Applied sciences

Archives of Electrical Engineering

Content

Archives of Electrical Engineering | 2018 | vol. 67 | No 3 |

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Abstract

Both the growing number of dispersed generation plants and storage systems

and the new roles and functions on the demand side (e.g. demand side management) are

making the operation (monitoring and control) of electrical grids more complex, especially

in distribution. This paper demonstrates how to integrate phasor measurements so that

state estimation in a distribution grid profits optimally from the high accuracy of PMUs.

Different measurement configurations consisting of conventional and synchronous mea-

surement units, each with different fault tolerances for the quality of the calculated system

state achieved, are analyzed and compared. Weighted least squares (WLS) algorithms for

conventional, linear and hybrid state estimation provide the mathematical method used in

this paper. A case study of an 18-bus test grid with real measured PMU data from a 110 kV

distribution grid demonstrates the improving of the system’s state variable’s quality by

using synchrophasors. The increased requirements, which are the prerequisite for the use

of PMUs in the distribution grid, are identified by extensively analyzing the inaccuracy of

measurement and subsequently employed to weight the measured quantities.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marc Richter
Ines Hauer
Przemysław Komarnicki
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Abstract

Wind energy has achieved prominence in renewable energy production. There fore, it is necessary to develop a diagnosis system and fault-tolerant control to protect the system and to prevent unscheduled shutdowns. The presented study aims to provide an experimental analysis of a speed sensor fault by hybrid active fault-tolerant control (AFTC) for a wind energy conversion system (WECS) based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The hybrid AFTC switches between a traditional controller based on proportional integral (PI) controllers under normal conditions and a robust backstepping controller system without a speed sensor to avoid any deterioration caused by the sensor fault. A sliding mode observer is used to estimate the PMSG rotor position. The proposed controller architecture can be designed for performance and robustness separately. Finally, the proposed methodwas successfully tested in an experimental set up using a dSPACE 1104 platform. In this experimental system, the wind turbine with a generator connection via a mechanical gear is emulated by a PMSM engine with controled speed through a voltage inverter. The obtained experimental results show clearly that the proposed method is able to guarantee service production continuity for the WECS in adequate transition.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ahmed Tahri
Said Hassaine
Sandrine Moreau
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Abstract

The optimal energy management (OEM) in a stand-alone microgrid (SMG) is a challenging job because of uncertain and intermittent behavior of clean energy sources (CESs) such as a photovoltaic (PV), wind turbine (WT). This paper presents the effective role of battery energy storage (BES) in optimal scheduling of generation sources to fulfill the load demand in an SMG under the intermittency of theWT and PV power. The OEM is performed by minimizing the operational cost of the SMG for the chosen moderate weather profile using an artificial bee colony algorithm (ABC) in four different cases, i.e. without the BES and with the BES having a various level of initial capacity. The results show the efficient role of the BES in keeping the reliability of the SMG with the reduction in carbon-emissions and uncertainty of the CES power. Also, prove that the ABC provides better cost values compared to particle swarm optimization (PSO) and a genetic algorithm (GA). Further, the robustness of system reliability using the BES is tested for the mean data of the considered weather profile.

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Authors and Affiliations

Navin Kumar Paliwal
Asheesh Kumar Singh
Navneet Kumar Singh
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Abstract

Mitigation of electromagnetic inference (EMI) is currently a challenge for scientists and designers in order to cope with electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) compliance in switching mode power supply (SMPS) and ensure the reliability of the whole system. Standard filtering techniques: passive and active ones present some insufficiency in terms of performance at high frequencies (HF) because analog components would no longer be controllable and this is mainly due to their parasitic elements. So developing EMI digital filters is very interesting, especially with the embedment of a machine control system on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) chip. In this paper, we present a design of an active digital EMI filter (ADF) to be integrated in a drive train system of an electric vehicle (EV). Hardware design as well as FPGA implementation issues have been presented to prove the efficiency of the developed digital filtering structure.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yosr Bchir
Soufien Gdaim
Hamza Djilali
Abdellatif Mtibaa
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Abstract

