Applied sciences

Archives of Environmental Protection


Archives of Environmental Protection | 2022 | vol. 48 | No 4

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The aims of the current study are the physicochemical characterization, spatial assessment and monitoring of hydrocarbon contamination in quagmire of three sites (Agreb, Gassi and Zotti) in the Hassi Messaoud region (Algerian Sahara), as a result of the presence of an important oil industry rejecting industrial wastewater. Samples were obtained from three different depths for each site. Total Hydrocarbons (THC) were determined by a gravimetric method, and the four (F1:C6-C10), (F2:C10-C16), (F3:C16-C34) and F4>C34) hydrocarbon fractions and BTEX (Benzene, Toluene, Ethyl-benzene and Xylene) were determined by using gas chromatography (FID). The results obtained show a high contamination with hydrocarbons in different sites and depths. The concentrations of THC, four hydrocarbon fraction and BTEX recorded on Agreb site in different depth were in this order: 51200–120000 mg/kg d.w.; <LOD – 59500 mg/kg d.w.; 2.4–90.8 mg/kg d.w. respectively; and for Gassi site, in this order: 59600–70300 mg/kg d.w.; < LOD – 43000 mg/kg d.w.; 8.5–112 mg/kg d.w. Finely they were in the following order: 18100–19200 mg/kg d.w.; <LOD – 9130 mg/kg d.w.; 2.75–65 mg/kg d.w. for Zotti site. Statistical analysis demonstrated an important site effect of THC and the three hydrocarbon fractions except for F4. However, there is no site and depth effect for BTEX. On the other hand the depth effect is significant just for THC, F1 and F2 of hydrocarbons. This variation can be attributed to the difference of physicochemical parameters between studied sites.
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Authors and Affiliations

Samia Kout
Abdessemed Ala
Mohamed Seddik Oussama Belahmadi
Amina Hassaine
Ouahiba Bordjiba
Ali Tahar

  1. Université Badji Mokhtar-Annaba Faculté des Sciences Département de Biologie, Algeria
  2. Biotechnology Research Centre (C.R.Bt), Algeria
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Since the implementation of the compulsory sorting of domestic waste policy in China, the participation rate of residents is low, which leads to the unsatisfactory result of terminal reduction of domestic waste. Therefore, the problem of domestic waste reduction still needs to rely on source reduction. Based on the panel data of 29 provincial capitals in China from 2009 to 2018, this study conducts a comprehensive threshold effect test on per capita GDP and other influencing factors of domestic waste production, conducts panel threshold regression for the factors with threshold value, and explores the nonlinear relationship between per capita GDP and domestic waste production under the influence of different threshold variables. The results show that when the urban population density is less than 272 people/km2, the increase of 1% of per capita GDP will lead to a decrease of 0.251% in the domestic waste production, otherwise, it will lead to an increase of 0.249%; when the per capita consumption expenditure is less than the threshold value of 10,260 yuan/year, the influence coefficient of per capita GDP is 0.155, which increases to 0.207 above the threshold. When the share of tertiary industry is taken as the threshold variable, the two threshold values are 61% and 71% respectively. Through the analysis of control variables, it has been found that population size and amount of courier per capita have significant positive effects on domestic waste production, while gas permeability and the number of non-governmental organizations have significant negative effects
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Authors and Affiliations

Li Yang
Hong-Yan Wang
Lan Yi
Xiang-Zhen Shi
Wei Deng

  1. International Business School, Shaanxi Normal University, China
  2. Jinhe Center for Economic Research, Xi’an Jiaotong University, China
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Biochar has been extensively studied as a soil amendment to reduce nutrients losses. However, the comparative effectiveness of biochar adsorption capacity for ammonium (NH4-N), nitrate (NO3-N), and phosphate (PO4-P) remains unknown. In the present study, the effects of feedstock (banana stem and coconut shell) and temperature (300, 500, and 700°C) on biochar adsorption ability for NH 4-N, NO 3-N, and PO 4-P were investigated and fitted by three adsorption models, viz Freundlich, Langmuir, and linear. Freundlich (R 2 = 0.95–0.99) and Langmuir (R 2 = 0.91–0.95) models were found suitable for adsorption of NH 4-N. The maximum adsorption capacity (Q m) for coconut shell biochar increased with pyrolysis temperature (Q m = 12.8–15.5 mg g-1) and decreased for banana stem biochar (Q m = 12.9–9.7 mg g-1). In the case of NO 3-N adsorption, Freundlich (R 2 = 0.82–0.99) and linear model (R 2 = 1.00) were found suitable while Langmuir model showed much less contribution, similarly adsorption of PO 4-P, was not supported by these three models. The minimum concentrations required for adsorption of phosphate were recorded as 36, 8, and 3 mg L -1 using pyrolyzed biochar at the temperatures of 300, 500, and 700°C, respectively. These results indicate that the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature, as well as aquatic nutrient concentration, were important factors for the adsorption of inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus.
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Authors and Affiliations

