (GC Women University Sialkot, Pakistan), Rogowska Weronika (Bialystok University of Technology, Poland), Rzeszutek Mateusz (AGH, Wydział Geodezji Górniczej i Inżynierii Środowiska, Katedra Kształtowania i Ochrony Środowiska), Saenboonruang Kiadtisak (Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok), Sebakhy Khaled (University of Groningen, Netherlands), Sengupta D.K. (Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar. India), Shao Jing (Anhui University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Chile), Sočo Eleonora (Rzeszów University of Technology, Poland), Sojka Mariusz (Poznan University of Life Sciences, Poland), Sonesten Lars (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden), Song Wencheng (Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Medical Physics and Technology, Chinese), Song ZhongXian (Henan University of Urban Construction, China), Spiak Zofia (Uniwersyet Przyrodniczy we Wrocławiu, Poland), Srivastav Arun (Chitkara University, Himachal Pradesh, India), Steliga Teresa (Instytut Nafty i Gazu -Państwowy Instytut Badawczy, Poland), Surmacz-Górska Joanna (Silesian University of Technology, Poland), Świątkowski Andrzej (Wojskowa Akademia Techniczna, Poland), Symanowicz Barbara (Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities, Poland), Szklarek Sebastian (European Regional Centre for Ecohydrology, Polish Academy of Sciences), Tabina Amtul (GC University,Lahore, Pakistan), Tang Lin (Hunan University, China), Torrent Sergi (Innovación, Aigües de Manresa, S.A, Manresa, Spain, Spain), Trafiałek Joanna (Warsaw University of Life Sciences, Poland), Vijay U. (Department of Microb, Jaipur, India, India), Vojtkova Hana (University of Ostrava, Czech Republic), Wang Qi (City University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong), Wielgosiński Grzegorz (Wydziału Inżynierii Procesowej i Ochrony Środowiska, Politechnika Łódzka), Wilk Pawel (IMGW-PIB, Poland), Wiśniewska Marta (Warsaw University of Technology, Poland), Yin Xianqiang (Northwest A&F University, Yangling China), Zając Grzegorz (University Of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland), Zalewski Maciej (European Regional Centre for Ecohydrologyunder the auspices of UNESCO, Poland), Zegait Rachid (Ziane Achour University of Djelfa), Zerafat Mohammad (Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran), Zgórska Aleksandra (Central Mining Institute, Poland), Zhang Chunhui (China University of Mining & Technology, China), Zhang Wenbo (Northwest Minzu University, Lanzhou China), Zhu Guocheng (Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan, China), Zwierzchowski Ryszard (Zakład Systemów Ciepłowniczych i Gazowniczych, Politechnika Warszawska)

All Reviewers in 2021

Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Aksoy Özlem, Alwaeli Mohamed, Aneta Luczkiewicz, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Babbar Deepakshi, Badura Marek, Bajda Tomasz, Biedka Paweł, Błaszczak Barbara, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cheng Gan, Chojecka Agnieszka, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Chwojnowski Andrzej, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Cimochowicz-Rybicka Małgorzata, Curren Emily, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska Agnieszka, Czajka Agnieszka, Danielewicz Jan, Dannowski Ralf, Daoud Mounir, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Demirbaş Ahmet, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Franus Wojciech, G. Uchrin Christopher, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gębicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Gierszewski Piotr, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Godłowska Jolanta, Gokalp Fulya, Gospodarek Janina, Górecki Tadeusz, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Grifoni M., Gromiec Marek, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Hartmann Peter, He Jianzhong, He Yong, Heese Tomasz, Hybská Helena, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Janowski Mirosław, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Juśkiewicz Włodzimierz, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Kapusta Paweł, Karczewska Anna, Karczmarczyk Agnieszka, Kicińska Alicja, Kiciński Jan, Kijowska-Strugała Małgorzata, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Kłosok-Bazan Iwona, Kolada Agnieszka, Konieczny Krystyna, Kostecki Maciej, Kowalczewska-Madura Katarzyna, Kowalczuk Marek, Kozielska Barbara, Kozłowski Kamil, Krzemień Alicja, Kulig Andrzej, Kwaśny Justyna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Leites Luchese Claudia, Leszczyńska-Sejda Katarzyna, Li Mingyang, Liu Chao, Mahmood Khalid, Majewska-Nowak Katarzyna, Makisha Nikolay, Malina Grzegorz, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mocek Andrzej, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molenda Tadeusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Myrta Anna, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Nzila Alexis, OIkuski Tadeusz, Oleniacz Robert, Pacyna Jozef, Pająk Tadeusz, Pal Subodh Chandra, Panagopoulos Argyris, Paruch Adam, Paszkowski Waldemar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paz-Ferreiro Jorge, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Piątkiewicz Wojciech, Piechowicz Janusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Piwowar Arkadiusz, Pleban Dariusz, Policht-Latawiec Agnieszka, Polkowska Żaneta, Poluszyńska Joanna, Rajca Mariola, Reizer Magdalena, Riesgo Fernández Pedro, Rith Monorom, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzepa Grzegorz, Rzeźnik Wojciech, Rzętała Mariusz, Sabovljevic Marko, Scudiero Rosaria, Sekret Robert, Sheng Yanqing, Sławomir Stelmach, Słowik Leszek, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sophonrat Nanta, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stachowski Piotr, Stańczyk-Mazanek Ewa, Stebel Adam, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szopińska Kinga, Szymański Kazimierz, Ślipko Katarzyna, Tepe Yalçin, Tórz Agnieszka, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Urošević Mira, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Vakili Mohammadtaghi, Van Harreveld A.P., Voutchkova Denitza, Wang Gang, Wang X.K., Werbińska-Wojciechowska Sylwia, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Wiśniowska Ewa, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojnowska-Baryła Irena, Wolska Małgorzata, Wszołek Tadeusz, Wu Yonghua, Yusuf Mohammad, Zuberi Amina, Zuwała Jarosław, Zwoździak Jerzy.

