Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2017 | vol. 24 | No 2 |

Abstract

A robust Kalman filter improved with IGG (Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics) scheme is proposed and used to resist the harmful effect of gross error from GPS observation in PPP/INS (precise point positioning/inertial navigation system) tightly coupled positioning. A new robust filter factor is constructed as a three-section function to increase the computational efficiency based on the IGG principle. The results of simulation analysis show that the robust Kalman filter with IGG scheme is able to reduce the filter iteration number and increase efficiency. The effectiveness of new robust filter is demonstrated by a real experiment. The results support our conclusion that the improved robust Kalman filter with IGG scheme used in PPP/INS tightly coupled positioning is able to remove the ill effect of gross error in GPS pseudorange observation. It clearly illustrates that the improved robust Kalman filter is very effective, and all simulated gross errors added to GPS pseudorange observation are successfully detected and modified.

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Abstract

The paper presents the problem of assessing the accuracy of reconstructing free-form surfaces in the CMM/CAD/CAM/CNC systems. The system structure comprises a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) PMM 12106 equipped with a contact scanning probe, a 3-axis Arrow 500 Vertical Machining Center, QUINDOS software and Catia software. For the purpose of surface digitalization, a radius correction algorithm was developed. The surface reconstructing errors for the presented system were assessed and analysed with respect to offset points. The accuracy assessment exhibit error values in the reconstruction of a free-form surface in a range of ± 0.02 mm, which, as it is shown by the analysis, result from a systematic error.

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Abstract

The paper describes the construction, operation and test results of three most popular interpolators from a viewpoint of time-interval (TI) measurement systems consisting of many tapped-delay lines (TDLs) and registering pulses of a wide-range changeable intensity. The comparison criteria include the maximum intensity of registered time stamps (TSs), the dependency of interpolator characteristic on the registered TSs’ intensity, the need of using either two counters or a mutually-complementing pair counter-register for extending a measurement range, the need of calculating offsets between TDL inputs and the dependency of a resolution increase on the number of used TDL segments. This work also contains conclusions about a range of applications, usefulness and methods of employing each described TI interpolator. The presented experimental results bring new facts that can be used by the designers who implement precise time delays in the field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA).

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Abstract

We studied lateral silicon p-i-n junctions, doped with phosphorus and boron, regarding charge sensing feasibility. In order to examine the detection capabilities and underlying mechanism, we used in a complementary way two measurement techniques. First, we employed a semiconductor parameter analyzer to measure I−V characteristics at a low temperature, for reverse and forward bias conditions. In both regimes, we systematically detected Random Telegraph Signal. Secondly, using a Low Temperature Kelvin Probe Force Microscope, we measured surface electronic potentials. Both p-i-n junction interfaces, p-i and i-n, were observed as regions of a dynamic behaviour, with characteristic time-dependent electronic potential fluctuations. Those fluctuations are due to single charge capture/emission events. We found analytically that the obtained data could be explained by a model of two-dimensional p-n junction and phosphorus-boron interaction at the edge of depletion region. The results of complementary measurements and analysis presented in this research, supported also by the previous reports, provide fundamental insight into the charge sensing mechanism utilizing emergence of individual dopants.

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Abstract

In this paper, the effect of the resolution of an analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) on the accuracy of timedomain low-frequency electrical impedance spectroscopy is examined. For the first time, we demonstrated that different wideband stimuli signals used for impedance spectroscopy have different sensitivities to the resolution of ADC used in impedance spectroscopy systems. We also proposed Ramp and Half-Gaussian signals as new wideband stimulating signals for EIS. The effect of ADC resolution was studied for Sinc, Gaussian, Half-Gaussian, and Ramp excitation signals using both simulation and experiments. We found that Ramp and Half-Gaussian signals have the best performance, especially at low frequencies. Based on the results, a wideband electrical impedance spectroscopy circuit was implemented with a high accuracy at frequencies bellow 10 Hz.

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Abstract

EEG signal-based sleep stage classification facilitates an initial diagnosis of sleep disorders. The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of three methods for feature extraction: power spectral density (PSD), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and empirical mode decomposition (EMD) in the automatic classification of sleep stages by an artificial neural network (ANN). 13650 30-second EEG epochs from the PhysioNet database, representing five sleep stages (W, N1-N3 and REM), were transformed into feature vectors using the aforementioned methods and principal component analysis (PCA). Three feed-forward ANNs with the same optimal structure (12 input neurons, 23 + 22 neurons in two hidden layers and 5 output neurons) were trained using three sets of features, obtained with one of the compared methods each. Calculating PSD from EEG epochs in frequency sub-bands corresponding to the brain waves (81.1% accuracy for the testing set, comparing with 74.2% for DWT and 57.6% for EMD) appeared to be the most effective feature extraction method in the analysed problem.

