Applied sciences

Geodesy and Cartography

Content

Geodesy and Cartography | 2014 | vol. 63 | No 1 |

Abstract

The GOCE (Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer) has significantly upgraded the knowledge on the Earth gravity field. In this contribution the accuracy of height anomalies determined from Global Geopotential Models (GGMs) based on approximately 27 months GOCE satellite gravity gradiometry (SGG) data have been assessed over Poland using three sets of precise GNSS/levelling data. The fits of height anomalies obtained from 4th release GOCE-based GGMs to GNSS/levelling data were discussed and compared with the respective ones of 3rd release GOCE-based GGMs and the EGM08. Furthermore, two highly accurate gravimetric quasigeoid models were developed over the area of Poland using high resolution Faye gravity anomalies. In the first, the GOCE-based GGM was used as a reference geopotential model, and in the second – the EGM08. They were evaluated with GNSS/levelling data and their accuracy performance was assessed. The use of GOCE-based GGMs for recovering the long-wavelength gravity signal in gravimetric quasigeoid modelling was discussed.
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Abstract

In the paper a transformation between two height datums (Kronstadt’60 and Kronstadt’86, the latter being a part of the present National Spatial Reference System in Poland) with the use of geostatistical method – kriging is presented. As the height differences between the two datums reveal visible trend a natural decision is to use the kind of kriging method that takes into account nonstationarity in the average behavior of the spatial process (height differences between the two datums). Hence, two methods were applied: hybrid technique (a method combining Trend Surface Analysis with ordinary kriging on least squares residuals) and universal kriging. The background of the two methods has been presented. The two methods were compared with respect to the prediction capabilities in a process of crossvalidation and additionally they were compared to the results obtained by applying a polynomial regression transformation model. The results obtained within this study prove that the structure hidden in the residual part of the model and used in kriging methods may improve prediction capabilities of the transformation model.
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Abstract

Qualitative and quantitative results of high terrain elevation effect on spectral radiance of optical satellite image which affect the accuracy in retrieving of land surface cover changes is given. The paper includes two main parts: correction model of spectral radiance of satellite image affected by high terrain elevation and assessment of impacts and variation of land cover changes before and after correcting influence of high terrain elevation to the spectral radiance of the image. Study has been carried out with SPOT 5 in Hoa Binh mountain area of two periods: 2007 and 2010. Results showed that appropriate correction model is the Meyer’s one. The impacts of correction spectral radiance to 7 classes of classified images fluctuate from 15% to 400%. The varying changes before and after correction of image radiation fluctuate over 7 classes from 5% to 100%.
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Abstract

The fundamental importance of cartographic signs in traditional maps is unquestionable, although in the case of multimedia maps their key function is not so obvious. Our aim was to search the problem of cartographic signs as a core of multimedia maps prepared by non-cartographer in on-line Map Services. First, pre-established rules for multimedia map designers were prepared emphasizing the key role of the cartographic signs and habits of Web-users. The comparison of projects completed by a group of designers led us to the general conclusion that a cartographic sign should determine the design of a multimedia map in on-line Map Services. Despite the selection of five different map topics, one may list the general characteristics of the maps with a cartographic sign in the core.
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Abstract

The Paper presents the optical method of fixing the off-shore objects positions from the land. The method is based on application of two reference points, having the geographical coordinates de fined. The first point was situated high on the sea shore, where also the camera was installed. The second point was intended for use to determine the topocentric horizon plane and it was situated at the water-level. The first section of the Paper contains the definition of space and disposed therein reference systems: connected with the Earth, water-level and the camera system. The second section of the Paper provides a description of the survey system model and the principles of the Charge Coupled Device – CCD array pixel’s coordinates (plate coordinates) transformation into the geographic coordinates located on the water-level. In the final section there are presented the general rules of using the worked out method in the optical system.
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Abstract

A geodesic survey of an existing route requires one to determine the approximation curve by means of optimization using the total least squares method (TLSM). The objective function of the LSM was found to be a square of the Mahalanobis distance in the adjustment field ν . In approximation tasks, the Mahalanobis distance is the distance from a survey point to the desired curve. In the case of linear regression, this distance is codirectional with a coordinate axis; in orthogonal regression, it is codirectional with the normal line to the curve. Accepting the Mahalanobis distance from the survey point as a quasi-observation allows us to conduct adjustment using a numerically exact parametric procedure. Analysis of the potential application of splines under the NURBS (non-uniform rational B-spline) industrial standard with respect to route approximation has identified two issues: a lack of the value of the localizing parameter for a given survey point and the use of vector parameters that define the shape of the curve. The value of the localizing parameter was determined by projecting the survey point onto the curve. This projection, together with the aforementioned Mahalanobis distance, splits the position vector of the curve into two orthogonal constituents within the local coordinate system of the curve. A similar system corresponds to points that form the control polygonal chain and allows us to find their position with the help of a scalar variable that determines the shape of the curve by moving a knot toward the normal line.
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Abstract