Ganghua Zou
Ying Shan
Minjie Dai
Xiaoping Xin
Muhammad Nawaz
Fengliang Zhao

  1. Environment and Plant Protection Institute, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, China
  2. Haikou Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Tropical Agricultural Sciences, Chin
  3. University of Florida, United States
  4. Bahauddin Zakariya University, Pakistan
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Polymer mixed-matrix nanocomposite membranes were prepared by a wet-phase inversion method and used in ultrafiltration processes to treat wastewater treatment plant effluent spiked with organic micropollutants. The effects of halloysite (Hal), TiO2, and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT-COOH) nanofillers on the treatment efficiency, permeability loss, and fouling behavior of polyethersulfone (PES) membranes were investigated and compared with those of a pristine PES membrane. The nanocomposite membranes exhibited lower porosity and stronger negative surface charge because of the added hydrophilic nanofillers. The PES-Hal membrane achieved the optimal balance of permeability and micropollutant removal owing to enhanced pollutant adsorption on the membrane surface and the creation of an easily removable cake layer (i.e., reversible fouling). The PES-SWCNT-COOH membrane demonstrated the highest treatment efficiency, but also the high permeability loss. In contrast, PES-TiO2 exhibited excellent antifouling properties, but poorer treatment capabilities.
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Authors and Affiliations

Gabriela Kamińska

  1. Institute of Water and Wastewater Engineering, Gliwice, Poland
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The present study is focused on the evaluation of bioeffects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) synthesized by Bacillus subtilis strain I’-1a, the producer of iturin A lipopeptide biosurfactant. The following properties of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles (bio-AgNPs) were evaluated: in vitro cytotoxicity, antioxidant properties, and metabolic activities of mammalian cells. As a control, chemically synthesized silver nanoparticles (chem-AgNPs) were used. In vitro, antioxidant activity of bio-AgNPs showed a significant effect on the scavenging of free radicals. Bio-AgNPs can be potent natural antioxidants and can be essential for health preservation against oxidative stress-related degenerative diseases, such as cancer. The cell viability of human skin fibroblasts NHDF was remarkably inhibited in the presence of both AgNPs. However, bio-AgNPs were more active than chem-AgNPs. In our experiment, microarrays PM-M1–PM-M4 were used to evaluate the growth of NHDF fibroblast cells in the presence of bio-AgNPs and chem-AgNPs. The NHDF fibroblast cells were more active in the presence of bio-AgNPs than in chem-AgNPs. Probably, the presence of biosurfactant produced by Bacillus subtilis I’-1a significantly increased the stability of biogenic AgNPs and enhanced their biological activities and specific interaction with human DNA. Furthermore, the evaluated biological activities were enhanced for the biosurfactant-based AgNPs.
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Authors and Affiliations

Joanna Małgorzata Chojniak-Gronek
1 2
Łukasz Jałowiecki
Grażyna Anna Płaza

  1. Institute for Ecology of Industrial Areas, Poland
  2. Łukasiewicz – Industrial Chemistry Institute, Poland
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Phosphogypsum (PG) – a waste material generated in enormous amounts, accumulates a wide range of pollutants and thus represents a major environmental problem. Among the proposed potential strategies for PG management, none has been implemented on a large scale up to date. At the same time, the rapid depletion of phosphorite resources, used to manufacture most commercial phosphorus (P) fertilizers, poses unprecedented challenges for future agriculture and environmental protection. The aim of this study was to assess the possibility of using PG as a source of P for fertilizing plants. The effect of PG fertilization on the dry mass accumulation, P and sulphur (S) contents in soil and in the above-ground parts of plants, as well as on the level of heavy metal contaminations, were studied in the experimental model consisted of 12 genotypes of three lupine species – Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus. The PG application increased the content of both the available and active P in the soil. The increased P bioavailability resulted in an elevated uptake and intracellular content of this nutrient in the studied plant species in a dose- and variety-dependent manner. The heavy metals present in the waste did not affect their accumulation in the plants. The results indicate the possibility of using P forms present in PG as an alternative source of this component in plant nutrition, at the same time allowing elimination of the waste deposited on huge areas, which will certainly contribute to improving the quality of the environment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Kamila Stępień
Piotr Stępień
Urszula Piszcz
Zofia Spiak

