Applied sciences

Metrology and Measurement Systems

Content

Metrology and Measurement Systems | 2020 | vol. 27 | No 1 |

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Abstract

Ever rising increase in number of wireless services has prompted the use of spatial multiplexing through null steering.Various algorithms provide electronic control of antenna array pattern. Simulation-driven technique further introduces correction in array factor to account for array geometry. Taguchi method is used here to combat interference in practical antenna arrays of non-isotropic elements, by incorporating the effect of antenna element pattern on array pattern control in the optimization algorithm. 4-element rectangular and bowtie patch antenna arrays are considered to validate the effectiveness of Taguchi optimization. The difference in the computed excitations and accuracy of null steering confirms the dependence of beam pattern on element factor and hence eliminates the need for extra computations performed byconventional algorithms based on array factor correction. Taguchi method employs an orthogonal array and converges rapidly to the desired radiation pattern in 25 iterations, thus signifying it to be computationally cost-effective. A higher gain and a significant reduction in side lobe level (SLL) was obtained for the bowtie array. Further, due to feed along parallel edges of the patch, the radiating edges being slanted to form the bow shape results in a significant reduction in the area as compared with the rectangular patch designed to resonate at the same frequency.

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Authors and Affiliations

Baljinder Kaur
Anupma Marwaha
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Abstract

This paper presents a non-invasive measurement method for simultaneous characterization of diameter and refractive index of transparent fibres. The method is based on scattering of a polychromatic beam of light by a side-illuminated fibre under study. Both quantities of interest are inversely calculated from the scattering far-field region in the vicinity of the primary rainbow. The results of practical measurements are examined with the use of a novel optical system for laboratory-level tests. An analysis of prediction errors for 20– 120 μm thick fibres having various refractive indices helps to assess the outcome of the measurement data. The results show a clear route to improve the measurement process in on-line industrial process control.

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Authors and Affiliations

Grzegorz Świerniak
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Abstract

As part of the work, the error level of simulations of uniform optical-fibre Bragg gratings was determined using the transitionmatrixmethod. The errorswere established by comparing the transmission characteristics of the structures obtained by simulation with the corresponding characteristics arrived at experimentally. To compile these objects, elementary properties of the characteristics were specified, also affecting the applications of Bragg gratings, and compared with each other. The level of error in determining each of these features was estimated. Relationships were also found between the size of the physical properties of Bragg gratings and the level of errors obtained. Based on the findings, the correctness of the simulation of structures with the said method was verified, giving satisfying results.

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Authors and Affiliations

Piotr Stępniak
Piotr Kisała
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Abstract

The contradiction between the restriction of grating manufacturing technology and high-resolution measurement requirements has been the focus of attention. The precision requirement of angle calculation during the digital subdivision processing of a Moiré signal is focused on, the causes of errors in the solution of arcsine function are analysed, and an improved coordinate rotation digital computer (CORDIC)with double-rotation iteration is proposed by discussing the principle of the conventional CORDIC in detail herein. Because the iterative number and data width of the improved CORDIC are limited by the finite digital circuit resources and thus determine the calculation accuracy directly, subsequently the overall quantization error (OQE) of the improved CORDIC is analysed. The approximate error and rounding error of the algorithm are deduced, and the error models of iterative number and data width are established. The validity and application value of the improved CORDIC are proved through simulations and experiments involving a subdividing circuit. The corresponding relation between the approximate error, rounding error and iteration number, as well as the bit width are proved by quantization. The error of subdivision with the improved CORDIC, obtained through a calibration experiment, is within ±0.5′′ and the mean variance is 0.2′′. The results of the research can be applied directly to a digital subdivision system to guide the parameter setting in the iterative process, which is of crucial importance in the quantitative analysis of error separation and error synthesis.