Research of semiotic aspects Lithuanian military air navigation charts was based on the semantic, graphic and information load analysis. The aim of semantic analysis was to determine how the conventional cartographical symbols, used in air navigation charts, correspond with carto-linguistic and carto-semiotic requirements. The analysis of all the markings was performed complex and collected by questionnaire were interviewed various respondents: pilots, cartographers and other chart users. The researches seek two aims: evaluate information and graphical load of military air navigation charts. Information load evaluated to calculate all objects and phenomenon, which was in 25 cm² of map. Charts analysis showed that in low flight charts (LFC) average information load are 4 – 5 times richer than in the operational maps. Map signs optimization on LFC has to be managed very carefully, choosing signs that can reduce the load of information and helps for the information transfer process. Graphical load of maps evaluated of aeronautical maps is not great (5 – 12%) and does not require reduction the information load and generalization of charts. Air navigation charts analysis pointed that not all air navigation sings correspond carto-semiotic requirements and must be improved. The authors suggested some new sings for military air navigation chart, which are simpler, equivalent to human psychophysical perception criteria, creates faster communication and less load on the chart.
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Abstract

The presented preliminary research concerns the accuracy and reliability of new ultra-fast static positioning module – POZGEO-2 – in case of processing GPS data collected outside the ASG-EUPOS network. Such a case requires extrapolation of the network-derived atmospheric corrections which limits correction accuracy and, therefore, has adverse effect on the carrier phase ambiguity resolution. The presented processing tests are based on processing 5-minute long observing sessions and show that precise positioning can be supported up to 35 km from the ASG-EUPOS borders. This means that precise positioning with POZGEO-2 module can be assured for the most of the border areas of Poland.
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Abstract

From the theory of reliability it follows that the greater the observational redundancy in a network, the higher is its level of internal reliability. However, taking into account physical nature of the measurement process one may notice that the planned additional observations may increase the number of potential gross errors in a network, not raising the internal reliability to the theoretically expected degree. Hence, it is necessary to set realistic limits for a sufficient number of observations in a network. An attempt to provide principles for finding such limits is undertaken in the present paper. An empirically obtained formula (Adamczewski 2003) called there the law of gross errors, determining the chances that a certain number of gross errors may occur in a network, was taken as a starting point in the analysis. With the aid of an auxiliary formula derived on the basis of the Gaussian law, the Adamczewski formula was modified to become an explicit function of the number of observations in a network. This made it possible to construct tools necessary for the analysis and finally, to formulate the guidelines for determining the upper-bounds for internal reliability indices. Since the Adamczewski formula was obtained for classical networks, the guidelines should be considered as an introductory proposal requiring verification with reference to modern measuring techniques.
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Editorial office

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF:

ELŻBIETA BIELECKA

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: elzbieta.bielecka@wat.edu.pl

DEPUTY EDITOR-IN CHIEF:

ANNA KŁOS

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: anna.klos@wat.edu.pl

THEMATIC EDITORS

Geodesy

KRZYSZTOF SOŚNICA

Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences, Poland

Geodynamics

JANUSZ BOGUSZ

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Photogrametry and Remote Sensing

PIOTR SAWICKI

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

Cartography and GIS

DARIUSZ DUKACZEWSKI

Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Warsaw, Poland

Cadastre

RYSZARD ŹRÓBEK

University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

Statistical Editor

PAWEŁ KAMIŃSKI

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Technical Editor

BEATA CAŁKA

Military University of Technology, Warsaw, Poland

Language Editor

PETER HALLS

York University, UK

SCIENTIFIC EDITORIAL BOARD

JOSEF ADAM, University of Technology and Economics, Hungary

TEMENOUJKA BANDROVA, University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy, Bulgaria

MYRIAM SOUSANA BARRERA LOBATON, National University of Colombia, Colombia

ALEKSANDRA BUJAKIEWICZ, Koszalin University of Technology, Poland

ADAM CHRZANOWSKI, University of New Brunswick, Canada

ALGIMANTAS ČESNULEVIČIUS, Vilnius State University, Lithuania

DEMETRIOU DEMETRIS, District Land Consolidation Officer of Larnaca and Famagusta, Cyprus

DOROTA GREJNER-BRZEZIŃSKA, Ohio State University, USA

MANUEL HERNANDEZ-PAJARES, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Spain

