Life Sciences and Agriculture

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Content

Journal of Plant Protection Research | 2020 | vol. 60 | Ahead of print |

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Abstract

The yellow sugarcane aphid (YSA), Sipha flava Forbes (Homoptera: Aphididae) is an invasive insect pest of many graminaceous plants which include cultivated crops, like sorghum, sugarcane, rice, maize and several species within non-cultivated genera e.g. Digitaria, Panicum, Paspalum, and Pennisetum. A survey conducted in the Kagera region indicated an infestation by YSA in nine sugarcane varieties grown. This pest causes damage to leaves leading to yellow, purple and red discoloration. This is the first report of YSA infestation in the Tanzanian sugarcane industry. Efforts to develop control measures are still in progress.

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Authors and Affiliations

Bonaventure January
Amry Yusufu
Fadhila Urassa
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Abstract

The species Halyomorpha halys (Stål), which is endemic in East Asia, was first detected in North America in 1996 and was probably introduced into Europe in 2008. The species is polyphagous. It consumes over 170 host plant species and significantly impacts crop production. In Greece the first recording of its presence was in 2014, when it was reported as a nuisance in houses in the region of Athens. The present study describes the systematic spread and damage of this invasive pest, including the first recorded identification in peach and olive cultivations in the prefecture of Imathia in central Macedonia, Greece. Sampling was carried out in representative peach and olive farms during July and August, 2018 and 2019 in which significant levels of fruit damage were recorded, especially during 2018. The population of the species was recorded throughout the winter seasons of 2018 and 2019 in which overwintering adults were systematically recorded in shelters and other constructions near fruit orchards. Given the dynamics of the species and its destructive impact on a wide range of host species, H. halys is expected to be a major pest. Additionally, considering that the prefecture of Imathia is the most important peach growing area of Greece, further studies of the presence and population dynamics of this species along with the establishment of particular management actions to control the population is imperative for the future protection of horticultural production in Greece.

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Authors and Affiliations

Petros Damos
Polyxeni Soulopoulou
Thomas Thomidis
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Abstract

Actinomycetes are considered to be the biggest producer of bioactive compounds which are expected to have antifungal activity for controlling many fungi such as Rhizoctonia solani. The objective of this study was to obtain potential soybean rhizosphere actinomycetes as a biocontrol agent for R. solani which cause damping-off disease both in vitro and in vivo, including their ability to produce siderophore, chitinase, and HCN. Out of 26 isolates, 18 (56%) showed diverse antifungal activities against R. solani with percentages of inhibition radial growth (PIRG) from 18.9 to 64.8%, as evaluated by a dual culture method. Ten isolates with the strongest antifungal activity were numbered for further characterization. All the tested isolates were not antagonistic towards Bradyrhizobium japonicum. These isolates were able to suppress damping-off disease caused by R. solani in the greenhouse experiment. Isolate ASR53 showed the highest disease suppression, 68% and 91% in sterile and non-sterile soil, respectively. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis this isolate belonged to Streptomyces violaceorubidus LMG 20319 (similarity 98.8%) according to GenBank data base available at www.ncbi.nlm.gov.nih. Furthermore, isolate ASR53 had significantly longer roots and shoots, as well as greater fresh and dry weights of seedlings than the control. Crude extract derived from ASR53 isolates contained 10 dominant compounds that were biologically active against fungal pathogens. Thus, this study suggests that the application of potential actinomycetes of the soybean rhizosphere can act as a promising biocontrol agent against damping-off disease caused by R. solani.

