Applied sciences

International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications


International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications | 2018 | vol. 64 | No 3 |


In the paper, two preprocessing methods for virtual view synthesis are presented. In the first approach, both horizontal and vertical resolutions of the real views and the corresponding depth maps are doubled in order to perform view synthesis on images with densely arranged points. In the second method, real views are filtered in order to eliminate blurred or improperly shifted edges of the objects. Both methods are performed prior to synthesis, thus they may be applied to different Depth-Image-Based Rendering algorithms. In the paper, for both proposed methods, the achieved quality gains are presented.
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The paper presents Improved Adaptive Arithmetic Coding algorithm for application in future video compression technology. The proposed solution is based on the Context-based Adaptive Binary Arithmetic Coding (CABAC) technique and uses the authors mechanism of symbols probability estimation that exploits Context-Tree Weighting (CTW) technique. This paper proposes the version of the algorithm, that allows an arbitrary selection of depth D of context trees, when activating the algorithm in the framework of the AVC or HEVC video encoders. The algorithm has been tested in terms of coding efficiency of data and its computational complexity. Results showed, that depending on depth of context trees from 0.1% to 0.86% reduction of bitrate is achieved, when using the algorithm in the HEVC video encoder and 0.4% to 2.3% compression gain in the case of the AVC. The new solution increases complexity of entropy encoder itself, however, this does not cause an increase of the complexity of the whole video encoder.
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Optimization of encoding process in video compression is an important research problem, especially in the case of modern, sophisticated compression technologies. In this paper, we consider HEVC, for which a novel method for selection of the encoding modes is proposed. By the encoding modes we mean e.g. coding block structure, prediction types and motion vectors. The proposed selection is done basing on noise-reduced version of the input sequence, while the information about the video itself, e.g. transform coefficients, is coded basing on the unaltered input. The proposed method involves encoding of two versions of the input sequence. Further, we show realization proving that the complexity is only negligibly higher than complexity of a single encoding. The proposal has been implemented in HEVC reference software from MPEG and tested experimentally. The results show that the proposal provides up to 1.5% bitrate reduction while preserving the same quality of a decoded video.
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In this paper, a modification of the graph-based depth estimation is presented. The purpose of proposed modification is to increase the quality of estimated depth maps, reduce the time of the estimation, and increase the temporal consistency of depth maps. The modification is based on the image segmentation using superpixels, therefore in the first step of the proposed modification a segmentation of previous frames is used in the currently processed frame in order to reduce the overall time of the depth estimation. In the next step, a depth map from the previous frame is used in the depth map optimization as the initial values of a depth map estimated for the current frame. It results in the better representation of silhouettes of objects in depth maps and in the reduced computational complexity of the depth estimation process. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed modification the authors performed the experiment for a set of multiview test sequences that varied in their content and an arrangement of cameras. The results of the experiments confirmed the increase of the depth maps quality — the quality of depth maps calculated with the proposed modification is higher than for the unmodified depth estimation method, apart from the number of the performed optimization cycles. Therefore, use of the proposed modification allows to estimate a depth of the better quality with almost 40% reduction of the estimation time. Moreover, the temporal consistency, measured through the reduction of the bitrate of encoded virtual views, was also considerably increased.
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Keypoint detection is a basic step in many computer vision algorithms aimed at recognition of objects, automatic navigation and analysis of biomedical images. Successful implementation of higher level image analysis tasks, however, is conditioned by reliable detection of characteristic image local regions termed keypoints. A large number of keypoint detection algorithms has been proposed and verified. In this paper we discuss the most important keypoint detection algorithms. The main part of this work is devoted to description of a keypoint detection algorithm we propose that incorporates depth information computed from stereovision cameras or other depth sensing devices. It is shown that filtering out keypoints that are context dependent, e.g. located at boundaries of objects can improve the matching performance of the keypoints which is the basis for object recognition tasks. This improvement is shown quantitatively by comparing the proposed algorithm to the widely accepted SIFT keypoint detector algorithm. Our study is motivated by a development of a system aimed at aiding the visually impaired in space perception and object identification.
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This article provides a comparison of a three methods that can be used for calculating effective coverage of image quality assessment database. The aim of this metric is to show how well the database is filled with variety of images. For each image in the database the Spatial Information (SI) and Colorfulness (CF) metric is calculated. The area of convex hull containing all the points on SI x CF plane is indication of total coverage of the database, but it does not show how efficiently this area is utilized. For this purpose an effective coverage was introduced. An analysis is performed for 16 databases - 13 publicaly available and 3 artificial created for the purpose of showing advantages of the effective coverage.