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Authors and Affiliations

Weibin Zhu
Shengjin Ye
Yao Huang
Zi Xue
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Abstract

Shaft-stator rub and cracks on rotors, which have devastating effects on the industrial equipment, cause nonlinear and in some cases chaotic lateral vibrations. On the other hand, vibrations caused by machinery faults can be torsional in cases such as rub. Therefore, a combined analysis of lateral and torsional vibrations and extraction of chaotic features from these vibrations is an effective approach for rotor vibration monitoring. In this study, lateral and torsional vibrations of rotors have been examined for detecting cracks and rub. For this purpose, by preparing a laboratory model, the lateral vibrations of a system with crack and rub have been acquired. After that, a practical method for measuring the torsional vibrations of the system is introduced. By designing and installing this measurement system, practical test data were acquired on the laboratory setup. Then, the method of phase space reconstruction was used to examine the effect of faults on the chaotic behaviour of the system. In order to diagnose the faults based on the chaotic behaviour of the system, largest Lyapunov exponent (LLE), approximate entropy (ApEn) and correlation dimension were calculated for a healthy system and also for a system with rub and a crack. Finally, by applying these parameters, the chaotic feature space is introduced in order to diagnose the intentionally created faults. The results show that in this space, the distinction between the various defects in the system can be clearly identified, which enables to use this method in fault diagnosis of rotating machinery.

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Authors and Affiliations

Ali Hajnayeb
Kourosh Heidari Shirazi
Reza Aghaamiri
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Abstract

Breath analysis has attracted human beings for centuries. It was one of the simplest methods to detect various diseases by using human smell sense only. Advances in technology enable to use more reliable and standardized methods, based on different gas sensing systems. Breath analysis requires the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of the concentrations below individual ppm (parts per million). Therefore, advanced detection methods have been proposed. Some of these methods use expensive and bulky equipment (e.g. optical sensors, mass spectrometry –MS), and require time-consuming analysis. Less accurate, but much cheaper, are resistive gas sensors. These sensors use porous materials and adsorptiondesorption processes, determining their physical parameters.We consider the problems of applying resistive gas sensors to breath analysis. Recent advances were underlined, showing that these economical gas sensors can be efficiently employed to analyse breath samples. General problems of applying resistive gas sensors are considered and illustrated with examples, predominantly related to commercial sensors and their long-term performance. A setup for collection of breath samples is considered and presented to point out the crucial parts and problematic issues.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tomasz Chludziński
Andrzej Kwiatkowski
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Abstract

Structures and characteristics ofwideband small-size phase shiftersmade with the use of single parallel stubs are presented in this paper. The stubs can be short-circuited or open-circuited on termination. Such devices arewell known, but are primarily used as components of filters ormatching circuits. The novelty, then, comes from the establishment of simple, but helpful formulae, which enable to describe the insertion phase shift and differential phase shift of a line with short and open stubs connected in parallel. These equations can be very useful for designing complex microwave multi-ports. The results of simulations and measurements of the devices, which were designed and made, are shown herein. It was also proved that the presented devices have several usable operating frequency sub-bands, and that the differential phase shift values in the higher sub-bands are greater than those in the lower operating frequency ranges. Thanks to this, the described phase shifters can be used in more than one frequency sub-band. It was stated that in the conditions under analysis, larger phase shifts can be achieved using open-circuited stubs rather than short-circuited stubs. However, the phase shifters with shorted parallel stubs can operate in a wider frequency band.

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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Rutkowski
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Abstract

We present computer simulations of a two-way ANOVA gage R&R study to determine the effects on the average speckle width of intensity patterns caused by scattered light reflected from random rough surfaces with different statistical characteristics. We illustrate how to obtain reliable computer data that properly simulate experimental measurements by means of the Fresnel diffraction integral, which represents an accurate analytical model for calculating the propagation of spatially-limited coherent beams that have been phase-modulated after being reflected by the vertical profiles of the generated surfaces. For our description we use four differently generated vertical profiles and five different vertical randomly generated roughness values.