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Authors and Affiliations

Umi Fatmawati
Anja Meryandini
Abdjad Asih Nawangsih
Aris Tri Wahyudi
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Abstract

Gene postulation is one of the fastest and most cost-effective methods for identifying seedling leaf rust resistance genes in wheat cultivars. Many researchers use this approach to identify Lr genes in wheat cultivars. The purpose of our research was to identify seedling leaf rust resistance genes in 20 wheat cultivars from different breeding centers of Russia, Ukraine and Germany. Forty-two near isogenic Thatcher lines and 10 Puccinia triticina isolates were used for gene postulation. When assessing the infection types to cultivars and lines, a scale was used, according to Oelke and Kolmer. In 20 wheat cultivars 19 Lr genes were postulated: 2c, 3, 10, 3bg, 3ka, 14a, 17, 18, 23, 25, 26, 30, 33, 40, 44, 50, B, Exch, Kanred. The most common for cultivars was the Lr10 gene. In five cultivars, showing high field resistance, most postulated seedling genes (Lr2c, Lr3, Lr10, Lr14а, Lr26, Lr33) were not effective in the adult stage. It is possible that resistance of such cultivars is associated with APR genes, the postulation of which requires an expansion in the number and spectrum of P. triticina isolate virulence. Most of the studied cultivars (60%) have recently been entered into the register (2015–2019) and in the field show a stable or moderately susceptible response to P. triticina infection, despite the fact that the Lr genes postulated in them were not effective in the adult stage. The data obtained indicated a variety of genotypes of the studied cultivars, as well as the tendency of breeders to use the effect of pyramiding ineffective genes, which can prolong the resistance of the cultivar. Annual monitoring of varieties is necessary in each region, especially when reacting with a medium susceptible type (MS), which may indicate the initial stage of resistance loss.

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Authors and Affiliations

Galina Vladimirovna Volkova
Olga Alexandrovna Kudinova
Olga Feodorovna Vaganova
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Abstract

Different techniques have been devised to detect herbicide resistance in weeds, and the overall aim from this study was to compare four different assay techniques for evaluating acetolactate synthase (ALS)-inhibiting herbicide resistance in sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.). A resistant sterile wild oat population (R) was collected from the wheat field in Kozan, Adana province, Turkey. The susceptible (S) population was collected from the border of the same field. Effects of different doses of mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron-methyl -sodium and pyroxsulam + cloquintocet-mexyl were assessed in agar based (seed and seedling) assay, Petri dish with seeds, and whole plant pot assay. In the agar based assays, the level of resistance was evaluated by measuring coleoptile and hypocotyl lengths, and survival of seedlings. Plant height and shoot dry weight were measured in the Petri dish and whole plant pot assays, respectively. Results from the dose response analyses showed that both the R and S populations were extremely sensitive to mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron in the seedling bioassay. The resistance indices (RI’s) of the R biotype treated with mesosulfuron-methyl + iodosulfuron in the agar based seed, Petri dish, and whole plant assays were 2.29, 2.63 and 4.18, respectively. The resistance indices of the R biotype treated with pyroxsulam + cloquintocet-mexyl was 3.41, 5.05 and 2.82 in the agar based seed, Petri dish, and whole plant pot assays, respectively. The agar based seed assays and Petri dish assay provided feasible, accurate, rapid, and cost effective opportunities to identify resistance in sterile wild oat.

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Authors and Affiliations

Abdullatief M. Abdurruhman
Sibel Uygur
Solvejg K. Mathiassen
Nezihi Uygur
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Abstract

The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a polyphagous and holocyclic aphid which significantly damages agricultural crops. In the current study, the effects of micronutrients on some secondary metabolites of bell pepper (Capsicum annum L.) leaves and their subsequent influence on the life table parameters of M. persicae were investigated under greenhouse conditions. The flavonoid content in bell pepper leaves significantly changed following micronutrient treatments in the wavelength of 270 nm while there were no significant differences in the wavelengths 300 and 330 nm. The highest anthocyanin content was recorded after Fe treatment (3.811 mg ⋅ ml–1) while the total phenolic content in the bell pepper leaves increased after Mn (541.2 mg ⋅ ml–1) treatment compared to Fe (254.5 mg ⋅ ml–1) and control (216.33 mg ⋅ ml–1), respectively. The highest values of intrinsic (r) and finite rates of population increase (λ) of M. persicae were gained with Zn (0.320 and 1.377 day–1, respectively) treatment although the highest and the lowest values of the mean generation time (T) were found with Fe and Zn (14.07 and 12.63 days, respectively) treatments, respectively. Our findings suggest that Mn, more than Zn micronutrients, decreased ecological fitness of green peach aphid and may help enhance the efficiency of pest control techniques.