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Abstract

The suitability of low-cost impedance sensors for microbiological purposes and biofilm growth monitoring was evaluated. The sensors with interdigitated electrodes were fabricated in PCB and LTCC technologies. The electrodes were golden (LTCC) or gold-plated (PCB) to provide surface stability. The sensors were used for monitoring growth and degradation of the reference ATCC 15442 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain biofilm in invitro setting. During the experiment, the impedance spectra of the sensors were measured and analysed using electrical equivalent circuit (EEC) modelling. Additionally, the process of adhesion and growth of bacteria on a sensor’s surface was assessed by means of the optical and SEM microscopy. EEC and SEM microscopic analysis revealed that the gold layer on copper electrodes was not tight, making the PCB sensors susceptible to corrosion while the LTCC sensors had good surface stability. It turned out that the LTCC sensors are suitable for monitoring pseudomonal biofilm and the PCB sensors are good detectors of ongoing stages of biofilm formation.

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Abstract

Many precision devices, especially measuring devices, must maintain their technical parameters in variable ambient conditions, particularly at varying temperatures. Examples of such devices may be super precise balances that must keep stability and accuracy of the readings in varying ambient temperatures. Due to that fact, there is a problem of measuring the impact of temperature changes, mainly on geometrical dimensions of fundamental constructional elements of these devices. In the paper a new system for measuring micro-displacements of chosen points of a constructional element of balance with a resolution of single nanometres and accuracy at a level of fractions of micrometres has been proposed.

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Abstract

High temperature and high electric field applications in tantalum and niobium capacitors are limited by the mechanism of ion migration and field crystallization in a tantalum or niobium pentoxide insulating layer. The study of leakage current (DCL) variation in time as a result of increasing temperature and electric field might provide information about the physical mechanism of degradation. The experiments were performed on tantalum and niobium oxide capacitors at temperatures of about 125°C and applied voltages ranging up to rated voltages of 35 V and 16 V for tantalum and niobium oxide capacitors, respectively. Homogeneous distribution of oxygen vacancies acting as positive ions within the pentoxide layer was assumed before the experiments. DCL vs. time characteristics at a fixed temperature have several phases. At the beginning of ageing the DCL increases exponentially with time. In this period ions in the insulating layer are being moved in the electric field by drift only. Due to that the concentration of ions near the cathode increases producing a positively charged region near the cathode. The electric field near the cathode increases and the potential barrier between the cathode and insulating layer decreases which results in increasing DCL. However, redistribution of positive ions in the insulator layer leads to creation of a ion concentration gradient which results in a gradual increase of the ion diffusion current in the direction opposite to the ion drift current component. The equilibrium between the two for a given temperature and electric field results in saturation of the leakage current value. DCL vs. time characteristics are described by the exponential stretched law. We found that during the initial part of ageing an exponent n = 1 applies. That corresponds to the ion drift motion only. After long-time application of the electric field at a high temperature the DCL vs. time characteristics are described by the exponential stretched law with an exponent n = 0.5. Here, the equilibrium between the ion drift and diffusion is achieved. The process of leakage current degradation is therefore partially reversible. When the external electric field is lowered, or the samples are shortened, the leakage current for a given voltage decreases with time and the DCL vs. time characteristics are described by the exponential stretched law with an exponent n = 0.5, thus the ion redistribution by diffusion becomes dominant.

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Abstract

This study proposes a surface profile and roughness measurement system for a fibre-optic interconnect based on optical interferometry. On the principle of Fizeau interferometer, an interference fringe is formed on the fibre end-face of the fibre-optic interconnect, and the fringe pattern is analysed using the Fast Fourier transform method to reconstruct the surface profile. However, as the obtained surface profile contains some amount of tilt, a rule for estimating this tilt value is developed in this paper. The actual fibre end-face surface profile is obtained by subtracting the estimated tilt amount from the surface profile, as calculated by the Fast Fourier transform method, and the corresponding surface roughness can be determined. The proposed system is characterized by non-contact measurement, and the sample is not coated with a reflector during measurement. According to the experimental results, the difference between the roughness measurement result of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and the measurement result of this system is less than 3 nm.