SHUANGGEN JIN, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China

AMIR KHODABANDEH, Curtin University of Technology, Australia

JAN KRYNSKI, Institute of Geodesy and Cartography, Poland

BOFENG LI, Tongji University, China

XINGXING LI, Wuhan University, China

JAAKKO MAKINEN, Finnish Geodetic Institute, Finland

BEATA MEDYNSKA-GULIJ, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poland

HELMUT MORITZ, Graz University of Technology, Austria

PAVEL NOVAK, University of Western Bohemia, Czech Republic

EDWARD OSADA, University of Lower Silesia, Poland

VOJTECH PALINKAS, Geodetic Observatory Pecný, Czech Republic

JERZY ROGOWSKI, Gdynia Maritime University, Poland

HEINZ RUTHER, University of Cape Town, RSA

MARCELO SANTOS, University of New Brunswick, Canada

JÜRGEN SCHWEIKART, Beuth University of Applied Sciences Berlin, Germany

MONIKA SESTER, Universität Hannover, Germany

MICHAEL SIDERIS, University of Calgary, Canada

GABRIEL STRYKOWSKI, Technical University of Denmark, Denmark

ZBIGNIEW WISNIEWSKI, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland

KEFEI ZHANG, RMIT University, Australia

JAROSLAW S. YATSKIV, Main Astronomical Observatory, Ukraine

Contact

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF

Elzbieta Bielecka

Military University of Technology

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy

2 Witolda Urbanowicza St (building 53)

00-908 Warsaw, Poland

tel.: +48 261-83-70-96

e-mail: elzbieta.bielecka@wat.edu.pl

DEPUTY EDITOR-IN CHIEF

Anna Kłos

Military University of Technology

Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geodesy

2 Witolda Urbanowicza St (building 53)

00-908 Warsaw, Poland

e-mail: anna.klos@wat.edu.pl

Instructions for authors

The Geodesy and Cartography accepts a wide range of papers including original research papers, original short communication papers, review articles, symposium pieces and book reviews. Details of submission are provided below. Please, note, that at the submission stage, the author(s) ensure(s) that the submitted work will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners. All co-authors also agree on the publication ethics statement.

For all parties involved in the act of publishing (the author, the journal editor(s), the peer reviewer and the publisher) it is necessary to agree upon standards of expected ethical behaviour. The ethics statements for GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY are based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) Best Practice Guidelines for Journal Editors (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines ).

TYPES OF MANUSCRIPTS

Original Research papers:

Research papers can have 6000 words in length, although longer articles will be accepted on an occasional basis if the topic demands this length of treatment.

Original Short communication papers:

Short communication papers can have 2500 words as a maximum and contain at most 1 table and 3 figures. Such a note is technical and well-focused, for example illustrating a new technique, describing a well worked-out case study or a specific new algorithm.

Original research and short communications papers should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Data used and methods applied, Results, Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments, References

Review article:

The journal also considers short reviews (not exceeding 12 pages in print) intended to debate recent advances in rapidly developing fields that are within its scope. Such articles may have ample references. Reviews should contain the following sections: Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings), Conclusions and Outlook, Acknowledgments, References

Symposium pieces:

Symposium pieces describe a research symposium or seminar and present the topic covered in the form of a news brief, opinion piece, or mini-review. A news brief summarizes a few talks on the same general topic or issues at a given symposium. This can include a summary of the discussion that followed the symposium or the significance of the talks at a large symposia to a particular field. It is important to indicate the main point of the symposium.

An opinion piece discusses the personal perspectives after a given symposium, including an analysis of the symposium and how this affected the author.

A mini-review can be based on a theme from a given symposium. This may require the author(s) to review articles written by a speaker at that symposium.

These articles should be no more than 3,000 words. All symposium pieces should include the following sections:Abstract (max. of 250 words), Introduction, Topics (with headings and subheadings) [specifically required for a mini-review], Conclusions and Outlook, References

Book reviews:

The journal publishes reviews for books falling within its aims and scope. A book review consists of maximum 250 words. It should clearly identify the book's contents, the addition to current books and literature and a recommendation by the reviewer. All book reviews should be clearly identified as such and will be handled by the journal's book review editor.

LEGAL REQUIREMENTS

The author(s) guarantee(s) that the manuscript will not be published elsewhere in any language without the consent of the copyright owners, that the rights of the third parties will not be violated, and that the publisher will not held legally responsible should there be any claims for compensation.

Authors wishing to include figures or text passages that have already been published elsewhere are required to obtain permission from the copyright owner(s) and to include evidence that such permission has been granted when submitting their papers. Any material received without such evidence will be assumed to originate from the authors.