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Authors and Affiliations

Tayebeh Alizamani
Jahanshir Shakarami
Mozhgan Mardani-Talaee
Arash Zibaee
Jose Eduardo Serrão
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Abstract

It is challenging to obtain proper leaf wetting. An angled spray could overcome this impediment, but which spray angle is best suited to droplet size is still unknown. In an outdoor pot experiment, seven doses of cycloxydim and sethoxydim were sprayed with single-orifice standard, anti-drift, and air induction (having a fine, medium, and extremely coarse spray quality, respectively) flat fan nozzles, using spray angles of 10°, 20° backward, 0° (vertical), 10°, 20°, 30°, 40°, 50°, and 60° forward relative to the direction of nozzle trajectory on wild barley at the three-leaf stage. Generally, the forward angled spray was better than the backward angled spray. With a standard flat fan nozzle, the forward angling of spray from 0° to 20° reduced the ED50 from 60.24 to 39.85 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for cycloxydim and from 150.51 to 81.13 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for sethoxydim. With an anti-drift flat fan nozzle, the forward angling of spray from 0° to 30° reduced the ED50 from 72.57 to 50.20 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for cycloxydim and from 181.94 to 104.51 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for sethoxydim. With an air induction flat fan nozzle, the forward angling of spray from 0° to 40° reduced the ED50 from 102.96 to 45.52 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for cycloxydim and from 209.91 to 92.80 g a.i. ⋅ ha−1 for sethoxydim. More angling did not improve the efficacy of these herbicides. Our results revealed that larger spray droplets needed more spray angle than smaller spray droplets to achieve an equal control.

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Authors and Affiliations

Akbar Aliverdi
Mojtaba Zarei
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Abstract

This study was conducted to predict the yield and biomass of lentil (Lens culinaris L.) affected by weeds using artificial neural network and multiple regression models. Systematic sampling was done at 184 sampling points at the 8-leaf to early-flowering and at lentil maturity. The weed density and height as well as canopy cover of the weeds and lentil were measured in the first sampling stage. In addition, weed species richness, diversity and evenness were calculated. The measured variables in the first sampling stage were considered as predictive variables. In the second sampling stage, lentil yield and biomass dry weight were recorded at the same sampling points as the first sampling stage. The lentil yield and biomass were considered as dependent variables. The model input data included the total raw and standardized variables of the first sampling stage, as well as the raw and standardized variables with a significant relationship to the lentil yield and biomass extracted from stepwise regression and correlation methods. The results showed that neural network prediction accuracy was significantly more than multiple regression. The best network in predicting yield of lentil was the principal component analysis network (PCA), made from total standardized data, with a correlation coefficient of 80% and normalized root mean square error of 5.85%. These values in the best network (a PCA neural network made from standardized data with significant relationship to lentil biomass) were 79% and 11.36% for lentil biomass prediction, respectively. Our results generally showed that the neural network approach could be used effectively in lentil yield prediction under weed interference conditions.

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Authors and Affiliations

Alireza Bagheri
Negin Zargarian
Farzad Mondani
Iraj Nosratti

Editorial office

Editor-in-Chief Prof. Henryk Pospieszny Department of Virology and Bacteriology Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute Władysława Węgorka 20, 60-318 Poznań, Poland e-mail: H.Pospieszny@iorpib.poznan.pl Associate Editors Dr. Zbigniew Czaczyk (Agricultural Engineering) Poznan Univeristy of Life Sciences, Poznań, Poland Dr. Magdalena Jakubowska (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Sylwia Kaczmarek (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Piotr Kaczyński (Pesticide Residue) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Chetan Keswani (Biological Control) Institute of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India Dr. Tomasz Klejdysz (Entomology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Franciszek Kornobis (Zoology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Karlos Lisboa (Biotechnology) Institute of Chemistry and Biotechnology, Federal University of Alagoas, Alagoas, Brazil Dr. Vahid Mahdavi (Entomology) University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Ardabil, Iran Dr. Kinga Matysiak (Weed Science) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Yongzhi Wang (Virology and Bacteriology) Jilin Academy of Agricultral Sciences, Changchun, Jilin Province, China Dr. Przemysław Wieczorek (Biotechnology) Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute, Poznań, Poland Dr. Huan Zhang (Plant Pathology) Texas A&M University, Texas, USA Managing Editors Małgorzata Maćkowiak e-mail: m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl Monika Kardasz e-mail: m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl Proofreaders in English Delia Gosik Halina Staniszewska-Gorączniak Statistical Editor Dr. Jan Bocianowski Technical Editor Tomasz Adamski

