Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Water and Land Development

Content

Journal of Water and Land Development | 2006 | No 10 |

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Abstract

The Water Framework Directive (WFD), whose basic aim was to create a legal back-ground for water bodies’ protection, undoubtedly affects all economic sectors. Being a specific and distinctly different water user, agriculture will have the greatest share in the implementation of WFD out of all sectors of national economy. This results from its special character (60% of the country area used by agriculture), large volume of water consumed by evapotranspiration, diffuse pollution etc. Implementation of WFD will call for undertaking of many activities to restrict an unfavourable im-pact of agriculture on water resources and water related ecosystems. It is assumed that agriculture should also protect water resources. Accomplishment of this task imposes significant changes in the land use of river basins. Water management can be an essential factor deciding about the sustainable development of rural areas and biological diversity of agricultural landscape. Actions undertaken so far to implement the WFD are mainly limited to the protection of water quality from agricultural pol-lution. It is also necessary to undertake implementation of other aims of WFD. This refers especially to the provision of good hydromorphological status of water bodies, protection of water related eco-systems and effective water use.

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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Mioduszewski
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Abstract

Analysis of the national and regional plans shows that the current year, 2006, shall deter-mine the key lines of national and regional development practically till 2015, that means till the time when, under the Water Framework Directive, Poland should have achieved its major objectives. This year shall witness decision making not only on the key objectives, priority strategies and measures undertaken for social and economic development of the country and regions, but also allocation of the main streams of funds from the EU and public funds from national sources. This is a sort of chal-lenge for administration bodies responsible for water management, particularly in respect of pro-gramming water management tasks and their incorporation into documents which are strategic for development on national and regional level. Over 2006–2008 efforts of water management admini-stration bodies should be focused on incorporation of water management issues into the consecutive edition of the National Ecological Policy and environmental protection programmes – at regional level, to be followed by county and community levels. This paper is a part of the broad stream of methodology and pilot work on the implementation of provisions of the Water Framework Directive in Poland. The main body of the paper consists of the summary of work done for the pilot river basin of Upper Narew.

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Authors and Affiliations

Dorota Pusłowska-Tyszewska
Janusz Kindler
Sylwester Tyszewski
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Abstract

The Netherlands has a long tradition in water management, mainly stemming from the geography of the country. The ‘struggle with water’ has been organised from medieval times by the water boards (waterschappen), which are the oldest democratic institutions in the Netherlands. Nowa-days the water boards, 27 in the whole of the Netherlands, are not only responsible for flood protec-tion and regulation of water levels, but for water quality management and waste water treatment as well. In the years in which the WFD implementation has been underway in the Netherlands, several issues have arisen. Cooperation between all levels of government is key. This requires as clear as possible divisions of competences between the various parties involved. It also takes much time, es-pecially in a process in which many matters have to be invented ‘on the fly’, such as criteria for des-ignating water bodies, ecological standards, and the formulation of MEP and GEP.

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Authors and Affiliations

Thomas Ietswaart
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Abstract

The European Water Framework Directive can have enormous consequences for agricul-ture in the Netherlands. In parts of the country agriculture should be taken out of production because the nutrient loads to the surface water system are far too high. This doom scenario is of course unde-sired and a number of source-specific and effect-specific measures are necessary. The fate of nutri-ents in the soil is strongly interrelated with its hydrology. Directly, because nutrients are transported by water and the distribution of the residence time of drainage water is a good measure for the time behaviour of the nutrient loads to the surface water system. Longer residence time in the soil means more of nutrients applied by farmers but also a longer recovery period, after applying source-specific measures. In this paper three promising effect-specific hydrological measures are described buffer strips, retention strips, and controlled drainage.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jan van Bakel
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Abstract

Permanent grasslands – according to the Water Framework Directive – are typical water related ecosystems so they largely affect water quality, its cycling and balance and therefore deserve protection. They are an element of landscape structure (ecosystem function or service) commonly considered a factor stabilising environmental changes.

Most threats posed to waters in Poland originate from present cropland structure with its definite predominance of arable lands over grasslands. Agriculture should therefore focus on the improvement of land use structure in order to minimise environmental hazards and to guarantee at the same time optimum economic effects. This could be achieved by turning arable lands into grasslands (where justified e.g. on light soils) or at least by maintaining present grassland area (condition in negotiations with the EU) and management that would consider environmental protection.

