Life Sciences and Agriculture

Teka Komisji Ochrony I Kształtowania Środowiska Przyrodniczego


Teka Komisji Ochrony I Kształtowania Środowiska Przyrodniczego | 2016 | Vol XIII |


Dratów, Krzczeń and Tomaszne lakes are among environmentally valuable reservoirs in Poland and Łęczyńsko-Włodawskie Lakeland. These are shallow eutrophic reservoirs of varied water surface. What they have in common is the fact that they are linked by Wieprz-Krzna Canal. The main aim of the present study was to determine the degree of faunistic similarity between planktonic rorifer assemblages inhabiting these particular lakes. The authors were interested to find out whether linking the lakes with the canal, as well as currently applied water exchange could affect the degree of faunistic similarity occurring between these lakes. Physical and chemi-cal analyses, as well as the studies of planktonic rotifers were carried out in the spring, summer and autumn of 2012 and 2013. They included determining the qualitative composition and the density of planktonic rotifers. The studies resulted in finding 50 species of Rotifera, with mean density ranging from 75 to 855 ind. dm-3. The dominants included the common species of Keratel-la cochlearis, Keratella cochlearis tecta, Keratella quadrata, Polyarthra vulgaris, Kellicottia longispina, Brachionus angularis, Ascomorpha odalis and Synchaeta pectinata. The results re-vealed high faunistic similarity among rotifer assemblages inhabiting a particular lake in different years, and high diversification occurring between the lakes compared in the work. The analyses showed that linking the lakes by Wieprz-Krzna Canal did not significantly affect the faunistic similarity of these particular lakes.
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Structure of fish communities of five small water reservoirs located near the Wieprz--Krzna Canal was investigated during the years 2002, 2008 and 2014. In the analyzed water bod-ies seven fish were noted, representing four families: Cyprinidae (5 species) and Esocidae, Cobi-tidae and Ictaluridae (1 species each). In the structure of collected fish two protected species (M. fossilis and R. sericeus amarus) and one alien species (C. auratus gibelio) were presented. Domination structure of ichthyofauna showed considerable differences. Among the dominant species were: I. nebulosus (all five reservoir), C. auratus (Jabłoń Center 2, Jabłoń Church and Jabłoń Firlej-Ostrówek), and R. rutilus (Jabłoń West and Jabłoń Firlej-Ostrówek). The percentage of each fish species in the biomass was slightly different in relation to the structure of domination expressed by the number of identified individuals. Regardless of the reservoir, larger share held: E. lucius, I. nebulosus and C. auratus Moreover, one of the purpose of the study was searching for a new stands of lake minnow. However, the species was not recorded in fish communities of any of the reservoirs, despite of the ecological state of reservoirs indicating the potential habitat for lake minnow.
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The primary objective of the present study was to determine the seasonal dynamics of ciliates in activated sludge. Studies were carried out in order to verify the hypothesis that fertility of a habitat may significantly influence the seasonal dynamics of the abundance of ciliates, as well as the number and intensity of correlations between physic-chemical parameters and ciliates. It seems that the values of numbers of ciliates were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of ciliates were found in spring and summer, however the lowest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in winter. The studies showed that protozoa community is determined by ammonia mainly in summer. In spring and winter additional factors may be important. Probably suspended solid, total organic carbon and concentration of appropriate food (bacteria and flagellates) are the major regulator of abundance of ciliates.
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The research was carried out on species diversity, density and similarity of Gastrotricha living on two species of macrophytes Myriophyllum spicatum L. and Elodea canadensis Michx. in a mesotrophic lake. Gastrotricha occurring on the studied macrophytes were represented by 23 species (21 on M. spicatum L. and 22 on E. canadensis Michx.). Species diversity (expressed by the Shannon index) for the Gastrotricha occurring on the two studied species of macrophytes amounted to 2.70 for M. spicatum L. and 2.81 for E. canadensis Michx., what suggests equal distribution of the gastrotrich species revealed in the studied species of macrophytes. The definite dominants inhabiting the two species of macrophytes were: Heterolepidoderma macrops Kisielewski, 1981, Heterolepidoderma ocellatum (Mečnikow, 1865), Lepidoderma squamata (Dujardin, 1841) and Aspidiophorus squamulosus Roszczak, 1936, and their inclusive percentage participation in the whole gastrotrich fauna for M. spicatum L. and E. canadensis Michx. was 41.8 and 40.3% respectively. The domination structure of the gastrotrich fauna of the two species of macrophytes was similar for each gastrotrich species (G-test, for all p > 0.05). Average density of Gastrotricha inhabiting M. spicatum L. amounted to 588.0 10³ indiv. m-2, and density of Gastrotricha occurring on E. canadensis Michx. amounted to 670.0 10³ indiv. m-2. Statistic analysis based on the Mann-Whitney test showed that differences of the gastrotrich densi-ty on the studied species of macrophytes: M. spicatum L. and E. canadensis Michx. (Z = -1.9282; p = 0.05) are statistically insignificant.
