Applied sciences

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal

Content

Polityka Energetyczna - Energy Policy Journal | 2020 | vol. 23 | No 3 |

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Abstract

At present, it is said that Industry 4.0 is the fourth industrial revolution. Like the previous ones, it also has the ability to transform economies, jobs and societies. Our expectations are changing to the speed of obtaining answers to the questions asked. This is done by introducing new technologies and processes. This is an opportunity for Polish participants of local heat markets, or participants of the power or energy market. who are currently facing profound changes and investments forced, among others, by BAT conclusions. Such mega-processes as digitization, automation, artificial intelligence, IoT, machine learning are increasingly penetrating the world and business. More than 200 years have passed since the first industrial revolution, which was the use of the steam engine, and the requirements for testing the efficiency of enterprises have changed, which themselves are changing very quickly. The basic efficiency measures used in a given sector often result from the specifics of the sector and its degree of development on a macroeconomic scale. Therefore, it is worth placing the energy company in this environment and presenting its role to better match the instruments used. The above is also associated with increased reporting and the need to use additional evaluation measures, e.g. effectiveness of individual projects. It is therefore worth analyzing the available literature in this area, and the performance measures available and used in it, which will help in assessing the effectiveness of management, despite political and regulatory turmoil, and help us use the opportunities brought by the fourth industrial revolution.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Kinelski
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Abstract

Underground gas storage facilities play an important part in the maintenance of balance between the constantly imported raw material and variable gas demand in the discussed part of Europe. They also allow for more the efficient operation of businesses which exploit this raw material in this part of Europe and operators of power lines.

The following issues will be discussed in the article: types, capacity, location and variability of the filling level of underground gas storage facilities in Poland, the Czech Republic, Hungary, and Slovakia; similarities and differences in the policy of natural gas storage between individual Visegrad Group countries; the influence of these differences on the situation in the gas market; the influence of the planned further reconstruction of the natural gas storage facilities system on the energy security of individual countries which belong to the Visegrad Group.

Concern for UGSF is one of the conditions of expansion of transmission pipelines to the north and south, increase of LNG import within the Visegrad Group, or the creation of a gas hub in Poland – initiatives aimed at, among others, securing the continuity of supplies to domestic users.

However, the current and planned investments indirectly indicate that in the policies of the governments of the Visegrad Group countries, UGSF are supposed to soon play a much smaller role than many researchers would expect. An intensive expansion of UGSF is very unlikely. The scale of the state’s effect on the role of storage facilities in supplying gas to users depends on the level of the state’s control over the companies managing UGSF.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Skrzyński
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Abstract

In Poland an increase in the of number solar thermal collectors is observed in household applications. For economic and ecological profitability the creation of a solar thermal installation design in a proper manner is essential.

In order to determine solar installations size, software calculating future solar heat gains is used. SHW software is an examples of such software. The aim of this work was to compare the simulation results with the real results of the solar installation operation. The comparison was performed by an example of a single-family house with flat plate collector installations located in south-east Poland. This installation supports domestic hot water preparation in a house occupied by four people (in two-year period of analyses). The additional heat source in this building is a gas boiler. Solar fraction parameter values were chosen for this comparison. Solar fraction is calculated as a ratio of solar heat gains used in the domestic hot water preparation process to the heat desired for domestic hot water preparation. The real results of Solar Fraction turned out to be higher than the simulation results from May to August (there were many days with Solar Fraction = 1). A difference of 20–50 percentage points was observed (Solar Fraction). Apart from this period no special differences were observed.

Additionally analyses of differences between solar heat gains calculated by Get Solar simulation software with real values (for analyzed building) was performed. This simulation analysis was done before process of building installations.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Olczak
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Abstract

The expected demand for hard coal intended for the households will progressively be decreasing. This is directly related to the introduced anti-smog resolutions, as well as the growing level of environmental awareness. However, it should be noted, that the use of the modern home heating boilers will result in an increase in the demand for medium coal sizes. The shortfall of this type of coal is already observed on the market. Therefore, its import is necessary. One of the solutions to increase the supply of the medium coal sizes is the production of coal briquettes. Moreover, their use will consequently lead to reduced emissions.

The paper presents a comparison of emissions from the combustion of coal briquettes and hard coal in home heating boilers. The briquettes were characterized by significantly lower emissions than hard coal (by 52% on average). The particulate matter emissions were lower by 70%. This may significantly contribute to improving air quality in Poland and in addition, limit the occurrence of smog. The possibility of further emission reduction by using low-emission fuels as briquette components was presented. The average relative emission reduction compared to hard coal for the analyzed fuels was estimated as follows: 62% for coal char, 57% for coke, 51% for charcoal/biocarbon, 49% for anthracite, 45% for torrefied biomass, and 33% for peat.