  1. Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Department of Plant Nutrition, Poland
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Regions with warm climate are poor in organic matter or have a deficit of soil. The purpose of the work was to select the optimal mix from biodegradable wastes such as cardboard (Cb), natural textiles (Tx) newspaper (Np), colored newspaper (Cp), and office paper (Op) for creating artificial soil by combining these materials with compost and sand. To select the optimum mix, 15 samples were taken (3 from each type of waste in the following proportions: 25%, 50% and 75% ). The optimum mix was analyzed for grass germination rate and root development. Tests were performed in the laboratory with conditions similar to those of regions with warm climate and soil deficiency in a specially designed testing spot (bioterm). The effects of particular mixes on plant germination rate and growth were measured. Out of all mixes, the textile compositions Tx50 and Tx25 supported best the plant propagation. During the whole experimental process, the grass showed various growth tendencies. The best results for grass height were observed for mixes with textiles and colored newspaper. Based on this data and subsequent laboratory research, the best substrate composition was selected. For the whole period of the tests, germination rate in the pot with the mix was higher than the germination rate in the control sample with compost. Considering the experimental conditions of this research, the tested substrates can be used to aid in plant propagation, especially in regions with warm climate and soil deficiencies, and for restoration of damaged land areas.
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Authors and Affiliations

Mohamed Alwaeli
Mohammad Alshawaf
Marta Klasik

  1. Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
  2. College of Life Sciences, Kuwait University, Kuwait
  3. free scientist
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An attempt was made to determine the correlation between the granulometric structure of bottom sediments and the content of speciation forms of phosphorus and selected metals. Using the sedimentation method, the bottom sediments of a thermally contaminated dam reservoir were divided into fast and slow-draining fractions. Measurements of granulometric composition were made, determining the volume proportions of sediment particles in the range of 0.1 m to 650 m. Particle share sizes were determined in the size range: 0.1–50 m (F1), 50–100 m (F2), 100–200 m (F3), 200–400 m. (F4). The study showed that the content of speciation forms of phosphorus and selected metals remains related to the granulometric structure of bottom sediments. The content of organic matter in sediments is determined by the proportion of the smallest particles, from 0.1 to 50 μm, at the same time these particles most strongly aff ect the reduction conditions of sediments. According to Gilford›s correlation thresholds, there was no correlation between the proportion of sediment particles with dimensions of 0.1–50 μm and the concentration of speciation forms of phosphorus. For particles with dimensions of 50–100 μm, the strongest correlation was observed for the concentration of the EP fraction and for the WDP fraction (r2 = 0.4048, r2 = 0.3636). A strong correlation between the size of sediment particles and the concentration of speciated forms of phosphorus was noted for particles with dimensions of 100–200 μm and 200–400 μm. The coeffi cient of determination was for AAP, EP, WDP and RDP, respectively: 0.8292, 0.891, 0.7934, 0.47. The relationship between particles in the 0.1–50 m range and iron (Fe) concentration, R2 – 0.3792, aluminum (Al) R– 0.3208, and zinc (Zn) R2 – 0.4608, was classifi ed as medium. For particles in the 50–100 m range, a medium correlation with calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) concentrations is apparent, R2 0.4443 and 0.3818, respectively. For particles 100–200 mm and 200–400 mm, an almost full correlation is noted for iron (Fe) R2 – 0.9835, aluminum (Al) R2 – 0.9878, calcium (Ca) R2 – 0. 824, very strong for manganese (Mn) R2 – 0.6817, and zinc (Zn) R2 – 0.7343. There is a very strong correlation between the concentration of the AAP fraction with the concentration of iron (Fe) R2 – 0.8694 and a strong correlation between the concentration of EP with the concentration of iron (Fe) R2 – 0.609. There is a strong correlation between the concentration of the AAP and EP fractions with the concentration of aluminum (Al) R2 – 0. 6253 and 0.8327. The concentration of AAP and EP fractions with the concentration of calcium (Ca) R2 – 0.5941 and 0.7576 remains in a strong relationship. The correlation between the concentration of RDP fractions and the concentration of magnesium (Mg) and manganese (Mn) remains in a medium relationship. The concentration of the EP fraction (Olsen-P) is in a strong relationship with the concentration of organic matter (R2 –.0.6763). No correlation was found between the concentration of the residuum form and the concentrations of organic matter, iron (Fe) and aluminum (Al). A medium correlation was found between the concentration of the residuum form and the concentration of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn) – R2 = 0.4206 and zinc (Zn).
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Authors and Affiliations