Contact

Journal of Plant Protection Research

Institute of Plant Protection
National Research Institute
Władysława Węgorka 20
60–318 Poznań, Poland

tel.: +48 61 864 90 30
e-mail: office@plantprotection.pl

Managing Editors

Malgorzata Mackowiak
m.mackowiak@iorpib.poznan.pl

Monika Kardasz
m.kardasz@iorpib.poznan.pl

Instructions for authors

Instructions for Authors

Manuscripts published in JPPR are free of charge. Only colour figures and photos are payed 61.5 € per one colour page JPPR publishes original research papers, short communications, critical reviews, and book reviews covering all areas of modern plant protection. Subjects include phytopathological virology, bacteriology, mycology and applied nematology and entomology as well as topics on protecting crop plants and stocks of crop products against diseases, viruses, weeds, etc. Submitted manuscripts should provide new facts or confirmatory data. All manuscripts should be written in high-quality English. Non-English native authors should seek appropriate help from English-writing professionals before submission. The manuscript should be submitted only via the JPPR Editorial System (http://www.editorialsystem.com/jppr). The authors must also remember to upload a scan of a completed License to Publish (point 4 and a handwritten signature are of particular importance). ALP form is available at the Editorial System. The day the manuscript reaches the editors for the first time is given upon publication as the date ‘received’ and the day the version, corrected by the authors is accepted by the reviewers, is given as the date ‘revised’. All papers are available free of charge at the Journal’s webpage (www.plantprotection.pl). However, colour figures and photos cost 61.5 € per one colour page.

General information for preparing a manuscript

All text should be written in a concise and integrated way, by focusing on major points, findings, breakthrough or discoveries, and their broad significance. All running text should be in Times New Roman 12, 1.5 spacing with all margins 2.5 cm on all sides.