Increasing the contribution of grasslands to cropland structure or at least maintaining their pre-sent status quo would help to achieve compromise between the goals of farmers and environmental protection. Purposeful utilisation of ecosystem services, particularly those of grasslands, allows to maintain more intensive farming without environmental hazard. Limited should be only such activi-ties whose intensity exceeds regenerative or buffering environmental capacity e.g. on grounds par-ticularly subjected to water pollution or those included into Natura 2000 network.

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Authors and Affiliations

Halina Jankowska-Huflejt
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Abstract

Wetlands play a significant role in agricultural landscape. They are the areas of exception-ally great natural values able to regulate water cycling in river catchments. In many cases they are the basic food source for bred animals.

Large areas of wetlands (c. 4 million ha) have been drained for agricultural purposes in Poland. Nevertheless, there are still numerous natural (or close to natural) wetlands, part of which is protected in nature reserves or national parks.

Having in mind the transformation of agriculture and the need of protecting water resources and natural environment, it is necessary to regulate the principles of utilisation and management of re-claimed wetlands. Water management should be adjusted to the type of an area and to environmental requirements. Regardless of the type and intensity of agricultural use of wetlands one has to aim at limiting rapid outflow of spring thaw and rainfall waters which means the reconstruction and increas-ing of natural retention capacity of the river catchment. It is necessary to provide an appropriate num-ber of water lifting facilities and their proper exploitation in land reclamation objects.

It is as well necessary to create appropriate organizational, legal and financial conditions stimu-lating actions to improve water balance and wetland protection.

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Authors and Affiliations

Waldemar Mioduszewski
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Abstract

Polish water resources depend on precipitations, which are variable in time and space. In dry years the water balance is negative in central parts of Poland but sudden thaws and downfalls may result in periodical water excess and dangerous floods almost in the entire country. The retention capacity of artificial reservoirs in Poland permits to store only 6% of the average annual runoff, which is commonly considered insufficient. Another method to increase retention is soil water con-trol. About fifty percent of soils in Poland consist of light and very light sandy soils with low water capacity. Loams and organogenic soils cover approximately 25% and 8.5% area of the country, re-spectively. Almost half of agricultural lands (48%) have relatively good water conditions, but the rest requires soil water control measures. An increase of the soil water content could be achieved by changes of soil properties, water table control and soil water management. Modernization and recon-struction of drainage and irrigation systems, which were built mainly in the period 1960–1980, is needed.

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Authors and Affiliations

Edward Pierzgalski
Jerzy Jeznach
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Abstract

This paper presents results of object-oriented classification of Landsat ETM+ satellite im-age conducted using eCognition software. The classified image was acquired on 7 May 2000. In this particular study, an area of 423 km2 within the borders of Legionowo Community near Warsaw is considered.

Prior to classification, segmentation of the Landsat ETM+ image is performed using panchro-matic channel, fused multispectral and panchromatic data. The applied methods of classification en-abled the identification of 18 land cover and land use classes. After the classification, generalization and raster to vector conversion, verification and accuracy assessment are performed by means of vis-ual interpretation. Overall accuracy of the classification reached 94.6%. The verification and classifi-cation results are combined to form the final database.

This is followed by comparing the object-oriented with traditional pixel-based classification. The latter is performed using the so-called hybrid classification based on both supervised and unsuper-vised classification approaches. The traditional pixel-based approach identified only 8 classes. Com-parison of the pixel-based classification with the database obtained using the object-oriented ap-proach revealed that the former reached 72% and 61% accuracy, according to the applied method.

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Authors and Affiliations

Stanisław Lewiński
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Abstract

The article presents the results of analyses of changes in the number of ponds in the Wys-koć catchment basin carried out in the years 1980–2003 and the characteristics of ponds excavated in that period. Only water reservoirs of an area less than 2 ha were considered. Analyses were based on topographic maps in the scale of 1:10 000 and aerial photographs taken in 1996. The results indicated that the number of filled ponds increased, especially those located in fields and grasslands. However, forest and wetland ponds were the most resistant to the processes of quantitative degradation because not even a single pond was filled during the analysed period. Over 70% newly excavated water bod-ies were made as an effect of exploitation of mineral and peat resources. However, nowadays ponds are more often created as a result of intentional human activities and are used for fish farming, recrea-tion and as water retention reservoirs used in irrigation of small agricultural and gardening areas.