Maciej Kostecki

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering, PAS, Zabrze, Poland
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To analyze the composition of norfloxacin-resistant bacteria and norfloxacin-degrading bacteria in pond water and sediment in subtropical China, the composition of antibiotic resistant bacteria in pond water and sediment enriched with norfloxacin-containing medium was analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Sediment and water samples were collected from 3 fish ponds in subtropical China, and domesticated with norfloxacin, subsequently norfloxacin-resistant bacteria through high-throughput sequencing of 16S rDNA, and isolated norfloxacin- degrading bacteria. Our results showed that the pond sediment and water contain a variety of norfloxacin-resistant bacteria, mainly from Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Chloroflexi. Moreover, we isolated two norfloxacin-degrading bacteria (NorXu-2 and NorXu-3). The norfloxacin-degrading rate by NorXu-2 and NorXu-3 in the culture mediums with 200 μg/mL was the highest, which was up to 49.71% and 35.79%,respectively. When the norfloxacin concentration was 200 μg/mL, NorXu-2 and NorXu-3 had the best norfloxacin-degrading effect at pH of 6, and the degradation rates were 53.64% and 45.54%, respectively. Moreover, NorXu-3 exhibited a good tolerance to high NaCl concentration. These results not only provided basic data for the follow-up study of the molecular mechanism of antimicrobial microbial degradation, but also provided potential norfloxacin degrading bacteria for norfloxacin removal and bioremediation in aquaculture environment.
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Authors and Affiliations

Lutian Mao
Lifen Chen
Xirui Wang
Zhongbao Xu
Hui Ouyang
Biyou Huang
Libin Zhou

  1. Huizhou University, Huizhou City, China
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Many tons of micro- and nano-sized plastic particles enter the aquatic environment every year, due to increasing plastic production, with the consequent risk of microplastics contaminating our environment. Addressing this multifaceted threat requires innovative technologies that can efficiently remove microplastics from the environment. Therefore, there is an urgent need to study the efficiency of the removal of microplastics by different water and wastewater treatment technologies. After short overviewed the source, occurrence, and potential adverse impacts of microplastics to human health, we then identified promising technologies for microplastics removal, including physical, chemical, and biological approaches. A detailed analysis of the advantages and limitations of different techniques was provided. According to literature data, the performance of microplastics removal is as follows: membrane bioreactor (>99%) > activated sludge process (~98%) > rapid sand filtration (~97.1%) > dissolved air floatation (~95%) > electrocoagulation (>90%) > constructed wetlands (88%). Chemical treatment methods such as coagulation, magnetic separation, Fenton, photo-Fenton and photocatalytic degradation also show moderate to high efficiency of microplastics removal. Hybrid treatment such as the MBR-UF/RO system, coagulation followed by ozonation, adsorption, dissolved air flotation, filtration, and constructed wetlands based hybrid technologies have shown very promising results in the effective removal of microplastics. Lastly, research gaps in this area are identified, and suggestions for future perspectives are provided. We concluded this review with the current challenges and future research priorities, which will guide us through the path addressing microplastics contamination.
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Authors and Affiliations

Michał Bodzek
Alina Pohl

  1. Institute of Environmental Engineering Polish Academy of Sciences, Zabrze, Poland

Instructions for authors

Archives of Environmental Protection
Instructions for Authors

Archives of Environmental Protection is a quarterly published jointly by the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Committee of Environmental Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences. Thanks to the cooperation with outstanding scientists from all over the world we are able to provide our readers with carefully selected, most interesting and most valuable texts, presenting the latest state of research in the field of engineering and environmental protection.

The Journal principally accepts for publication original research papers covering such topics as:
– Air quality, air pollution prevention and treatment;
– Wastewater treatment and utilization;
– Waste management;
– Hydrology and water quality, water treatment;
– Soil protection and remediation;
– Transformations and transport of organic/inorganic pollutants in the environment;
– Measurement techniques used in environmental engineering and monitoring;
– Other topics directly related to environmental engineering and environment protection.

The Journal accepts also authoritative and critical reviews of the current state of knowledge in the topic directly relating to the environment protection.

If unsure whether the article is within the scope of the Journal, please send an abstract via e-mail to:

Preparation of the manuscript
The following are the requirements for manuscripts submitted for publication:
• The manuscript (with illustrations, tables, abstract and references) should not exceed 20 pages. In case the manuscript exceeds the required number of pages, we suggest contacting the Editor.
• The manuscript should be written in good English.
• The manuscript ought to be submitted in doc or docx format in three files:
– text.doc – file containing the entire text, without title, keywords, authors names and affiliations, and without tables and figures;
– figures.doc – file containing illustrations with legends;
– tables.doc – file containing tables with legends;
• The text should be prepared in A4 format, 2.5 cm margins, 1.5 spaced, preferably using Time New Roman font, 12 point. Thetext should be divided into sections and subsections according to general rules of manuscript editing. The proposed place of tables and figures insertion should be marked in the text.
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• References should be cited in the text of an article by providing the name and publication year in brackets, e.g. (Nowak 2019). When a cited paper has two authors, both surnames connected with the word “and” should be provided, e.g. (Nowak and Kowalski 2019). When a cited paper has more than two author, surname of its first author, abbreviation ‘et al.’ and publication year should be provided, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019). When there are more than two publications cited in one place they should be divided with a coma, e.g. (Kowalski et al. 2019, Nowak 2019, Nowak and Kowalski 2019). Internet sources should be cited like other texts – providing the name and publication year in brackets.
• The Authors should avoid extensive citations. The number of literature references must not exceed 30 including a maximum of 6 own papers. Only in review articles the number of literature references can exceed 30.
• References should be listed at the end of the article ordered alphabetically by surname of the first author. References should be made according to the following rules:

1. Journal:
Surnames and initials. (publication year). Title of the article, Journal Name, volume, number, pages, DOI.
For example:

Nowak, S.W., Smith, A.J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of the article, Archives of Environmental Protection, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330

If the article has been assigned DOI, it should be provided and linked with the website on which it is made available.

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Kraszewski, J. & Kinecki, K. (2019). Title of book, Work & Studies, Zabrze 2019.

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Surnames and initials of text authors. (publishing year). Title of cited chapter, in: Title of the book, Surnames and
initials of editor(s). (Ed.)/(Eds.). Publisher, Place, pages.
For example:

Reynor, J. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of chapter, in: Title of the cited book, Kaźmierski, I. & Jasiński, C. (Eds.). Work & Studies, Zabrze, pp. 145–189.

4. Internet sources:
Surnames and initials or the name of the institution which published the text. (publication year). Title, (website address (accessed on)).
For example:

Kowalski, M. (2018). Title, ( (03.12.2018)).

5. Patents:

Orszulik, E. (2009). Palenisko fluidalne, Patent polski: nr PL20070383311 20070910 z 16 marca 2009.
Smith, I.M. (1988). U.S. Patent No. 123,445. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Patent and Trademark Office.

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Titles of cited materials should be translated into English. Information of the language the materials were published in should be provided at the end.
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Nowak, S.W. & Taylor, K.T. (2019). Title of article, Journal Name, 10, 2, pp. 93–98. DOI: 10.24425/aep.2019.126330. (in Polish)

Not more than 30 references should be cited in the original research paper.

Submission of the manuscript
By submitting the manuscript Author(s) warrant(s) that the article has not been previously published and is not under consideration by another journal. Authors claim responsibility and liability for the submitted article.
The article is freely available and distributed under the terms of Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium provided the article is properly cited, is not used for commercial purposes and no modification or adaptation are made.

© 2021. The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Public License (CC BY SA 4.0,, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided that the article is properly cited, the use is non-commercial, and no modifications or adaptations are made

The manuscripts should be submitted on-line using the Editorial System available at The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

Review Process
All the submitted articles are assessed by the Editorial Board. If positively assessed by at least two editors, Editor in Chief, along with department editors selects two independent reviewers from recognized authorities in the discipline.
Review process usually lasts from 1 to 4 months.
Reviewers have access to PUBLONS platform which integrates into Bentus Editorial System and enables adding reviews to their personal profile.
After completion of the review process Authors are informed of the results and – if both reviews are positive – asked to correct the text according to reviewers’ comments. Next, the revised work is verified by the editorial staff for factual and editorial content.

Acceptance of the manuscript

The manuscript is accepted for publication on grounds of the opinions of independent reviewers and approval of Editorial Board. Authors are informed about the decision and also asked to pay processing charges and to send completed declaration of the transfer of copyright to the editorial office.

Proofreading and Author Correction
All articles published in the Archives of Environmental Protection go through professional proofreading process. If there are too many language errors that prevent understanding of the text, the article is sent back to Authors with a request to correct the indicated fragments or – in extreme cases – to re-translate the text.
After proofreading the manuscript is prepared for publishing. The final stage of the publishing process is Author correction. Authors receive a page proof copy of the article with a request to make final corrections.

Article publication charges
The publication fee of an article in the Journal is:
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35 EUR/130 zł per page (color).
The journal does not have article processing charges (APCs) nor article submission charges.

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Authors are kindly requested to inform the editorial office of making payment for the publication, as well as to send all necessary data for issuing an invoice.

Peer-review Procedure

The reviewing procedure for papers published in Archives of Environmental Protection

1) After accepting the paper as matching to the scope of the Journal Editor-in-Chief with Section Editors choose two independent Reviewers (authorities in the domain/discipline). The chosen Reviewers (from professors and senior academic staff members) have to guarantee:

  • autonomous opinion,
  • the lack of interests conflict – especially the lack of personal and business relations with the Authors of the paper,
  • the preservation of confidentiality about the paper content and the Reviewer opinion about the paper.