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Authors and Affiliations

Moisés Cywiak
David Cywiak
Etna Yáñez
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Abstract

Scanning probe microscopy (SPM) since its invention in the 80’s became very popular in examination of many different sample parameters, both in university and industry. This was the effect of bringing this technology closer to the operator. Although the ease of use opened a possibility for measurements without high labour requirement, a quantitative analysis is still a limitation in Scanning ProbeMicroscopes available on the market. Based on experience of Nano-metrology Group, SPM still can be considered as a tool for quantitative examination of thermal, electrical and mechanical surface parameters. In this work we present an ARMScope platform as a versatile SPM controller that is proved to be useful in a variety of applications: fromatomic-resolution STM (Scanning TunnellingMicroscopy) toMulti-resonance KPFM (Kelvin Probe force microscopy) to commercial SEMs (Scanning electron microscopes).

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Authors and Affiliations

Bartosz Świadkowski
Tomasz Piasecki
Maciej Rudek
Michał Świątkowski
Krzysztof Gajewski
Wojciech Majstrzyk
Michał Babij
Andrzej Dzierka
Teodor Gotszalk
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Abstract

The possibilities to improve values of the satellite orbit elements by employing the pseudo-ranges and differences of carrier phase frequencies measured at many reference GPS stations are analysed. An improvement of orbit ephemeris is achieved by solving an equation system of corrections of the pseudo-ranges and phase differences with the least-squares method. Also, equations of space coordinates of satellite orbit points expressed by ephemeris at fixed moments are used. The relation between the accuracy of the pseudo-ranges and phase differences and the accuracy of the satellite ephemeris is analysed. Formulae for estimation of the influence of the ephemeris on the measured pseudo-ranges and phase differences and for prediction of the accuracy of the pseudo-ranges and phase differences were obtained. An influence of the covariance between single orbit parameters on the accuracy of the pseudo-ranges and phase differences is detected.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jonas Skeivalas
Eimuntas Paršeliūnas
Raimundas Putrimas
Dominykas Šlikas
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Abstract

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a perfect technique for micro-/nano-object imaging [1] and movement measurement [2, 3] both in high and environmental vacuum conditions and at various temperatures ranging from elevated to low temperatures. In our view, the magnetic field expanding from the pole-piece makes it possible to characterize the behaviour of electromagnetic micro- and nano electromechanical systems (MEMS/NEMS) in which the deflection of the movable part is controlled by the electromagnetic force. What must be determined, however, is the magnetic field expanding from the e-beam column, which is a function of many factors, like working distance (WD), magnification and position of the device in relation to the e-beam column. There are only a few experimental methods for determination of the magnetic field in a scanning electron microscope. In this paper we present a method of the magnetic field determination under the scanning electron column by application of a silicon cantilever magnetometer. The micro-cantilever magnetometer is a silicon micro-fabricated MEMS electromagnetic device integrating a current loop of lithographically defined dimensions. Its stiffness can be calibrated with a precision of 5% by the method described by Majstrzyk et al. [4]. The deflection of the magnetometer cantilever is measured with a scanning electron microscope and thus, through knowing the bias current, it is possible to determine the magnetic field generated by the e-beam column in a defined position and at a defined magnification.

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Authors and Affiliations

Karolina Orłowska
Maria E. Mognaschi
Krzysztof Kwoka
Tomasz Piasecki
Piotr Kunicki
Andrzej Sierakowski
Wojciech Majstrzyk
Arkadiusz Podgórni
Bartosz Pruchnik
Paolo di Barba
Teodor Gotszalk
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Abstract

Modern space measurement techniques like SLR, DORIS, VLBI and GNSS are used to study the tectonic plates. The determination of plate motion parameters (Φ, Λ, ω) from various geodetic measurements is outlined. This paper is the third part of our studies on estimating geodetic and geodynamic parameters; it regards an accuracy analysis of the determined Φ, Λ, ω parameters which describe motions of the tectonic plates using Very Long Base Interferometry (VLBI) technique. Prior to this, SLR and DORIS space measurement techniques were examined by authors. The study is based on the velocities of station positions, as included in a realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System– ITRF2008 forVLBI technique, published by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS). This model is made subject to an analysis in association with the APKIM2005 model. Six big plates, namely: Eurasian (EUAS), African (AFR), Australian (AUS), North American (NOAM), Pacific (PACF) and Antarctic (ANTC) were analysed. The results obtained in this analysis were compared with our previous estimations based on DORIS and SLR techniques and estimated according to the APKIM2005 model. Generally, all our three solutions based on SLR, DORIS and VLBI measurement techniques were found to be consistent.