Original article

The original research articles should contain the following sections: Title – the title should be unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the contents of the paper. No abbreviations may be used in the title. Name(s) of author(s) with affiliations footnoted added only to the system, not visible in the manuscript (Double Blind Reviews). The names of the authors should be given in the following order: first name, second name initial, surname. Affiliations should contain: name of institution, faculty, department, street, city with zip code, and country. Abstract – information given in the title does not need to be repeated in the abstract. The abstract should be no longer than 300 words. It must contain the aim of the study, methods, results and conclusions. If used, abbreviations should be limited and must be explained when first used. Keywords – a maximum of 6, should cover the most specific terms found in the paper. They should describe the subject and results and must differ from words used in the title. Introduction – a brief review of relevant research (with references to the most important and recent publications) should lead to the clear formulation of the working hypothesis and aim of the study. It is recommended to indicate what is novel and important in the study. Materials and Methods – in this section the description of experimental procedures should be sufficient to allow replication. Organisms must be identified by scientific name, including authors. The International System of Units (SI) and their abbreviations should be used. Methods of statistical processing, including the software used, should also be listed in this section. Results – should be presented clearly and concisely without deducting and theori sing. Graphs should be preferred over tables to express quantitative data. Discussion – should contain an interpretation of the results ( without unnecessary repetition) and explain the influence of experimental factors or methods. It should describe how the results and their interpretation relate to the scientific hypothesis and/or aim of the study. The discussion should take into account the current state of knowledge and up-to-date literature. It should highlight the significance and novelty of the paper. It may also point to the next steps that will lead to a better understanding of the matters in question. Acknowledgements – of people, grants, funds, etc. should be placed in a separate section before the reference list. The names of funding organizations should be written in full. References In the text, papers with more than two authors should be cited by the last name of the first author, followed by et al. (et al. in italics), a space, and the year of publication (example: Smith et al. 2012). If the cited manuscript has two authors, the citation should include both last names, a space, and the publication year (example: Marconi and Johnston 2006). In the Reference section, a maximum of ten authors of the cited paper may be given. All references cited in the text must be listed in the Reference section alphabetically by the last names of the author(s) and then chronologically. The year of publication follows the authors’ names. All titles of the cited articles should be given in English. Please limit the citation of papers published in languages other than English. If necessary translate the title into English and provide information concerning the original language in brackets (e.g. in Spanish). The list of references should only include works from the last ten years that have had the greatest impact on the subject. Older references can be cited only if they are important for manuscript content. The full name of periodicals should be given. If possible, the DOI number should be added at the end of each reference. The following system for arranging references should be used: Journal articles Jorjani M., Heydari A., Zamanizadeh H.R., Rezaee S., Naraghi L., Zamzami P. 2012. Controlling sugar beet mortality disease by application of new bioformulations. Journal of Plant Protection Research 52 (3): 303-307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2478/v10045-012-0049-9 Online articles Turner E., Jacobson D.J., Taylor J.W. 2011. Genetic architecture of a reinforced, postmating, reproductive isolation barrier between Neurospora species indicates evolution via natural selection. PLoS Genetics 7 (8): e1002204. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204 Books Bancrof J.D., Stevens A. 1996. Theory and Practice of Histological Techniques. 4th ed. Churchill Livingstone, Edinburgh, UK, 776 pp. Book chapters Pradhan S.K. 2000. Integrated pest management. p. 463-469. In: "IPM System in Agriculture. Cash Crop" (R.K. Upadhyaya, K.G. Mukerji, O.P. Dubey, eds.). Aditya Books Pvt. Ltd. New Delhi, India, 710 pp. Online documents Cartwright J. 2007. Big stars have weather too. IOP Publishing PhysicsWeb. Available on: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1002204

Tables, Figures, Phothographs, Drawings

Tables and figures should be uploaded as separated files at the submission stage. Their place in the manuscript should be clearly indicated by authors. Colour figures are accepted at no charge for the electronic version. In the hardcopy version of the journal, colour figures cost (65,5 € per one colour page). When attaching files please indicate if you want colour only in the online version or in both the online and the hardcopy. Photographs and RGB bitmaps should be provided in JPG or TIFF file format. They must have no less than 300 dpi resolution. The text column should be 8 cm wide and they must be at least 1000 pixels wide. Please send original (not resized) photograph(s), straight from a digital camera, without any text descriptions on the photo. Bitmaps combined with text object descriptions should be provided in MS Word or MS Powerpoint format. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Drawings should be provided in MS Word, MS Powerpoint, CorelDRAW or EPS file format and stored with original data file. Text objects using Arial font-face should be editable (changing font-face or font size). Charts (MS Excel graphs) should be provided in MS Excel file format, and stored with original MS Excel data file without captions but with the number of the figure attached. Please do not use bitmap fills for bar charts. Use colour fills only if necessary. Captions and legends should be added at the end of the text, referred to as "Fig." and numbered consecutively throughout the paper.

Rapid communications

Rapid communications should present brief observations which do not warrant the length of a full paper. However, they must present completed studies and follow the same scientific standards as original articles. Rapid communications should contain the following sections: Title Abstract - less than 300 words Key words - maximum 6 Text body Acknowledgements References The length of such submissions is limited to 1500 words for the text, one table, and one figure.

Reviews

Review articles are invited by the editors.Unsolicited reviews are also considered. The length is limited to 5000 words with no limitations on figures and tables and a maximum of 150 references. Mini-Review articles should be dedicated to "hot" topics and limited to 3000 words and a maximum two figures, two tables and 20 references.

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