Furthermore, the issue of the mercury content in the analyzed fuels was discussed. The lowest mercury content was found in biomass fuels, in particular biomass after thermal treatment (torrefied biomass, biocarbon, and charcoal). Fuels produced from hard coal in the pyrolysis process (coal char and coke) were characterized by very low mercury content as well.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tadeusz Dziok
Krystian Penkała
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Abstract

As is well known, gas consumption and its prices depends on many factors including local factors, geopolitics, the development of the gas transport infrastructure (including liquefied natural gas), distribution and extraction costs – for example unconventional deposits (e.g. shale gas). The global gas market depends primarily on the economic relations between large gas producers and importers e.g. US-China, Middle East/US – Russia etc. (Olayele 2015). In individual countries, the price is also dependent on concluded contracts and delivery directions. Also it should be mentioned that the gas consumption depends on weather conditions, type of day of the year (holiday, business day, month) and economic situation (Kosowski et. al 2010). What impact has the appearance of the COVID-19 epidemic had on the European natural gas market?

The analyzed research problem concerned, in particular, two areas: gas consumption and its prices, in selected European countries in the aspect of the spread of the COVID-19 epidemic with reference to historical data from 2016–2019. Seven European countries belonging to the European Network of Transmission System Operators for Gas (ENTSOG) were selected, for which the highest inland consumption of natural gas by country was observed in the last year. The countries are presented in order or consumption: Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, France, the Netherlands, Spain, Poland. The data has been downloaded from transmission system operators (TSOs) for each of these countries.

Furthermore the article showed information about the dates of governments restrictions (lockdown), LNG contract volumes, injection/withdrawal volumes (storage).

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Chrulski
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Abstract

The strategic goals of EU energy development have been clarified, based on efforts to increase and comply with environmental protection requirements, reducing energy consumption in the manufacturing and service sector, reduce dependence on energy imports, and increase the involvement of renewable resources in energy. The structure of the unified energy system of Ukraine was monitored. The volumes of electricity released by various power-generating enterprises in Ukraine, as well as the existing capacity of main and inter-state electric power grids for transmission of electricity, were analyzed. The volume of electricity exports and imports of the unified energy system of Ukraine and its possibilities to increase exports to the EU countries have been diagnosed. It has been proven that due to the change in the operating model of the electricity market the liberalization of the electricity market of Ukraine promotes the attraction of investment resources aimed at branching the possibilities of importing electricity generated in Ukraine into the ENTSO-E system. The structural tendencies of changes in generated electricity in final consumption at the expense of renewable energy sources of the European countries and Ukraine were studied. Options for increasing the efficiency of renewable energy sources are proposed The use of renewable energy sources on the basis of leveling out certain disadvantages is proposed. The directions improve the management of electricity enterprises in the conditions of the European integration choice of Ukraine including towards attracting investment resources through the use of public-private partnerships to improve the efficiency of the energy system of Ukraine are substantiated.

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Authors and Affiliations

Rostislav Tulchinskiy
Mykola Butko
Svitlana Tulchynska
Veronika Khudolei
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Abstract

The issue of energy security was the subject of research in the 1970s when the oil crisis of 1973 significantly affected the economic stability of hundreds of companies and ordinary citizens in the United States and Western Europe. One of the first researchers of energy security was Mason Willrich who, considering the impact of energy on international politics, national security, the world economy, and the environment in the world, drew attention to the issues of “security of supply” and “security of demand” as fundamental to ensure energy security. The concept of “energy security” involves the comprehensive implementation of political, economic, environmental, technological, and social measures to strengthen the internal subjectivity of the state and limit opportunities for external influence. Subsequently, numerous researchers have expanded the understanding of energy security to environmental sustainability and energy efficiency). The presented scientific work is focused on the analysis of state management decisions for ensuring the energy security of Ukraine. The authors also trace vulnerabilities in various energy systems, including energy infrastructure, energy services, and renewable energy sources. The decline in energy demand due to the COVID-19 pandemic in Ukraine has created a dilemma: state support for renewable energy production (RES), which generates rising producer prices, or reduced energy intensity of GDP and stimulated production of cheap nuclear energy. A comprehensive scientific analysis of the solution to this dilemma is the purpose of the presented work.

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Authors and Affiliations

Andrii Kytaiev
Nina Chala
Yehor Androsov
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Abstract

The paper aims to test the hypothesis whether high tariffs lead to a high efficiency of electricity suppliers. The authors test this hypothesis on a case of 29 Ukrainian electricity distribution companies. Using the data envelopment analysis and correlation coefficients, grouping the super-efficiency scores, the authors found that in most regions of Ukraine the increase in tariffs no longer leads to increased efficiency. This indicates a weakness of tariff policy in most of the electricity distribution companies. The case showed that rising tariffs can cause a decline in revenue, net income and an increase in accounts payable. This does not allow the electricity distribution companies to provide high efficiency.

Apart from this, despite improving the financial performance of most companies, the electricity distribution industry in Ukraine as a whole remains unprofitable. However, the high percentage of foreign investors in this industry indicates a significant potential for increasing the efficiency of Ukrainian energy companies. The government control of the electricity distribution companies more often provides medium efficiency, while the management by foreign investors often provides a high efficiency. The absence of the major owner and the presence of blocking stakes in any investor (government, domestic or foreign investors) has a negative impact on the efficiency of energy companies.