Power systems that are highly loaded, especially by a stochastic supply of renewables and the presence of storages, require dynamic measurements for their optimal control. Phasor measurement units (PMUs) can be used to capture electrical parameters of a power system. Standards on the PMU dynamic performance have been modified to incorporate their new dynamic mode of operation. This paper examines the PMU dynamic performance and proposes essential algorithms for measurement accuracy verification. Measurements of dynamic input signals, which vary in amplitude or frequency, were taken during automated tests of two PMUs. The test results are presented and expounded with further recommendation for the performance requirements. This paper also presents and examines applied testing procedures with relevance to the specifications of the IEEE Standard for Synchrophasor C37.118.1™-2011 and its amendment C37.118.1a™-2014.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bartłomiej Arendarski
Steffen Rabe
Wolfram Heineken
Przemysław Komarnicki
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Abstract

The deployment of a distributed power-flow controller (DPFC) in a single-machine infinite-bus power system with two parallel transmission lines are considered for the analysis in this paper. This paper presents the network analysis of the DPFC for power flow control. The performance is evaluated on a given test system with a single line-to-ground fault. The improvement in the stability as well as power quality is evident from the results. Thus the DPFC has the ability to enhance the stability and power quality of the system.

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Authors and Affiliations

Vikash Anan
Sanjeev Kumar Mallik
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Abstract

The analysis of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by the use of state-feedbacks is addressed. Generalized Frobenius matrices are proposed and their properties are investigated. It is shown that if the state matrix of an electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then the closed-loop system matrix is not positive and asymptotically stable. Different cases of modification of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by state-feedbacks are discussed and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions to the problem are established.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Kaczorek
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Abstract

In this paper, a three-air-gapped structure of a ferrite core for a resonant inductor is proposed. The electromagnetic and thermal field models are built using a 3D finite element method. Compared with the conventional signal-air-gapped structure of a ferrite core, the simulation and analysis results show that the proposed three-air-gapped ferrite core resonant inductor can reduce eddy-current loss and decrease temperature rise. In addition, the optimal position of air-gapped is presented.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jianfen Zheng
Chungfang Wang
Dongwei Xia
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Abstract

The paper includes a summary and a background of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at SilesianUniversity of Technology. The researchwork has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes a first part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to effective elimination of higher harmonics and reactive power compensation by means of parallel active power filters. The other problem discussed in this paper is related to this issue and it is very important from the economic point of view; it addresses optimal sizing and placement of active power filters in investigated power networks.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Pasko
Dawid Buła
Krzysztof Dębowski
Dariusz Grabowski
Marcin Maciążek
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Abstract

The paper includes a summary of long-time research conducted by a research team in the Institute of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Silesian University of Technology. The research work has principally been related to selected problems in the field of analysis and synthesis of systems aimed at symmetrisation and improvement of some power quality parameters. This paper constitutes the second part of the report on the research. It has been devoted to three-phase system symmetrisation as well as effective elimination of higher harmonics and substantial improvement of power quality by means of hybrid active power filters.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marian Pasko
Dawid Buła
Krzysztof Dębowski
Dariusz Grabowski
Marcin Maciążek
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Abstract

This paper presents a concept and the results of an investigation of a DC–DC boost converter with high voltage gain and a reduced number of switches. The novel concept assumes that the converter operates in a topology composed of series connection switched- capacitor-based multiplier (SCVM) sections. Furthermore, the structure of the sections has significant impact on parameters of the converter which is discussed in this paper. The paper demonstrates the basic benefit such a multisection SCVM idea in the converter, which is the significant reduction in the number of switches and diodes for high voltage gain in comparison to an SCVM converter. Aside from the number of switches and diodes, such parameters as efficiency and volume of passive components in the multisection converter are analyzed in this paper. In figures, the analysis is demonstrated using the example of 100 kW thyristor-based converters. All the characteristics of the converter are compared between various configurations of switching cells in the particular sections, thus the paper can be useful for a design approach for a high voltage gain multicell converter.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Piróg
Robert Stala
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Abstract

The paper presents general solutions for fractional state-space equations. The analysis of the fractional electrical circuit in the transient state is described by the equation of the state and space equations. The results are presented for the voltage of a capacitor and current in a coil, for different alpha values. The Caputo and conformable fractional derivative definitions have been considered. At the end, the results have been obtained.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ewa Piotrowska
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Abstract