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Authors and Affiliations

Marcin Jagoda
Miłosława Rutkowska
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Abstract

The commercially available metal-oxide TGS sensors are widely used in many applications due to the fact that they are inexpensive and considered to be reliable. However, they are partially selective and their responses are influenced by various factors, e.g. temperature or humidity level. Therefore, it is important to design a proper analysis system of the sensor responses. In this paper, the results of examinations of eight commercial TGS sensors combined in an array and measured over a period of a few months for the purpose of prediction of nitrogen dioxide concentration are presented. The measurements were performed at different relative humidity levels. PLS regression was employed as a method of quantitative analysis of the obtained sensor responses. The results of NO2 concentration prediction based on static and dynamic responses of sensors are compared. It is demonstrated that it is possible to predict the nitrogen dioxide concentration despite the influence of humidity.

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Authors and Affiliations

Paweł Kalinowski
Łukasz Woźniak
Grzegorz Jasiński
Piotr Jasiński
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Abstract

Sound intensity measurements using special sensors in a form of pressure-velocity and pressure-pressure probes are becoming more and more often the method of choice for characterization of sound sources. Its wider usability is blocked by the probes’ costs. This paper is on a possible modification of the well-known pressure-pressure sound intensity measurement method. In the proposed new approach a synchronized measurement procedure using only single microphone is used. The paper presents the basics of the sound intensity theory, a review of currently usedmethods of intensitymeasurement and requirements and limitations of the new method. In the proposed approach one microphone and a properly designed positioning system is used. The application of the method to study the directional characteristics of an active loudspeaker system have been described in detail. The obtained results were compared with those of measurements performed with a commercial p–u probe. The paper contains conclusions indicating advantages of the applied method in comparison with standard pressure measurement methods.

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Authors and Affiliations

Witold Mickiewicz
Michał Raczyński

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief
  • Janusz SMULKO, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
International Programme Committee
  • Andrzej ZAJĄC, Chairman, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Bruno ANDO, University of Catania, Italy
  • Martin BURGHOFF, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Germany
  • Marcantonio CATELANI, University of Florence, Italy
  • Numan DURAKBASA, Vienna University of Technology, Austria
  • Domenico GRIMALDI, University of Calabria, Italy
  • Laszlo KISH, Texas A&M University, USA
  • Eduard LLOBET, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Tarragona, Spain
  • Alex MASON, Liverpool John Moores University, The United Kingdom
  • Subhas MUKHOPADHYAY, Massey University, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  • Janusz MROCZKA, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Antoni ROGALSKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Wiesław WOLIŃSKI, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Associate Editors
  • Zbigniew BIELECKI, Military University of Technology, Poland
  • Vladimir DIMCHEV, Ss. Cyril and Methodius University, Macedonia
  • Krzysztof DUDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Janusz GAJDA, AGH University of Science and Technology, Poland
  • Teodor GOTSZALK, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Ireneusz JABŁOŃSKI, Wrocław University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr JASIŃSKI, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Piotr KISAŁA, Lublin University of Technology, Poland
  • Manoj KUMAR, University of Hyderabad, Telangana, India
  • Grzegorz LENTKA, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
  • Czesław ŁUKIANOWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland
  • Rosario MORELLO, University Mediterranean of Reggio Calabria, Italy
  • Fernando PUENTE LEÓN, University Karlsruhe, Germany
  • Petr SEDLAK, Brno University of Technology, Czech Republic
  • Hamid M. SEDIGHI, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran
  • Roman SZEWCZYK, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland
Language Editors
  • Andrzej Stankiewicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland
Technical Editors
  • Agnieszka Kondratowicz, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Contact

Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems

Contact:
E-mail: metrology@pg.edu.pl
URL: www.metrology.pg.gda.pl
Phone: (+48) 58 347-1357

Post address:
Editorial Office of Metrology and Measurement Systems
Gdańsk University of Technology, Faculty of Electronics, Telecommunications and Informatics

Instructions for authors

Types of contributions

The following types of papers are published in Metrology and Measurement Systems:
•    invited review papers presenting the current stage of the knowledge (max. 20 edited pages, 3000 characters each),
•    research papers reporting original scientific or technological advancements (10‒12 pages),
•    papers based on extended and updated contributions presented at scientific conferences (max. 12 pages),
•    short notes, i.e. book reviews, conference reports, short news (max. 2 pages).