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Microzonation of testate amoebae and ciliates in relation to physical and chemical parameters in different species of mosses in peatland were studied. Regardless of the species of mosses, similar micro-vertical differentiation of these protozoa was ascertained. A similar number of species, like the abundance, significantly increased in the deepest sampling depth. The upper-most sampling of the mosses (0–5 cm) was dominated by mixotrophic taxons, whereas the deepest sampling level (5–10 cm) shown the increase of the proportion of bacterivore species. In peatlands the factors limiting the occurrence of ciliates and testate amoebae are physio-chemical suitablilty – mainly the total organic carbon content and water table depth, but with somewhat lower levels of pH and species of mosses.
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The paper aimed to get the analysis of spatial horizontal distribution of summer phyto-plankton in a small and shallow lake (Głębokie, Western Polesie, CE Poland) in relation to wind conditions occurring during the research period. The study was conducted in 2011 from 5th of July to 5th of September with eight sampling dates between. Water was sampled in the littoral zone from the depth of 0.5 m in four sites situated in different and opposite to one another lake shores. We analyzed the phytoplankton abundance by the way of chlorophyll a determination as well as the community taxonomic structure. Our research revealed that: a) the direction of the wind, which occurred during sampling might have an important role in the horizontal distribution of planktonic algal biomass within the lake; b) the geomorphology of lake surroundings probably mitigated the influence of wind on phytoplankton distribution; c) even weak or mild wind may influence phytoplankton horizontal differentiation.
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The aim of the study was to determine species structure of aquatic bugs in four anthro-pogenic water reservoirs. Heteroptera structure observed in studied reservoirs was clearly differen-tiated, which refers to age of the ponds. Newly created water reservoirs become quickly colonized mainly by pioneering species Corixinae, which led to formation of taxonomic group population of density exceeding 2700 indiv. m-2. In older reservoirs there were fish, which potential predation pressure led to almost a complete decline of bugs. The reason of bugs poverty in water reservoirs colonized by fish was also probably a small habitat diversity, leading to lack of refuges from predators.
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The upper section of the Bystrzyca River has a character of trout and grayling zone of river. The aim of the study was to determine the species composition of fish in the upper section of the Bystrzyca River and attempt to evaluate angling pressure on fish in this section of river based on analysis of records of amateur fishing. To determine the fish composition the control fishing was conducted using electric fishing gear. The assessment of angling pressure was based on the analysis of 2135 records of fishing in the mountain type rivers in 2012 year, obtained from PAA Lublin. The brown trout and grayling were a dominant fish species in the upper section of the Bystrzyca River, and the first of them was present on the whole length of the river and had the highest average density. The changes of fish community along the river course from Salmonids lead to an increase of the share of Cyprinids fish has been observed. Analysis of records of ama-teur fish catch revealed that the upper section of the Bystrzyca River is under considerable of angling pressure and the most commonly fished species was brown trout. However, the properly carried fishery management on this section of river and the establishment of „no kill” zone allows for proper maintenance of the populations of fish species valuable for anglers.
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The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of water movement on both qualita-tive and quantitative occurrence of macrophytes in lakes. We studied four lakes differentiated in respect of water supply (two flow and two inflow).The investigation included: determination of the buffer zones of lakes, analysis of land use forms and layout of the buffer zone, floristic charac-teristic of lakes littoral, characteristic of phytolittoral types, analysis of physical and chemical parameters of lakes. The buffer zone of the flow lakes was dominated by farmland, but there was no land meadow. In the inflow lakes co-dominated fields and forests in the buffer zone. The in-flow lakes characterized by greater species diversity, density and biomass of emergent macro-phytes. In all investigated lakes, in the zone of water supply, analyzed features of macrophytes, and selected chemical parameters of water, reached the highest value.