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Authors and Affiliations

Radosław Juszczak
Andrzej Kędziora
Jacek Leśny
Janusz Olejnik
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Abstract

The study on water erosion in the catchment basin of the Jeleni Brook was carried out in the years 1995–1999. The catchment of the Jeleni Brook has complex relief, receives frequent pre-cipitations and thus is more threatened by water erosion. Soil cultivation and water from quickly melting snow can also be the factors affecting soil erosion. Waters from the melting snow produce rills of the following dimensions (mean values): width from 11.5 to 13.6 cm, depth – from 6.4 to 7.1 cm and length – from 39 to 112 m. The mean values of soil losses vary from 0.5 to 2.02 t·ha–1.

Erosion caused by intensive storm precipitation occurs less frequently but makes much higher soil losses. One of the registered incidents shows that 51.6 t·ha–1 (4.5 mm of soil layer) can be washed out from the area of 0.66 ha. Combined effect of outwashing and ploughing in lower parts of slopes created new forms of relief such as agricultural terraces (escarps). Agricultural terraces assume the shape of scarps up to 2 m high and of different length (e.g. 150 m) along with the land use border-lines between e.g. forest and field or field and grassland.

Agriculturally used soils within this catchment need protection based mainly on agrotechnical measures or on alteration of land use. Some areas should be afforested.

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Authors and Affiliations

Adam Koćmit
Marek Podlasiński
Małgorzata Roy
Tomasz Tomaszewicz
Justyna Chudecka
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Abstract

Changes in capacity of water reservoir Cedzyna during its exploitation since 1972 till 2003 are presented in the paper. Analyses were based on cross sections of the reservoir’s basin from before its fulfillment (1967) and those measured with the echo sounder Ceeducer in 2003. Silting of reser-voir was predicted based on empirical methods. The volume of reservoir was found to decrease by 112.8 thousand m3 during 31 years of its exploitation and reservoir’s life span was assessed at 685 years. An error analysis was additionally made of calculating the surface area of a cross section at varying number of sounding sites. It was found that there was no need to note too many coordinates and depths and for the Cedzyna reservoir the distance between measurement sites up to 16 m was sufficient.

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Authors and Affiliations

Jarosław Bodulski
Jarosław Górski
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Abstract

Loads of N-NO3, N-NH4, PO4 and BOD5 carried in surface waters of the upper Dunajec catchment basin (at the section in Krościenko) in the years 1985–1998 are presented in this paper. Water quality of the Biały Dunajec (in Szaflary), Czarny Dunajec (in Ludźmierz) and Dunajec (in Krościenko) was characterised. Annual loads discharged from the area per km2 of the catchment were calculated from mean annual flows (SQ) and concentrations of studied components in river waters. Concentration of N-NO3 in waters of the Biały Dunajec was more than two times higher and that of phosphates – over seven times higher than the respective concentrations in the Czarny Dunajec and Dunajec. Different population density, numerous tourists and low level of water and sewage infra-structure were responsible for these differences.

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Authors and Affiliations

Sylwester Smoroń
Stanisław Twardy

Editorial office

EDITORIAL BOARD JOURNAL OF WATER AND LAND DEVELOPMENT
Editor-in-Chief
Professor Dr. Hab. Mohamed Hazem Kalaji
Managing Editor
Dr Adam Brysiewicz
English Language Editor
Charlotte Aldred (English Native Speaker)
Associate Editors
Szczepan L. DĄBKOWSKI (environmental engineering, hydrology, hydraulics) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Magdalena BORYS (hydraulic engineering, environmental geotechnics) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Piotr BUGAJSKI (water and wastewater management) – Agriculture Univeristy in Kraków, Poland
Tomasz GNATOWSKI (soil water management) - Warsaw University of Life Sciences (SGGW), Poland
Krzysztof JÓŹWIAKOWSKI (water and wastewater management) - University of Life Sciences in Lublin, Poland
Lech KUFEL (language editor) - Siedlce University of Natural Sciences and Humanities (UPH) , Poland
Josephine MAES-SMOLARSKI (language editor) - Golf Etc., Zielona, Poland
Mariusz SOJKA - Poznań University of Life Science, Poland
Lech Wojciech SZAJDAK (environmental chemistry, chemistry and biochemistry of soils) - Institute for Agricultural and Forest Environment (IAFE) of Polish Academy of Sciences
Tomasz SZYMCZAK (statistics editor) - Institute of Technology and Life Sciences, Falenty, Poland
Szymon SZEWRAŃSKI (landscape architecture, spatial economy) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Romuald ŻMUDA (irrigation and drainage, land reclamation) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Andrzej ŻYROMSKI (agrometeorology, hydrometeorology) - Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Editorial Board
Jan ADAMOWSKI – McGill University, Quebec, Canada
Okke BATELAAN – Flinders University, Adelaide, Australia
Narayan R. BIRASAL – KLE Society’s G H College, Haveri, India
Nicholas CLARKE – Norwegian Forest and Landscape Institute, Ås, Norway
Dušan HUSKA – Agricultural University, Nitra, Slovak
Arvo IITAL – Tallinn University of Technology, Tallinn, Estonia
Edmund KACA – Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
Stanisław KOSTRZEWA – Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland
Pyotr I. KOVALENKO – Ukrainian Academy of Agricultural Engineering and Land Reclamation, Kiev, Ukraine
Irena KRISCIUKAITIENE – Lithuanian Institute of Agrarian Economics, Vilnius, Lithuania
Anatolyi P. LICHACEWICZ – Institute of Melioration, Minsk, Belarus
Ferenc LIGETVARI – Agriculture University, Debrecen, Hungary
Hanna OBARSKA-PEMPKOWIAK – University of Technology, Gdańsk, Poland
Ola PALM – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala, Sweden
Edward PIERZGALSKI – Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW, Poland
Czesław PRZYBYŁA – Poznań University of Life Sciences, Poland
Joachim QUAST – Zentrum für Hydrologie ZALF, Müncheberg, Germany
Erik P. QUERNER – Alterra, Wageningen, The Netherlands
Antanas S. SILEIKA – Water Research Institute of the ASU, Kedainiai, Lithuania
Martin J. WASSEN – University, Utrecht, The Netherlands
Ingrid WESSTRÖM – Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden
Muhammad AQEEL ASHRAF – University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