All Reviewers in 2020

Adamiec Ewa, Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Ahammed M. Mansoor, Akcicek Ekrem, Ameur Houari, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Badura Marek, Barabasz Wiesław, Barthakur Manoj, Battegazzore Daniele, Biedka Paweł, Bilek Maciej, Bisschop Lieselot, Błaszczak Barbara, Błażejewski Ryszard, Bochoidze Inga, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Borella Paola, Borowiak Klaudia, Borralho Teresa, Boyacioglu Hülya, Bunjongsiri Kultida, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Calderon Raul, Chatveera Burachat Chatveera, Cheng Gan, Chiwa Masaaki, Chojnicki Józef, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Czajka Agnieszka, Czaplicka Marianna, Daoud Mounir, Dąbek Lidia, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Dereszewska Alina, Dębowski Marcin, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Dymaczewski Zbysław, El-Maradny Amr, Farfan-Cabrera Leonardo, Filizok Işık, Franus Wojciech, García-Ávila Fernando, Gariglio N.F., Gaya M.S, Gebicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Gnida Anna, Gospodarek Janina, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Harnisz Monika, Hartmann Peter, Hawrot-Paw Małgorzata, He Jianzhong, Hirabayashi Satoshi, Hulisz Piotr, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Jacukowicz-Sobala Irena, Jeż-Walkowiak Joanna, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kajda-Szcześniak Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Karczewska Anna, Karwowska Ewa, Kim Ki-Hyun, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata, Korniłłowicz-Kowalska Teresa, Korus Irena, Kostecki Maciej, Koszelnik Piotr, Koter Stanisław, Kowalska Beata, Kowalski Zygmunt, Kozielska Barbara, Krzyżyńska Renata, Kulig Andrzej, Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Lagzdins Ainis, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Ligęza Sławomir, Liu Xingpo, Loga Małgorzata, Łebkowska Maria, Macherzyński Mariusz, Makisha Nikolay, Makowska Małgorzata, Masłoń Adam, Mazur Zbigniew, Michel Monika, Miechówka Anna, Miksch Korneliusz, Mnuchin Nathan, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Muntean Edward, Myrta Anna, Nahorski Zbigniew, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Naumczyk Jeremi, Nawalany Marek, Noubactep C., Nowakowski Piotr, Obarska-Pempkowiak Hanna, Orge C.A., Paul Lothar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Peña A., Pietr Stanisław, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Płaza Grażyna, Polkowska Żaneta, Reizer Magdalena, Renman Gunno, Rith Monorom, Romanovski Valentin, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzętała Mariusz, Sadeghi Mahdi, Sakakibara Yutaka, Scudiero Rosaria, Semaan Mary, Seredyński Franciszek, Sergienko Ruslan, Shen Yujun, Sheng Yanqing, Sidełko Robert, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stegenta-Dąbrowska Sylwia, Steliga Teresa, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Suryadevara Nagaraja, Suska-Malawska Małgorzata, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szpyrka Ewa, Szulczyński Bartosz, Szwast Maciej, Szyszlak-Bargłowicz Joanna, Ślipko Katarzyna, Świetlik Ryszard, Tabernacka Agnieszka, Tepe Yalçin, Tobiszewski Marek, Treichel Wiktor, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Van Harreveld A.P., Wang X. K., Wasielewski Ryszard, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Witczak Joanna, Witkiewicz Zygfryd, Włodarczyk Małgorzata, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojtkowska Małgorzata, Xinhui Duan, Yang Chunping, Yaqian Zhao Yaqian, Załęska-Radziwiłł Monika, Zamorska Justyna, Zasina Damian, Zawadzki Jarosław, Zdeb Monika M., Zheng Guodi, Zhu Ivan X., Ziułkiewicz Maciej, Zuberi Amina, Zwoździak Jerzy, Żabczyński Sebastian, Żukowski Witold, Żygadło Maria.

Plagiarism Policy

Anti-plagiarism policy

In accordance with AEP requirements, the authors of all articles submitted to the Editorial Office declare that the paper is an original work. Articles that have been approved by the Editorial Board for further processing are checked for originality using the program and iThenticate. As plagiarism, the Editorial Board (according to the definition of plagiarism/anti-plagiarism) recognizes:

• claiming someone else's work or parts of it as your own;
• copying someone else's or your own (self-plagiarism) fragments of articles without reference to the publication (title of the work, names of authors) from which it was taken
• inserting fragments of other works into the article, changing only the order of the sentence or introducing only minor changes to it
• an article in which the copied fragments, despite citing their sources, constitute a significant/major part of the article.

In case of plagiarism/self-plagiarism, further work on this article is stopped and it is removed from the Editorial System. The authors of the article (via the corresponding author) submitted to the Editorial Office of the AEP are informed about the reasons for removing the article.

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