Manuscript preparation

The text of a manuscript should be written in clear and concise English. The form similar to “camera-ready” with an attached separate file – containing illustrations, tables and photographs – is preferred. For the details of the preferred format of the manuscripts, Authors should consult a recent issue of the journal or the sample article and the guidelines for manuscript preparation. The text of a manuscript should be printed on A4 pages (with margins of 2.5 cm) using a font whose size is 12 pt for main text and 10 pt for the abstract; an even number of pages is strongly recommended. The main text of a paper can be divided into sections (numbered 1, 2, ...), subsections (numbered 1.1., 1.2., ...) and – if needed – paragraphs (numbered 1.1.1., 1.1.2., ...). The title page should include: manuscript title, Authors’ names and affiliations with e-mail addresses. The corresponding Author should be identified by the symbol of an envelope and phone number. A concise abstract of approximately 100 words and with 3–5 keywords should accompany the main text.
Illustrations, photographs and tables provided in the camera-ready form, suitable for reproduction (which may include reduction) should be additionally submitted one per page, larger than final size. All illustrations should be clearly marked on the back with figure number and author’s name. All figures are to have captions. The list of figures captions and table titles should be supplied on separate page. Illustrations must be produced in black ink on white paper or by computer technique using the laser printer with the resolution not lower than 300 dpi, preferably 600 dpi. The thickness of lines should be in the range 0.2–0.5 mm, in particular cases the range 0.1–1.0 mm will be accepted. Original photographs must be supplied as they are to be reproduced (e.g. black and white or colour). Photocopies of photographs are not acceptable.
References should be inserted in the text in square brackets, e.g. [4]; their list numbered in citation order should appear at the end of the manuscript. The format of the references should be as follows: for a journal paper – surname(s) and initial(s) of author(s), year in brackets, title of the paper, journal name (in italics), volume, issue and page numbers. The exemplary format of the references is available at the sample article.

Manuscript submission and processing

Submission procedure. Manuscript should be submitted via Internet Editorial System (IES) ‒ an online submission and peer review system http://www.editorialsystem.com/mms
In order to submit the manuscript via IES, the authors (first-time users) must create an author account to obtain a user ID and password required to enter the system. From the account you create, you will be able to monitor your submission and make subsequent submissions.
The submission of the manuscript in two files is preferred: “Paper File” containing the complete manuscript (with all figures and tables embedded in the text) and “Figures File” containing illustrations, photographs and tables. Both files should be sent in DOC and PDF format as well as. In the submission letter or on separate page in “Figures File”, the full postal address, e-mail and phone numbers must be given for all co-authors. The corresponding Author should be identified.
Copyright Transfer. The submission of a manuscript means that it has not been published previously in the same form, that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere, and that – if accepted – it will not be published elsewhere. The Author hereby grants the Polish Academy of Sciences (the Journal Owner) the license for commercial use of the article according to the Open Access License which has to be signed before publication.
Review and amendment procedures. Each submitted manuscript is subject to a peer-review procedure, and the publication decision is based on reviewers’ comments; if necessary, Authors may be invited to revise their manuscripts. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit the journal style.
An essential criterion for the evaluation of submitted manuscripts is their potential impact on the scientific community, measured by the number of repeated quotations. Such papers are preferred at the evaluation and publication stages.
Proofs. Proofs will be sent to the corresponding Author by e-mail and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Other information

Author Benefits. The publication in the journal is free of charge. A sample copy of the journal will be sent to the corresponding Author free of charge.
Colour. For colour pages the Authors will be charged at the rate of 160 PLN or 80 EUR per page. The payment to the bank account of main distributor must be acquitted before the date pointed to Authors by Editorial Office.

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