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Abstract

This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.

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Abstract

The upcoming hypersonic technologies pose a difficult task for air navigation systems. The article presents a designed model of elastic interaction of penetrating acoustic radiation with flat isotropic suspension elements of an inertial navigation sensor in the operational conditions of hypersonic flight. It has been shown that the acoustic transparency effect in the form of a spatial-frequency resonance becomes possible with simultaneous manifestation of the wave coincidence condition in the acoustic field and equality of the natural oscillation frequency of a finite-size plate and a forced oscillation frequency of an infinite plate. The effect can lead to additional measurement errors of the navigation system. Using the model, the worst and best case suspension oscillation frequencies can be determined, which will help during the design of a navigation system.

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Abstract

The paper presents application of a modified, symmetrical Bouc-Wen model to simulate the mechanical behaviour of high-frequency piezoelectric actuators (PAs). In order to identify parameters of the model, a two-step algorithm was developed. In its first stage, the mechanical parameters were identified by taking into account their bilinear variability and using a square input voltage waveform. In the second step, the hysteresis parameters were determined based on a periodic excitation. Additionally, in order to reduce the influence of measurement errors in determination of selected derivatives the continuum wavelet transform (CWT) and translation-rotation transformation (TRT) methods were applied. The results proved that the modified symmetrical Bouc-Wen model is able to describe the mechanical behaviour of PAs across a wide frequency range.

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Abstract

The paper presents a method of developing a variable structure measurement system with intelligent components for flight vehicles. In order to find a distinguishing feature of a variable structure, a numerical criterion for selecting measuring sensors is proposed by quantifying the observability of different states of the system. Based on the Peter K. Anokhin’s theory of functional systems, a mechanism of “action acceptor” is built with intelligent components, e.g. self-organization algorithms. In this mechanism, firstly, prediction models of system states are constructed using self-organization algorithms; secondly, the predicted and measured values are compared; thirdly, an optimal structure of the measurement system is finally determined based on the results of comparison. According to the results of simulation with practical data and experiments obtained during field tests, the novel developed measurement system has the properties of high-accuracy, reliable operation and fault tolerance.

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Abstract

This work examines the reduced-cost design optimization of dual- and multi-band antennas. The primary challenge is independent yet simultaneous control of the antenna responses at two or more frequency bands. In order to handle this task, a feature-based optimization approach is adopted where the design objectives are formulated on the basis of the coordinates of so-called characteristic points (or response features) of the antenna response. Due to only slightly nonlinear dependence of the feature points on antenna geometry parameters, optimization can be attained at a low computational cost. Our approach is demonstrated using two antenna structures with the optimum designs obtained in just a few dozen of EM simulations of the respective structure.

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Abstract

This paper presents an alternative approach to the sequential data classification, based on traditional machine learning algorithms (neural networks, principal component analysis, multivariate Gaussian anomaly detector) and finding the shortest path in a directed acyclic graph, using A* algorithm with a regression-based heuristic. Palm gestures were used as an example of the sequential data and a quadrocopter was the controlled object. The study includes creation of a conceptual model and practical construction of a system using the GPU to ensure the realtime operation. The results present the classification accuracy of chosen gestures and comparison of the computation time between the CPU- and GPU-based solutions.

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Abstract

Single-frame methods of determining the attitude of a nanosatellite are compared in this study. The methods selected for comparison are: Single Value Decomposition (SVD), q method, Quaternion ESTimator (QUEST), Fast Optimal Attitude Matrix (FOAM) − all solving optimally the Wahba’s problem, and the algebraic method using only two vector measurements. For proper comparison, two sensors are chosen for the vector observations on-board: magnetometer and Sun sensors. Covariance results obtained as a result of using those methods have a critical importance for a non-traditional attitude estimation approach; therefore, the variance calculations are also presented. The examined methods are compared with respect to their root mean square (RMS) error and variance results. Also, some recommendations are given.

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Abstract

This paper describes the use of new methods of detecting faults in medium-voltage overhead lines built of covered conductors. The methods mainly address such faults as falling of a conductor, contacting a conductor with a tree branch, or falling a tree branch across three phases of a medium-voltage conductor. These faults cannot be detected by current digital relay protection systems. Therefore, a new system that can detect the above mentioned faults was developed. After having tested its operation, the system has already been implemented to protect mediumvoltage overhead lines built of covered conductors.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Contact

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

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The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
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Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
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Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

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