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The paper presents an original method for assessing the landscape physiognomy of the rural public spaces. It takes into account both the purely aesthetic qualities as well as those that affect the functionality, attractiveness and significance of a given space. The following features are evaluated: coziness, availability, the nature of the edges, presence of greenery, presence of water ecosystems, presence of landscape dominants and landmarks, opening and view connec-tions, presence of negative elements, local identity and tradition, bendiness, and the nature of light. The method has been applied to evaluate the selected rural public spaces of the Polesie region realized in the years 2008–2015. The study revealed that 40% of the analyzed places were rated positively, 33% neutrally and 27% negatively. The article examines the types of spaces which obtained the highest and the lowest raring position, as well as features that affect this as-sessment. Besides, the analysis of main advantages and disadvantages of newly created public spaces show direction of their improvement.
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Changes in the land use structure, which are observed in recent years, generally indicate their negative impact on ecological quality considered in the landscape scale. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether such a trend also applies to protected areas, such as land-scape parks (LP). As research areas four parks located within the Roztocze and Solska Forest (Poland) were selected. Three factors were analyzed as an surrogate indicators of the ecological quality: the degree of anthropogenic transformation of land cover forms, landscape diversity and the degree of landscape fragmentation. The study included data for the years 2004 and 2012 and was based on the GIS and orthophotomaps analysis. The results showed a lack of general trends for the whole analyzed region. The impact of changes in the land use structure on the ecological values can be defined as positive for Krasnobród LP and South Roztocze LP. In the case of Szczebrzeszyn LP and Solska Forest LP the impact is difficult to determine due to the different results obtained on the basis of selected indicators. Therefore, in order to totally illustrate the analyzed dependence the landscape structure in other periods of time should be analyzed, as well as the correlations between the defined changes and a variety of natural and cultural considerations.
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The aim of the study was to specify the current status and direction of transformations of leaf beetle assemblages taking part in the rapid process of succession of vegetation towards the types of forest communities occurring in the Krzemionki Opatowskie reserve. At five sampling sites (in five plant associations) 30 species of Chrysomelidae were recorded. Five typical forest species (Chrysomela populi, Pyrrhalta viburni, Calomicrus pinicola, Altica brevicollis and Cryp-tocephalus labiatus) accounted for 16.67% of the number of species and 12.85% of the number of individuals caught in the reserve. The forest association richest in species (18) was Querco ro-boris-Pinetum (Que_Pin). This was followed by Tilio-Carpinetum association (Til_Car, 15 spp.), and then a mosaic of Tilio-Carpinetum and Querco roboris-Pinetum (Til_Car/Que_Pin), and Peucedano-Pinetum (Peu_Pin) (11 spp. each). The fewest number of species (10) were noted in Potentillo albae-Quercetum (Pot_Que). The most similar were the fauna of Potentillo albae--Quercetum (Pot_Que) and Querco roboris-Pinetum (Que_Pin) (55.08% similarity). The most distinct was the fauna of Peucedano-Pinetum (Peu_Pin). We can conclude that the structure of the leaf beetle assemblages in the forest associations studied in the reserve is at present an adaptive mixture of faunas characteristic of all the intermediate successional stages of vegetation, changing in this area in a relatively short time. The considerable diversity of fauna is the result of an ‘eco-tone in time’, i.e. the continuous presence of open-land species, which until recently had dominated here, accompanied by forest species characteristic of the current habitat types.
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The relationships between epiphytic fauna and habitat conditions were studied in three oxbow lakes of Wieprz River (eastern Poland). Fauna associated with macrophytes showed low species richness (range 8–11 taxa dependently on site and season) usually observed in lakes of high water trophy. Densities of fauna were high (mean 71–5250 ind. 100 g DW-1), typical for shallow lakes with well developed submerged vegetation. In the domination structure prevailed Gastropoda (relative abundance 23–100%) and Chironomidae (relative abundance 8–87%). Re-dundancy analysis showed the significance of four environmental variables – temperature, dis-solved oxygen, Ptot and P-PO4 as determinants of abundance of epiphytic fauna.
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The paper presents the characteristics of shallow groundwaters of the Polesie National Park – one of five national parks in Poland, where main subjects of protection are water-peatland ecosystems. Its functioning depends on the state of water resources. Data from field mapping at the turn of July and August 2013 used for the analysis show untypically high location of groundwaters in the summer period. Such a situation was caused by abundant atmospheric alimentation that occurred in spring and early summer of the analysed year.
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dr Geert de Blust (Research Institute for Nature and Forest Department, Bruksela, Belgia),
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prof. Roman Dziedzic (UP, Lublin), dr Eeva Furman (Finnish Environment Institute – SYKE, Helsinki, Finlandia), prof. Andrzej Giziński (UMK, Toruń), prof. Jan Gliński (czł. rzecz. PAN), prof. Ryszard Gołdyn (UAM, Poznań), prof. Maria Grzybkowska (Uniw. Łodzki),
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