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Editorial Department
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Falenty, al. Hrabska 3
05-090 Raszyn
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phone +48 22 720 05 98
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e-mail: journal@itp.edu.pl
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Instructions for authors

Authors should submit manuscripts via the Editorial Board (Editorial system - Submit Your Manuscript )

1. "Journal of Water and Land Development” is published four times a year in English, articles are followed by a short (not exceeding 200 words) summary in Polish.
2. Conciseness of style is a prequisite, avoid verbose phrases and abvious statements. Manuscript should not exceed 1 printing sheet (20 standard pages of 1800 characters per page). Tables, figures and short summary should be typed at the end of the paper on separate pages.
3. Each article should contain the following elements: title, name and surname of the author(s), authors' affiliation, short abstract no longer than 150–200 words, key words, text of the paper divided into Introduction, Material and Methods, Results and Discussion, References (arranged in alphabetic order as shown below) and summary in Polish BENCALA K.E., WALTERS R.A. 1983. Simulation of solute transport in mountain pool-and riffle stream: a transient storage model. Water Resources Research. Vol. 19 p. 718–724. GÓRECKI A. 1987. Rozpoznanie i opis sztucznych pól odniesień przestrzennych [Recognition and description of the artificial plots of spatial relations]. Manuscript. Wrocław. Uniwersytet Wrocławski pp. 18. JANKOWSKI M. 2006. Elementy grafiki komputerowej [Elements of the computer graphics]. Warszawa. WNT. ISBN 8320431638 pp. 220. STRZELECKI T. 1994. Rola systemów informacji geograficznej w zarządzaniu państwem, województwem i gminą. W: Komputerowe wspomaganie badań naukowych [The role of GIS in the management of the state, voivodship and community. In: Computer aided research]. I Konferencja Środowiskowa. Wrocław. Wrocławskie Towarzystwo Naukowe p. 19–25. Papers referred to should be quoted in the text as KOWALSKI [1997], [KOWALSKI, NOWAK 1997]. If there are more than two authors, please add et al. after the first name i.e. NOWAK et al. [1997]. English version of the non-congress language title should be added in brackets.
4. Figures should be draw on tracing paper or delivered as laser printouts. Legends in the graphs should be restricted to numerical and letter descriptions, other explanations should be placed in the figure caption. Descriptions remaining within the graph should be in English and of the proportional size (i.e. they must ensure readability after graph size reduction).
5. Tables should fit to the width (16 cm) and height (24 cm) of the column.
6. Data illustrated in Figures should not appear in Tables and vice versa.
7. All variables in equations and in the text should be written in italic. Use SI units in the form g·cm–3 and not g/ml.
8. Manuscript should be sent in three copies with tables, graphs and English abstract and Polish summary with title and key words on separate pages. Enclose a floppy disc with the text written in Word for Windows with tables and figures saved in separate files.

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Journal of Water and Land Development jest czasopismem wydawanym w wolnym dostępie na licencji CC BY-NC-ND 3.0. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/

Journal of Water and Land Development is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-ND 3.0 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/.

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