2) After the Reviewers selection, Assistant Editor send them (via e-mail) requests to review the paper. Reviewers receive the full text of the paper (without Author personal data) qualified for the reviewing process and referee form, sometimes supplemented with the additional questions connected with the article. In the e-mail Assistant Editor also determine the extent of the review and the deadline (usually a month).

3) The personal data of Reviewers are not open (double-blind review). It can be declassify only on Author’s special request and after the Reviewer agreement. It sometimes happen when the review outcome is: manuscript rejection or when the paper contain controversial issues.

4) The reviewer send the review to the Editorial Office via e-mail. After receiving the review the Assistant Editor:

  • inform Authors about it (in the case of the review without corrections or when there are only small, editorial changes needed),
  • send the reviews to Authors. Authors have to correct the paper according to Reviewers comment and prepare the reply to Reviewers,
  • send the paper corrected by Authors to Reviewers again – when Reviewer wanted to review it again.

5) The final decision about manuscript is made by the Editorial Board on the basis of the analysis of remarks contained in the review and the final version of the paper send by Authors. 6) The final version of the paper, after typesetting and text makeup is being sent to Authors, who make an author’s corrections. Afterwards the paper is ready to be printed in the specific issue.


All Reviewers in 2022

Alonso Rosa, Alwaeli Mohamed, Arora Amarpreet, Babu A., Barbieri Maurizio, Bień Jurand, Bogacki Jan, Bogumiła Pawluśkiewicz, Boutammine Hichem, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cassidy Daniel, Chowaniec Józef, Czerniawski Robert, da Silva Elaine, Dąbek Lidia, Dannowski Ralf, Delgado-González Cristián Raziel, Dewil Raf, Djemli Samir, Du Rui, Egorin A. M., Fadillah‬ ‪Ganjar‬‬, Gangadharan Praveena, Garg Manoj, Gębicki Jacek, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gnida Anna, Golovatyi Sergey, Grabda Mariusz, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Mariusz, Han Lujia, Holnicki Piotr, Houali Karim, Iwanek Małgorzata, Janczukowicz Wojciech, Jan-Roblero J., Jarosz-Krzemińska Elżbieta, Jaspal Dipika, Jorge Dominguez, Kabała Cezary, Kalka Joanna, Karaouzas Ioannis, Khadim Hussein Jabar Khadim, Khan Moonis Ali, Kojić Ivan, Kongolo Kitala Pierre, Kozłowski Kamil, Kucharski Mariusz, Lu Fan, Łukaszewski Zenon, Majumdar Pradeep, Mannheim Viktoria, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mehmood Andleeb, Mol Marcos, Mrowiec Bożena, Nałęcz-Jawecki Grzegorz, Ochowiak Marek, Ogbaga Chukwuma, Oleniacz Robert, Pan Ligong, Paruch Adam, Pietras Dariusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Płaza Grażyna, Pohl Alina, Poikane Sandra, Poluszyńska Joanna, Dudzińska Marzenna, Rawtani Deepak, Rehman Khalil, Rogowska Weronika, Rzeszutek Mateusz, Saenboonruang Kiadtisak, Sebakhy Khaled, Sengupta D.K., Shao Jing, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sonesten Lars, Song Wencheng, Song ZhongXian, Spiak Zofia, Srivastav Arun, Steliga Teresa, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Świątkowski Andrzej Symanowicz Barbara, Szklarek Sebastian, Tabina Amtul, Tang Lin, Torrent Sergi, Trafiałek Joanna, Vijay U., Vojtkova Hana, Wang Qi, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Wiśniewska Marta, Yin Xianqiang, Zając Grzegorz, Zalewski Maciej, Zegait Rachid, Zerafat Mohammad, Zgórska Aleksandra, Zhang Chunhui, Zhang Wenbo, Zhu Guocheng, Zwierzchowski Ryszard