ETHICAL RESPONSIBILITIES OF AUTHORS

Submission of the manuscript implies: that the work has not been published before (except in form of an abstract or as a part of a published lecture, review or thesis); that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that its publication has been approved by all co-authors, if any, as well as by the responsible authorities at the institution where the work was carried out.

In case the manuscript has more than one author its submission should include the list specifying contribution of each author to the manuscript with indicating who is the author of the concept, assumptions, research methodology, data processing. Major responsibility is on the corresponding author.

The Editor will counteract in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY against Ghostwriting, i.e. when someone substantially contributed to the preparation of the manuscript but has neither been included to the list of authors nor his role is mentioned in the acknowledgements as well as Ghost authorship, i.e. when the author/co-author did not contribute to the manuscript or his contribution is negligible. Any detected case of Ghostwriting and Ghost authorship will be exposed and the appropriate subjects, i.e. employers, scientific organisations, associations of editors etc, will be informed.

MANUSCRIPT SUBMISSION

The manuscripts are submitted online https://www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/and should be submitted in Word. Please, do not exceed the number of words intended to a specific submission. Please, count the number of words before submitting, with abstract, acknowledgements and references excluded.

Names of authors and their affiliation should be removed from the manuscripts for the review process in order to have a fair evaluation of their manuscript. All authors of the manuscript are responsible for its content; they must have agreed to its publication and have given the corresponding author the authority to act on their behalf in all matters pertaining to publication. The Corresponding Author is responsible for informing the coauthors of the manuscript status throughout the submission, review, and production process. The editorial system requires: the name(s) of the author(s), the name(s) and address(es) of the affiliation(s) of the author(s), the e-mail address of the corresponding author, the 16-digit ORCID number of the author(s). The corresponding author is required to provide his/her ORCID number. ORCID numbers of co-authors are not necessary, but advised.

Manuscript preparation

Manuscripts should be typed in single-line spacing throughout on the A4 sheet with 2.5 cm margins. Use plain 11-point Times Roman font for text, italics for textual emphasis, bold for mathematical vectors.

1. Abstract: The paper must be preceded by a sufficiently informative abstract presenting the most important results and conclusions. It should not be longer than 250 words and should not contain any unexplained abbreviations and unspecified references.

2. Keywords: Three to five keywords should be supplied. These are used for indexing purposes.

3. Introduction: It should explicitly state the purpose of the investigation and give a short review of the pertinent literature.

4. Main text: It should include all methods and input data (working details must be given concisely; well-known operations should not be described in details); results presented in tabular or graph form, with appropriate statistical evaluation, discussion of results - statement of conclusions drawn from the work and conclusions.

5. Acknowledgements: Please, include all institutions, names or numbers of grants that require acknowledgement. The names of funding organizations or institutions providing data should be given in full. This information is mandatory for all submitted. papers

6. References: The list of references should be prepared in alphabetical order and should only include works that are cited in the text and that have been published or accepted for publication. Personal communications could only be mentioned in the text. References in the text, should be cited by author(s) last name and year: e.g. (Beutler, 2003a), (Featherstone and Kirby, 2000), (Schwarz et al., 1990), (Sjöberg et al., 2000; Strykowski, 2001b; 2002). The details on the reference list preparation is provided below.

7. Formulae and symbols: They must be written legibly and will be typeset in italics. One-layer indexing is preferable. Numbering of formulae, if necessary should be given in brackets fitted to the right margin. use the equation editor or MathType for equations

8. Illustrations and tables: All figures (photographs, graphs or diagrams) and tables should be cited in the text and numbered consecutively throughout. Lowercase roman letters should identify figure parts. Figure legends must be brief and must contain self-sufficient explanations of the illustrations. Each table should have a title and a legend explaining any abbreviation used in that table. Tables and illustrations have to be placed in the text and send as separate files.

9. Units: SI units must be used.

10. Short title: Please, include a running head consisting of at most 60 characters. This concise banner represents the title of the article and must be submitted by the author(s).

Proofreading

Proofreading is the responsibility of the author. Corrections should be clear; standard correction marks should be used. Corrections that lead to a change in the page layout should be avoided. The author is entitled to formal corrections only. Substantial changes in content, e.g. new results, corrected values, title and authorship are not allowed without the approval of the editor. In such case please contact the Editor-in-chief before returning the proofs.

