Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2016 | vol. 23 | No 4 |

Abstract

In this paper, a novel structure of a compact UWB slot antenna and its design optimization procedure has been presented. In order to achieve a sufficient number of degrees of freedom necessary to obtain a considerable size reduction rate, the slot is parameterized using spline curves. All antenna dimensions are simultaneously adjusted using numerical optimization procedures. The fundamental bottleneck here is a high cost of the electromagnetic (EM) simulation model of the structure that includes (for reliability) an SMA connector. Another problem is a large number of geometry parameters (nineteen). For the sake of computational efficiency, the optimization process is therefore performed using variable-fidelity EM simulations and surrogate-assisted algorithms. The optimization process is oriented towards explicit reduction of the antenna size and leads to a compact footprint of 199 mm2 as well as acceptable matching within the entire UWB band. The simulation results are validated using physical measurements of the fabricated antenna prototype.
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Abstract

The paper considers an algorithm for increasing the accuracy of measuring systems operating on moving objects. The algorithm is based on the Kalman filter. It aims to provide a high measurement accuracy for the whole range of change of the measured quantity and the interference effects, as well as to eliminate the influence of a number of interference sources, each of which is of secondary importance but their total impact can cause a considerable distortion of the measuring signal. The algorithm is intended for gyro-free measuring systems. It is based on a model of the moving object dynamics. The mathematical model is developed in such a way that it enables to automatically adjust the algorithm parameters depending on the current state of measurement conditions. This makes possible to develop low-cost measuring systems with a high dynamic accuracy. The presented experimental results prove effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in terms of the dynamic accuracy of measuring systems of that type.

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Abstract

Electrochemical amperometric gas sensors represent a well-established and versatile type of devices with unique features: good sensitivity and stability, short response/recovery times, and low power consumption. These sensors operate at room temperature, and therefore have been applied in monitoring air pollutants and detection of toxic and hazardous gases in a number of areas. Some drawbacks of classical electrochemical sensors are overcome by the solid polymer electrolyte (SPE) based on ionic liquids. This work presents evaluation of an SPE-based amperometric sensor from the point of view of current fluctuations. The sensor is based on a novel three-electrode sensor platform with solid polymer electrolytes containing ionic liquid for detection of nitrogen dioxide − a highly toxic gas that is harmful to the environment and presenting a possible threat to human health even at low concentrations. The paper focuses on using noise measurement (electric current fluctuation measurement) for evaluation of electrochemical sensors which were constructed by different fabrication processes: (i) lift-off and drop-casting technology, (ii) screen printing technology on a ceramic substrate and (iii) screen printing on a flexible substrate.

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Abstract

Videoplethysmography is currently recognized as a promising noninvasive heart rate measurement method advantageous for ubiquitous monitoring of humans in natural living conditions. Although the method is considered for application in several areas including telemedicine, sports and assisted living, its dependence on lighting conditions and camera performance is still not investigated enough. In this paper we report on research of various image acquisition aspects including the lighting spectrum, frame rate and compression. In the experimental part, we recorded five video sequences in various lighting conditions (fluorescent artificial light, dim daylight, infrared light, incandescent light bulb) using a programmable frame rate camera and a pulse oximeter as the reference. For a video sequence-based heart rate measurement we implemented a pulse detection algorithm based on the power spectral density, estimated using Welch’s technique. The results showed that lighting conditions and selected video camera settings including compression and the sampling frequency influence the heart rate detection accuracy. The average heart rate error also varies from 0.35 beats per minute (bpm) for fluorescent light to 6.6 bpm for dim daylight.

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Abstract

This paper presents methods of separating the plateau part for various types of two-process profiles, having the traces of two processes. The traditional method based on the plateau-valley threshold, according to the ISO 13565-3 standard, is not always sufficient, since the valley portion can include plateau roughness. Starting and finishing points of each plateau in the measured profiles should be determined. The procedure found in the technical literature depends on setting not only the plateau-valley threshold but also a lower threshold. This approach was a little modified for profiles that contain both random and deterministic topography components. A new procedure of determination of the lower threshold was proposed for stratified profiles containing two deterministic parts. The valleys can be characterized by their widths and the distance between them. In addition, a description of the material probability curve is proposed.

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Abstract

The main aim of the study was to determine the goodness of fit between the relaxation function described with a rheological model and the real (experimental) relaxation curves obtained for digital materials fabricated with a Connex 350 printer using the PolyJet additive manufacturing technology. The study involved estimating the uncertainty of approximation of the parameters of the theoretical relaxation curve. The knowledge of digital materials is not yet sufficient; their properties are not so well-known as those of metallic alloys or plastics used as structural materials. Intensive research is thus required to find out more about their behavior in various conditions. From the calculation results, i.e. the uncertainty of approximation of the relaxation function parameters, it is evident that the experimental curves coincide with the curves obtained by means of the solid model when the approximation uncertainty is taken into account. This suggests that the assumed solid model is well-suited to describe a real material.

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Abstract

Determination of the phase difference between two sinusoidal signals with noise components using samples of these signals is of interest in many measurement systems. The samples of signals are processed by one of many algorithms, such as 7PSF, UQDE and MSAL, to determine the phase difference. The phase difference result must be accompanied with estimation of the measurement uncertainty. The following issues are covered in this paper: the MSAL algorithm background, the ways of treating the bias influence on the phase difference result, comparison of results obtained by applying MSAL and the other mentioned algorithms to the same real signal samples, and evaluation of the uncertainty of the phase difference.