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In normal conditions, the Critical Flicker Frequency is usually 60Hz. But in some special conditions, such as low spatial frequency and high contrast between frames, these special conditions have high probability to occur in some TPVMbased applications. So it’s extremely important to verify if a visual signal with a combination of temporal and spatial frequency can be recognize by human eyes. Based on the research in the last paper ’ ’Window of Visibility’ inspired security lighting system’, this paper introduces the measuring method of WoV of human eyes. In this paper we will measure critical flicker frequency in low spatial frequency and high contrast conditions, and we can witness a different conclusion from the normal conditions.
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As the most recent video coding standard, High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) adopts various novel techniques, including a quad-tree based coding unit (CU) structure and additional angular modes used for intra encoding. These new techniques achieve a notable improvement in coding efficiency at the penalty of significant computational complexity increase. Thus, a fast HEVC coding algorithm is highly desirable. In this paper, we propose a fast intra CU decision algorithm for HEVC to reduce the coding complexity, mainly based on a key-point detection. A CU block is considered to have multiple gradients and is early split if corner points are detected inside the block. On the other hand, a CU block without corner points is treated to be terminated when its RD cost is also small according to statistics of the previous frames. The proposed fast algorithm achieves over 62% encoding time reduction with 3.66%, 2.82%, and 2.53% BD-Rate loss for Y, U, and V components, averagely. The experimental results show that the proposed method is efficient to fast decide CU size in HEVC intra coding, even though only static parameters are applied to all test sequences.
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Video walls are useful to display large size video content. Empowered video walls combine display functionality with computing power. Such video walls can display large scientific visualizations. If they can also display high-resolution video streamed over a network, they could enable distance collaboration over scientific data. We proposed several methods of network streaming of highresolution video content to a major type of empowered video walls, which is the SAGE2 system. For all methods, we evaluated their performance and discussed their scalability and properties. The results should be applicable to other web-based empowered video walls as well.
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Analysis of harmonic parameters and detection of foreign frequencies in diagnostic signals, which are most often interpreted as fault results, may be problematic because of the spectral leakage effect. When the signal contains only the fundamental frequency and harmonics, it is possible to adjust its spectral resolution to eliminate any distortions for regular frequencies. The paper discusses the influence of resampling distortions on the quality of spectral resolution optimization in diagnostic signals, recorded digitally for objects in a steady state. The method effectiveness is measured with the use of a synthetic signal generated from an analog prototype whose parameters are known. In order to achieve low values of harmonic amplitude errors in the diagnostic signal, a high quality resampling algorithm should be used, therefore the analysis of distortions generated by four popular reasampling methods is performed. Errors are measured for test signals containing different spectral structures. Finally, the results of the test of the analyzed method in practical applications are presented.
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Following the results presented in [21], we present an efficient approach to the Schur parametrization/modeling of a subclass of second-order time-series which we term p-stationary time-series, yielding a uniform hierarchy of algorithms suitable for efficient implementations and being a good starting point for nonlinear generalizations to higher-order non-Gaussian nearstationary time-series.
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In modern digital world, there is a strong demand for efficient data streams processing methods. One of application areas is cybersecurity — IPsec is a suite of protocols that adds security to communication at the IP level. This paper presents principles of high-performance FPGA architecture for data streams processing on example of IPsec gateway implementation. Efficiency of the proposed solution allows to use it in networks with data rates of several Gbit/s.
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The Traffic Flow Description (TFD) option of the IP protocol is an experimental option, designed by the Authors and described by the IETF’s Internet Draft. This option was intended for signalling for QoS purposes. Knowledge about forthcoming traffic (such as the amount of data that will be transferred in a given period of time) is conveyed in the fields of the option between end-systems. TFD-capable routers on a path (or a multicast tree) between the sender and receiver(s) are able to read this information, process it and use it for bandwidth allocation. If the time horizons are short enough, bandwidth allocation will be performed dynamically. In the paper a performance evaluation of an HD video transmission QoS assured with the use of the TFD option is presented. The analysis was made for a variable number of video streams and a variable number of TCP flows that compete with the videos for the bandwidth of the shared link. Results show that the dynamic bandwidth allocation using the TFD option better assures the QoS of HD video than the classic solution, based on the RSVP protocol.