All Reviewers in 2021

Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Aksoy Özlem, Alwaeli Mohamed, Aneta Luczkiewicz, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Babbar Deepakshi, Badura Marek, Bajda Tomasz, Biedka Paweł, Błaszczak Barbara, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Cheng Gan, Chojecka Agnieszka, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Chwojnowski Andrzej, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Cimochowicz-Rybicka Małgorzata, Curren Emily, Cydzik-Kwiatkowska Agnieszka, Czajka Agnieszka, Danielewicz Jan, Dannowski Ralf, Daoud Mounir, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Demirbaş Ahmet, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Franus Wojciech, G. Uchrin Christopher, Generowicz Agnieszka, Gębicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Gierszewski Piotr, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Godłowska Jolanta, Gokalp Fulya, Gospodarek Janina, Górecki Tadeusz, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Grifoni M., Gromiec Marek, Guo Xuetao, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Hartmann Peter, He Jianzhong, He Yong, Heese Tomasz, Hybská Helena, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Janowski Mirosław, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Juśkiewicz Włodzimierz, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Kapusta Paweł, Karczewska Anna, Karczmarczyk Agnieszka, Kicińska Alicja, Kiciński Jan, Kijowska-Strugała Małgorzata, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Kłosok-Bazan Iwona, Kolada Agnieszka, Konieczny Krystyna, Kostecki Maciej, Kowalczewska-Madura Katarzyna, Kowalczuk Marek, Kozielska Barbara, Kozłowski Kamil, Krzemień Alicja, Kulig Andrzej, Kwaśny Justyna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Leites Luchese Claudia, Leszczyńska-Sejda Katarzyna, Li Mingyang, Liu Chao, Mahmood Khalid, Majewska-Nowak Katarzyna, Makisha Nikolay, Malina Grzegorz, Markowska-Szczupak Agata, Mocek Andrzej, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molenda Tadeusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Myrta Anna, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Nzila Alexis, OIkuski Tadeusz, Oleniacz Robert, Pacyna Jozef, Pająk Tadeusz, Pal Subodh Chandra, Panagopoulos Argyris, Paruch Adam, Paszkowski Waldemar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paz-Ferreiro Jorge, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Piątkiewicz Wojciech, Piechowicz Janusz, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Piwowar Arkadiusz, Pleban Dariusz, Policht-Latawiec Agnieszka, Polkowska Żaneta, Poluszyńska Joanna, Rajca Mariola, Reizer Magdalena, Riesgo Fernández Pedro, Rith Monorom, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzepa Grzegorz, Rzeźnik Wojciech, Rzętała Mariusz, Sabovljevic Marko, Scudiero Rosaria, Sekret Robert, Sheng Yanqing, Sławomir Stelmach, Słowik Leszek, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sophonrat Nanta, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stachowski Piotr, Stańczyk-Mazanek Ewa, Stebel Adam, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szopińska Kinga, Szymański Kazimierz, Ślipko Katarzyna, Tepe Yalçin, Tórz Agnieszka, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Urošević Mira, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Vakili Mohammadtaghi, Van Harreveld A.P., Voutchkova Denitza, Wang Gang, Wang X.K., Werbińska-Wojciechowska Sylwia, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Wilk Pawel, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Wiśniowska Ewa, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojnowska-Baryła Irena, Wolska Małgorzata, Wszołek Tadeusz, Wu Yonghua, Yusuf Mohammad, Zuberi Amina, Zuwała Jarosław, Zwoździak Jerzy.