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Abstract

In this paper it is shown that M class PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) reference model for phasor estimation recommended by the IEEE Standard C37.118.1 with the Amendment 1 is not compliant with the Standard. The reference filter preserves only the limits for TVE (total vector error), and exceeds FE (frequency error) and RFE (rate of frequency error) limits. As a remedy we propose new filters for phasor estimation for M class PMU that are fully compliant with the Standard requirements. The proposed filters are designed: 1) by the window method; 2) as flat-top windows; or as 3) optimal min-max filters. The results for all Standard compliance tests are presented, confirming good performance of the proposed filters. The proposed filters are fixed at the nominal frequency, i.e. frequency tracking and adaptive filter tuning are not required, therefore they are well suited for application in lowcost popular PMUs.
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Abstract

Determining the size of source effect of a radiation thermometer is not an easy task and manufacturers of these thermometers usually do not indicate the deviation to the measured temperature due to this effect. It is one of the main uncertainty components when measuring with a radiation thermometer and it may lead to erroneous estimation of the actual temperature of the measured target. We present an empiric model to estimate the magnitude of deviation of the measured temperature with a long-wavelength infrared radiation thermometer due to the size of source effect. The deviation is calculated as a function of the field of view of the thermometer and the diameter of the radiating source. For thermometers whose field of view size at 90% power is approximately equal to the diameter of the radiating source, it was found that this effect may lead to deviations of the measured temperature of up to 6% at 200ºC and up to 14% at 500ºC. Calculations of the temperature deviation with the proposed model are performed as a function of temperature and as a function of the first order component of electrical signal.
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Abstract

The paper presents theoretical and experimental analyses of a possible effect of the short-circuit forces on the transformer winding. The first part of the paper is focused on creation and activity of the radial and axial forces during a short circuit. It shows dimensions, direction and − of course − the resulting mechanical stress. The presented equation shows basic dependencies of these mechanical forces created in the transformer winding. Finally, the paper presents experimental methods of diagnosing and analysing the effects of short-circuit forces on the transformer winding.

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Abstract

Analysis of the shape and location of abrasive grain tips as well as their changes during the grinding process, is the basis for forecasting the machining process results. This paper presents a methodology of using the watershed segmentation in identifying abrasive grains on the abrasive tool active surface. Some abrasive grain tips were selected to minimize the errors of detecting many tips on a single abrasive grain. The abrasive grains, singled out as a result of the watershed segmentation, were then analyzed to determine their geometric parameters. Moreover, the statistical parameters describing their locations on the abrasive tool active surface and the parameters characterizing intergranular spaces were determined.

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Abstract

Re-design of a given antenna structure for various substrates is a practically important issue yet non trivial, particularly for wideband and ultra-wideband antennas. In this work, a technique for expedited redesign of ultra-wideband antennas for various substrates is presented. The proposed approach is based on inverse surrogate modeling with the scaling model constructed for several reference designs that are optimized for selected values of the substrate permittivity. The surrogate is set up at the level of coarse-discretization EM simulation model of the antenna and, subsequently, corrected to provide prediction at the high-fidelity EM model level. The dimensions of the antenna scaled to any substrate permittivity within the region of validity of the surrogate are obtained instantly, without any additional EM simulation necessary. The proposed approach is demonstrated using an ultra-wideband monopole with the permittivity scaling range from 2.2 to 4.5. Numerical validation is supported by physical measurements of the fabricated prototypes of the re-designed antennas.

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Abstract

The paper presents major issues associated with the problem of modelling change output accelerometers. The presented solutions are based on the weighted least squares (WLS) method using transformation of the complex frequency response of the sensors. The main assumptions of the WLS method and a mathematical model of charge output accelerometers are presented in first two sections of this paper. In the next sections applying the WLS method to estimation of the accelerometer model parameters is discussed and the associated uncertainties are determined. Finally, the results of modelling a PCB357B73 charge output accelerometer are analysed in the last section of this paper. All calculations were executed using the MathCad software program. The main stages of these calculations are presented in Appendices A−E.
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Abstract

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have existed for many years and had assimilated many interesting innovations. Advances in electronics, radio transceivers, processes of IC manufacturing and development of algorithms for operation of such networks now enable creating energy-efficient devices that provide practical levels of performance and a sufficient number of features. Environmental monitoring is one of the areas in which WSNs can be successfully used. At the same time this is a field where devices must either bring their own power reservoir, such as a battery, or scavenge energy locally from some natural phenomena. Improving the efficiency of energy harvesting methods reduces complexity of WSN structures. This survey is based on practical examples from the real world and provides an overview of state-of-the-art methods and techniques that are used to create energyefficient WSNs with energy harvesting.

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Abstract

Progress in UV treatment applications requires new compact and sensor constructions. In the paper a hybrid (organic-inorganic) rare-earth-based polymeric UV sensor construction is proposed. The efficient luminescence of poly(methyl) methacrylate (PMMA) matrix doped by europium was used for testing the optical sensor (optrode) construction. The europium complex assures effective luminescence in the visible range with well determined multi-peak spectrum emission enabling construction of the optrode. The fabricated UV optical fibre sensor was used for determination of Nd:YAG laser intensity measurements at the third harmonic (355 nm) in the radiation power range 5.0-34.0 mW. The multi-peak luminescence spectrum was used for optimization of the measurement formula. The composition of luminescent peak intensity enables to increase the slope of sensitivity up to −2.8 mW-1. The obtained results and advantages of the optical fibre construction enable to apply it in numerous UV detection systems.

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Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Contact

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

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The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
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Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
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An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

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