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This article presents a review of the investigation of the possibility of increasing the efficiency of existing line test solutions for troubleshooting testing for IPTV over xDSL, by the results of experimental research on real system under commercial exploitation. At the beginning of this article the main weaknesses of the existing troubleshooting testing are described. In the continuation of the article the physical layer parameters of xDSL transceiver are listed. This article also provides a few specific examples of xDSL lines with their physical layer parameters of xDSL transceivers followed by analysis how they can be used for the purposes of more efficient measurement of parameters of copper pairs.
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In the paper we consider fast transformation of a multilevel and multioutput circuit with AND, OR and NOT gates into a functionally equivalent circuit with NAND and NOR gates. The task can be solved by replacing AND and OR gates by NAND or NOR gates, which requires in some cases introducing the additional inverters or splitting the gates. In the paper the quick approximation algorithms of the circuit transformation are proposed, minimizing number of the inverters. The presented algorithms allow transformation of any multilevel circuit into a circuit being a combination of NOR gates, NAND gates or both types of universal gates.
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Study of the trajectories of the motion of satellites remains an urgent task for modern science. This is especially true for GNSS systems and for satellites intended for Earth remote sensing. The basis of their operation is to accurately determine the position of the satellite, and the parameters of signal propagation. Considering the great distances and speeds of both satellites and the Earth in calculating these parameters, it is necessary to take into account the special and general theory of relativity. In the article formulas have been derived for calculating additional corrections for relativistic effects. A mathematical model for calculating the metric tensor was created. A sequence of correction was also proposed.
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In this paper, the second-generation CMOS currentcontrolled- current-conveyor based on differential pair of operational transconductance amplifier has been researched and presented. Since the major improvement of its parasitic resistance at x-port can be linearly controlled by an input bias current, the proposed building block is then called “The Second-Generation Electronically-tunable Current-controlled Current Conveyor” (ECCCI). The applications are demonstrated in form of both 2 quadrant and 4 quadrant current-mode signal multiplier circuits. Characteristics of the proposed ECCCII and its application are simulated by the PSPICE program from which the results are proved to be in agreement with the theory.
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In this article we construct a finite-difference scheme for the three-dimensional equations of the atmospheric boundary layer. The solvability of the mathematical model is proved and quality properties of the solutions are studied. A priori estimates are derived for the solution of the differential equations. The mathematical questions of the difference schemes for the equations of the atmospheric boundary layer are studied. Nonlinear terms are approximated such that the integral term of the identity vanishes when it is scalar multiplied. This property of the difference scheme is formulated as a lemma. Main a priori estimates for the solution of the difference problem are derived. Approximation properties are investigated and the theorem of convergence of the difference solution to the solution of the differential problem is proved.
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WILGA annual symposium on advanced photonic and electronic systems has been organized by young scientist for young scientists since two decades. It traditionally gathers around 400 young researchers and their tutors. Ph.D students and graduates present their recent achievements during well attended oral sessions. Wilga is a very good digest of Ph.D. works carried out at technical universities in electronics and photonics, as well as information sciences throughout Poland and some neighboring countries. Publishing patronage over Wilga keep Elektronika technical journal by SEP, IJET and Proceedings of SPIE. The latter world editorial series publishes annually more than 200 papers from Wilga. Wilga 2018 was the XLII edition of this meeting. The following topical tracks were distinguished: photonics, electronics, information technologies and system research. The article is a digest of some chosen works presented during Wilga 2018 symposium. WILGA 2017 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10445. WILGA 2018 works were published in Proc. SPIE vol.10808.
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The article is devoted to the method facilitating the diagnostics of dynamic faults in networks of interconnection in systems-on-chips. It shows how to reconstruct the erroneous test response sequence coming from the faulty connection based on the set of signatures obtained as a result of multiple compaction of this sequence in the MISR register with programmable feedback. The Chinese reminder theorem is used for this purpose. The article analyzes in detail the various hardware realizations of the discussed method. The testing time associated with each proposed solution was also estimated. Presented method can be used with any type of test sequence and test pattern generator. It is also easily scalable to any number of nets in the network of interconnections. Moreover, it supports finding a trade-off between area overhead and testing time.
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Editorial office