All Reviewers in 2020

Adamiec Ewa, Adamkiewicz Łukasz, Ahammed M. Mansoor, Akcicek Ekrem, Ameur Houari, Anielak Anna, Antonkiewicz Jacek, Avino Pasquale, Badura Marek, Barabasz Wiesław, Barthakur Manoj, Battegazzore Daniele, Biedka Paweł, Bilek Maciej, Bisschop Lieselot, Błaszczak Barbara, Błażejewski Ryszard, Bochoidze Inga, Bodzek Michał, Bogacki Jan, Borella Paola, Borowiak Klaudia, Borralho Teresa, Boyacioglu Hülya, Bunjongsiri Kultida, Burszta-Adamiak Ewa, Calderon Raul, Chatveera Burachat Chatveera, Cheng Gan, Chiwa Masaaki, Chojnicki Józef, Chrzanowski Łukasz, Ciesielczuk Tomasz, Czajka Agnieszka, Czaplicka Marianna, Daoud Mounir, Dąbek Lidia, Değermenci Gökçe, Dejan Dragan, Deluchat Véronique, Dereszewska Alina, Dębowski Marcin, Dong Shuying, Dudzińska Marzenna, Dunalska Julita, Dymaczewski Zbysław, El-Maradny Amr, Farfan-Cabrera Leonardo, Filizok Işık, Franus Wojciech, García-Ávila Fernando, Gariglio N.F., Gaya M.S, Gebicki Jacek, Giergiczny Zbigniew, Glińska-Lewczuk Katarzyna, Gnida Anna, Gospodarek Janina, Grabińska-Sota Elżbieta, Gusiatin Zygmunt, Harnisz Monika, Hartmann Peter, Hawrot-Paw Małgorzata, He Jianzhong, Hirabayashi Satoshi, Hulisz Piotr, Imhoff Silvia, Iurchenko Valentina, Jabłońska-Czapla Magdalena, Jacukowicz-Sobala Irena, Jeż-Walkowiak Joanna, Jordanov Igor, Jóżwiakowski Krzysztof, Kabsch-Korbutowicz Małgorzata, Kajda-Szcześniak Małgorzata, Kalinowski Radosław, Kalka Joanna, Karczewska Anna, Karwowska Ewa, Kim Ki-Hyun, Klejnowski Krzysztof, Klojzy-Karczmarczyk Beata, Korniłłowicz-Kowalska Teresa, Korus Irena, Kostecki Maciej, Koszelnik Piotr, Koter Stanisław, Kowalska Beata, Kowalski Zygmunt, Kozielska Barbara, Krzyżyńska Renata, Kulig Andrzej, Kwarciak-Kozłowska Anna, Kyzioł-Komosińska Joanna, Lagzdins Ainis, Ledakowicz Stanislaw, Ligęza Sławomir, Liu Xingpo, Loga Małgorzata, Łebkowska Maria, Macherzyński Mariusz, Makisha Nikolay, Makowska Małgorzata, Masłoń Adam, Mazur Zbigniew, Michel Monika, Miechówka Anna, Miksch Korneliusz, Mnuchin Nathan, Mokrzycki Eugeniusz, Molkenthin Frank, Mosquera Corral Anuska, Muhmood Atif, Muntean Edward, Myrta Anna, Nahorski Zbigniew, Narayanasamy Selvaraju, Naumczyk Jeremi, Nawalany Marek, Noubactep C., Nowakowski Piotr, Obarska-Pempkowiak Hanna, Orge C.A., Paul Lothar, Pawęska Katarzyna, Paździor Katarzyna, Pempkowiak Janusz, Peña A., Pietr Stanisław, Piotrowska-Seget Zofia, Pisoni E., Płaza Grażyna, Polkowska Żaneta, Reizer Magdalena, Renman Gunno, Rith Monorom, Romanovski Valentin, Rybicki Stanisław, Rydzkowski Tomasz, Rzętała Mariusz, Sadeghi Mahdi, Sakakibara Yutaka, Scudiero Rosaria, Semaan Mary, Seredyński Franciszek, Sergienko Ruslan, Shen Yujun, Sheng Yanqing, Sidełko Robert, Sočo Eleonora, Sojka Mariusz, Sówka Izabela, Spiak Zofia, Stegenta-Dąbrowska Sylwia, Steliga Teresa, Sulieman Magboul, Surmacz-Górska Joanna, Suryadevara Nagaraja, Suska-Malawska Małgorzata, Szalinska van Overdijk Ewa, Szczerbowski Radosław, Szetela Ryszard, Szpyrka Ewa, Szulczyński Bartosz, Szwast Maciej, Szyszlak-Bargłowicz Joanna, Ślipko Katarzyna, Świetlik Ryszard, Tabernacka Agnieszka, Tepe Yalçin, Tobiszewski Marek, Treichel Wiktor, Tyagi Uplabdhi, Uliasz-Bocheńczyk Alicja, Uzarowicz Łukasz, Van Harreveld A.P., Wang X. K., Wasielewski Ryszard, Wiatkowski Mirosław, Wielgosiński Grzegorz, Willner Joanna, Wisniewski Jacek, Witczak Joanna, Witkiewicz Zygfryd, Włodarczyk Małgorzata, Włodarczyk-Makuła Maria, Wojciechowska Ewa, Wojtkowska Małgorzata, Xinhui Duan, Yang Chunping, Yaqian Zhao Yaqian, Załęska-Radziwiłł Monika, Zamorska Justyna, Zasina Damian, Zawadzki Jarosław, Zdeb Monika M., Zheng Guodi, Zhu Ivan X., Ziułkiewicz Maciej, Zuberi Amina, Zwoździak Jerzy, Żabczyński Sebastian, Żukowski Witold, Żygadło Maria.

Plagiarism Policy

Anti-plagiarism policy

In accordance with AEP requirements, the authors of all articles submitted to the Editorial Office declare that the paper is an original work. Articles that have been approved by the Editorial Board for further processing are checked for originality using the program and iThenticate. As plagiarism, the Editorial Board (according to the definition of plagiarism/anti-plagiarism) recognizes:

• claiming someone else's work or parts of it as your own;
• copying someone else's or your own (self-plagiarism) fragments of articles without reference to the publication (title of the work, names of authors) from which it was taken
• inserting fragments of other works into the article, changing only the order of the sentence or introducing only minor changes to it
• an article in which the copied fragments, despite citing their sources, constitute a significant/major part of the article.

In case of plagiarism/self-plagiarism, further work on this article is stopped and it is removed from the Editorial System. The authors of the article (via the corresponding author) submitted to the Editorial Office of the AEP are informed about the reasons for removing the article.

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