Although the case is limited to one country and 29 companies, this study can serve as a model for wider testing of the research hypothesis in other markets and countries.

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Authors and Affiliations

Anatoliy G. Goncharuk
Tamara Horobets
Vadym Yatsyshyn
Iryna Lahutina
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Abstract

The article present the results of use of the proposed economic and mathematical apparatus to develop scenarios that provide for the partial or complete elimination of contradictions associated with the pricing policy between oil and gas production and the production of refined products. In the output we noted changes in the material consumption of products of the oil and gas sector of Ukraine. We corrected a certain contradiction between the extractive and processing enterprises of the oil and gas sector. This is related to the uneven distribution of value added between them, which allows extractive enterprises to make a profit, while processing enterprises are at a breakeven point. This situation, as we have seen, also distorts the results of the real assessment of resource efficiency in this sector of the economy. Thus, the research is aimed at developing scenarios that provide for a gradual decrease in the price of extractive products and its simultaneous growth in processing so that the corresponding impact on the economy was minimal. The first scenario envisaged a reduction in the price by –10% for the products of oil and gas companies with a simultaneous increase in the price of refining so that the average share of value added in the country as a whole was not decreased, taking appropriate adjustments of resource efficiency indicators into account. The second scenario was based on the need for deeper price adjustments in the oil and gas sector. Thus, the reduction of the price of products at the extractive enterprises at the level of –20% and its increase it in processing while maintaining the national average share of value added was envisioned. The third scenario provided for the equalization of material consumption in production and processing due to the price factor.

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Authors and Affiliations

Nadiia Shmygol
Olena Cherniavska
Tеtіana Pulina
Ruslan Zavgorodniy
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Abstract

In the article, mathematical modeling methods are used to study the main trends and macroeconomic determinants of the electric car market development in 2011–2018 on the example of the US. The determinants include economic (GDP), socio-economic (household income), energy (electricity use), and environmental (СО2 emissions) factors. The authors justify the role of electric transport in strengthening national energy security due to the transition to renewable energy technologies and the reduction of fossil fuel use. Based on the constructed linear regression equations, a weak relationship has been revealed between the number of electric vehicles sold and the environmental factor, which can be explained by the small share of electric cars in the US market. The formed multifactor linear model showed a positive impact of both the country’s GDP growth and electricity consumption increase on the number of electric vehicles sold. However, the rise in household incomes negatively influences market development due to insufficient consumer awareness of the electric transport operation benefits, an underdeveloped network of electric vehicle charging stations, etc. Based on the obtained multifactor model, the authors have built optimistic, optimal and pessimistic scenarios for the US electric vehicle market deployment for the next five years. In order to implement the most favorable scenarios, recommendations for market development factors’ management have been made. The results of the study can be used to improve public policy in the US transport and energy sectors, as well as in other countries to optimize the fuel and energy balance, strengthen the energy independence of states by developing clean transport and adapting the model to national specifics.

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Authors and Affiliations

Iryna Sotnyk
Daniil Hulak
Oleksandr Yakushev
Oksana Yakusheva
Olha V. Prokopenko
Andrii Yevdokymov

Editorial office

Editorial Board
  • Editor-in-Chief: Eugeniusz Mokrzycki
  • Deputy Editor-in-Chief: Lidia Gawlik (section: utilization of energy resources)
  • Editorial Secretary: Katarzyna Stala-Szlugaj (section: fuels and energy)
  • Deputy Editorial Secretary: Jacek Kamiński (section: energy)
  • Statistical Editor: Jacek Mucha
Advisory Board
  • Rolf Bracke, Professor, The International Geothermal Centre Hochschule, Bochum, Germany
  • Tadeusz Chmielniak, DSc(Eng), Professor, The Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland
  • Mariusz Filipowicz, DSc(Eng), Associate Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Anatoliy Goncharuk, Professor, The International Humanitarian University, Odessa, Ukraine
  • Ernst Huenges, Professor, The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Potsdam, Germany
  • Louis Jestin, Adjunct Professor, The University of Cape Town, Rondebosch, RSA
  • Gudni Johannesson, PhD(Eng), Orkustofnun, The Icelandic National Energy Authority, Reykjavik, Iceland
  • Jacek Marecki, DSc(Eng), Professor, Gdańsk University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
  • Nuria Rabanal, PhD, The University of Leon, Leon, Spain
  • Jakub Siemek, DSc(Eng), Professor, The AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, Poland
  • Jan Soliński, PhD, Polish Member of the Committee of the WEC, Warsaw, Poland
  • Namejs Zeltins, DSc(Eng), Professor, The Institute of Physical Energetics, Riga, Latvia
Publishing Committee
  • Emilia Rydzewska – linguistic editor (Polish)
  • Michelle Atallah – linguistic editor (English)
  • Beata Stankiewicz – technical editor

Contact

Mineral and Energy Economy Research Institute of the Polish Academy of Sciences
J. Wybickiego 7A, 31-261 Kraków,
Phone: (+48) 12 632 33-00, Fax: +48 12 632 35-24,
Email: polene@min-pan.krakow.pl

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