Ryszard S. Romaniuk, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Poland

Managing Editor
Danuta Sobczak-Bartosiewicz, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Technical Editors
Grzegorz Borowik, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Telecommunications, Poland
Maciej Linczuk, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Electronic Systems, Poland

Secretary in-Charge
Danuta Ojrzenska-Wojter, Warsaw University of Technology, Institute of Telecommunications, Poland

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Michał Ramotowski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Editorial Advisory Board
Prof. Victor-Valeriu Patriciu, Director Doctoral School of Electronics, Informatics and Communications for Defense and Security, Military Technical Academy Bucharest, Romania, Romania

Prof. Bart Scheers, Royal Military Academy, Belgium

Dr. Eli Winjum, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment, Norway

Wladyslaw Skarbek, Warsaw University of Technology, IRE, Poland

Christian Napoli, University of Catania, Italy

Rosario Giunta, University of Catania, Italy

Christopher Chiu, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Prof. Emiliano Tramontana, University of Catania, Italy

Prof Robin Braun, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Dr David Davis, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

dr Brian Culshaw, University of Strathclyde, UK, United Kingdom

Grzegorz Chmaj, University of Nevada, United States

Giuseppe Pappalardo, University of Catania, Italy

Michael Affenzeller, University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria

Prof. Stavros Hatzopoulos, Laboratory of Hearing Science Audiology Dept., University of Ferrara, Italy, Italy

Prof Nikita M Ryskin, Saratov State University, Russian Federation

Prof. Adam Wolisz, Technische Universität Berlin, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science Telecommunication Networks

Prof. Edmundo Monteiro, Departamento de Engenharia Informatica Universidade de Coimbra Portugal, Portugal

Prof. Zoubir Mammeri, IRIT, Université Paul Sabatier 118 Route de Narbonne F-31062 Toulouse Cedex 9 FRANCE, France

Dr Paul D Polishuk, IGI, Boston, MA, USA

Giuseppe Macchiarella, Politecnico di Milano,Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informazione e Bioingegneria (DEIB), Italy

Prof. Bernd Steinbach, Bergakademie Freiberg Fakultät für Mathematik und Informatik Institut, Germany

Jan Szmidt, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Zenon Chaczko, University of Technology Sydney, Australia

Józef Modelski, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Wiesław Woliński, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Ryszard Klempous, Wroclaw University of Technology, Poland

Radomir Stanković, University of Niš, Serbia

Javier Poncela, University of Malaga, Spain

Marek Turowski, CFD Research Corporation, United States

Dawid Zydek, NV Energy, United States

Wojciech Szpankowski, Purdue University, United States

Jacek Żurada, University of Louisville, United States

Tadeusz Luba, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Stefan Hahn, Warsaw University of Technology, Poland

Gilbert De Mey, Ghent University, Belgium

Svetlana Yanushkevich, University of Calgary, Canada

Viktor Krozer, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

Adam Morawiec, European Electronic Chips & Systems Design Initiative, France

Herman Rohling, Technical University of Hamburg, Germany

Franco Davoli, University of Genowa, Italy

Michał Mrozowski, Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland

Włodzimierz Janke, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland

Marek Amanowicz, Military University of Technology, Poland

Antoni Rogalski, Military University of Technology, Poland

Andrzej Materka, Technical University of Łódź, Poland

Henry Selvaraj, University of Nevada, United States



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