A large amount of electric vehicles (EVs) charging load will bring significant impact to the power system. An appropriate resource allocation strategy is required for securing the power system safety and satisfying EVs charging demand. This paper proposed a power coordination allocation strategy of EVs’ in distribution systems. The strategy divides the allocation into two stages. The first stage is based on scores assigned to EVs through an entropy method, whereas the second stage allocates energy according to EV’s state of charge. The charging power is delivered in order to maximize EV users’ satisfaction and fairness without violation of grid constraints. Simulation on a typical power-limited residential distribution network proves the effectiveness of the strategy. The analysis re- sults indicate that compared with traditional methods, EVs, which have higher charging requirement and shorter available time will get more energy delivered than others. The root- mean-square-error (RMSE) and standard-deviation (SD) results prove the effectiveness of the methodology for improving the balance of power delivery.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yi Wang
Xiu Ma
Feihong Wang
Xingzhe Hou
Hongliang Sun
Ke Zheng
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Abstract

This paper is devoted towards life cycle economic analysis (LCEA) of a solar photovoltaic (PV) powered tri-cycle. The paper is meant to propose a more systematic approach in determining the optimum use of scarce resources in order to determine the most cost-effective option of the solar tri-cycle. This analysis is based on the life cycle cost of this solar vehicle, involving its comparison with the customary fuel-based tri-cycle which exhibits the relatively less expenditure of the solar alternative. The economic analysis takes into account the fact that over 20 years, the overall price of solar component, replacement and electricity charges, is much lower as compared to that of a fuel-based tri-cycle in India taking into consideration the fuel cost, maintenance and annual inflation over the same period.

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Authors and Affiliations

Soumya Das
Pradip Kumar Sadhu
Anup Majhi
Udayan Ghatak
Tuhin Bandyopadhya
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Abstract

The growth in the system load accompanied by an increase of power loss in the distribution system. Distributed generation (DG) is an important identity in the electric power sector that substantially overcomes power loss and voltage drop problems when it is coordinated with a location and size properly. In this study, the DG integration into the network is optimally distributed by considering the load conditions in different load models used to surmount the impact of load growth. There are five load models tested namely constant, residential, industrial, commercial and mixed loads. The growth of the electrical load is modeled for the base year up to the fifth year as a short-term plan. Minimization of system power loss is taken as the main objective function considering voltage limits. Determination of the location and size of DG is optimally done by using the breeder genetic algorithm (BGA). The proposed studies were applied to the IEEE 30 radial distribution system with single and multiple placement DG scenarios. The results indicated that installing an optimal location and size DG could have a strong potential to reduce power loss and to secure future energy demand of load models. Also, commercial load requires the largest DG active injection power to maintain the voltage value within tolerable limits up to five years.

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Authors and Affiliations

Yuli Asmi Rahman
Salama Manjang
Yusran
Amil Ahmad Ilham
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Abstract

The research on the coupling electromagnetic effect was studied in this paper, in consideration of the wreaking damage of the powerful electromagnetic pulse to the electronic products. The characteristic of the metallic via and stub interconnect with the coupling voltage was calculated by the model, which was the transfer function F( f ) of the protection circuit parameters of DC power source. The research showed that: the smaller radius of Metallic via, the lower amplitude of F( f ), the less energy of a power electro- magnetic pulse (PEP); the higher increase of the width of the stub interconnect, the bigger reduction of the characteristic impedance of plane wave coupling, the depth of the notch band significantly narrowed. The simulations and experiments were done to compare the protection effects of protection circuits with different parameters at last. The results showed that the protection circuit designed could be highly advantageous in protecting the DC power source in this article.

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Authors and Affiliations

Xiaofei Xu
Denghua Li
Shuhui Yang

Instructions for authors

ARCHIVES OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING (AEE) (previously Archiwum Elektrotechniki), quarterly journal of the Polish Academy of Sciences is OpenAccess, publishing original scientific articles and short communiques from all branches of Electrical Power Engineering exclusively in English. The main fields of interest are related to the theory & engineering of the components of an electrical power system: switching devices, arresters, reactors, conductors, etc. together with basic questions of their insulation, ampacity, switching capability etc.; electrical machines and transformers; modelling & calculation of circuits; electrical & magnetic fields problems; electromagnetic compatibility; control problems; power electronics; electrical power engineering; nondestructive testing & nondestructive evaluation.

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