Reference list

a. Journal Article (one author)

Nikora, V. (2006). Hydrodynamics of aquatic ecosystems: spatial-averaging perspective. Acta Geophysica, 55(1), 3-10. DOI: 10.2478/s11600-006-0043-6.

b. Journal Article (two or more authors)

Cudak, M. and Karcz J. (2006). Momentum transfer in an agitated vessel with off-centred impellers. Chem. Pap. 60(5), 375-380. DOI: 10.2478/s11696-006-0068-y.

c. Journal article from an online database

Czajgucki Z., Zimecki M. & Andruszkiewicz R. (2006, December). The immunoregulatory effects of edeine analogues in mice [Abstract]. Cell. Mol. Biol. Lett. 12(3), 149-161. Retrieved December 6.

d. Book (one author)

Baxter, R. (1982). Exactly Solvable Models in Statistical Mechanics. New York: Academic Press.

e. Book (two or more authors)

Kleiner, F.S., Mamiya C.J. and Tansey R.G. (2001). Gardner’s art through the ages (11th ed.). Fort Worth, USA: Harcourt College Publishers.

f. Book chapter or article in an edited book

Roll, W.P. (1976). ESP and memory. In J.M.O. Wheatley and H.L. Edge (Eds.), . (pp. 154-184). Springfield, IL: American Psychiatric Press.

g. Proceedings from a conference

Field, G. (2001). Rethinking reference rethought. In Revelling in Reference: Reference and Information Services Section Symposium, 12-14 October 2001 (pp. 59-64). Melbourne, Victoria, Australia: Australian Library and Information Association.

h. Online document

Johnson, A. (2000). Abstract Computing Machines. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Retrieved March 30, 2006, from SpringerLink http://springerlink.com/content/w25154. DOI: 10.1007/b138965.

i. Report

Osgood, D. W., and Wilson, J. K. (1990). Covariation of adolescent health problems. Lincoln: University of Nebraska. (NTIS No. PB 91-154 377/AS).

j. Government publication

Ministerial Council on Drug Strategy. (1997). The national drug strategy: Mapping the future. Canberra: Australian Government Publishing Service.

MANUSCRIPT REVIEW PROCEDURE

The editor of a peer-reviewed journal is responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published, and, moreover, is accountable for everything published in the journal. In making these decisions, the editor may be guided by the policies of the journal’s editorial board as well as by legal requirements regarding libel, copyright infringement and plagiarism. The editor may confer with other editors or reviewers when making publication decisions. The editor maintain the integrity of the academic record, preclude business needs from compromising intellectual and ethical standards, and always be willing to publish corrections, clarifications, retractions and apologies when needed. The editor evaluate manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor is guided by COPE’s Guidelines (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in GEODESY and CARTOGRAPHY.

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor.

Manuscript evaluations are assigned one of four outcomes: Accept without changes, accept after changes suggested by reviewer, rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review, reject, withdraw

Manuscripts requiring minor revision (accept after changes suggested by reviewer) not require a second review. All manuscripts receiving a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " evaluation must be subjected to a second review. Rejected manuscripts are given no further consideration. Normally, manuscripts that receive a "Rate manuscript once again after major changes and another review " decision have only one additional chance for revision and the revised version should be uploaded to the Editorial System within six weeks. If the author(s) failed to make satisfactory changes, the manuscript is rejected. On acceptance, manuscripts are subject to editorial amendment to suit house style. The article should be withdraw due to technical reason (e.g. names of authors are placed in the text, lack of references, or inappropriate r structure of the text) or plagiarism (more than 30% of plagiarism).

Reviewers are requested to provide theirs comments in two forms; confidential information for Editors (it will not appear in the review sent to the authors) and information for Authors are included. Reviewers are also requested to answer YES/NO to the questions included in a review form. These will be useful for the Editorial Board to assess the quality of the manuscript. If NO answer is provided, please justify.

Transfer of Copyright Agreement

Once the paper is initially accepted, the authors are assumed to have transferred the copyright of the paper to the publisher.

Charges

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is published in Open Access, which means that all articles are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors are invited so a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article. In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white. More details see in Information for Authors https://www.editorialsystem.com/geocart/

Open Access policy

OPEN ACCESS

GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is an open access journal with all content available with no charge in full text version. The journal content is available under the licencse CC BY-NC-SA 4.

All articles published in GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY are available on the internet to all users immediately upon publication free of charge for the readers. Authors are invited so a declaration that they are ready to cover the costs of printing their article. In addition, each color page will be charged an additional fee according to the current cost of printing. Otherwise, the paper will be printed in black-white. More details see in Information for Authors www.editorialsystem.com/geocart

ETHIC POLICY

Editor Responsibilities

The editor of GEODESY AND CARTOGRAPHY is guided by COPE’s Guidelines (https://publicationethics.org/resources/guidelines ) for Retracting Articles when considering retracting, issuing expressions of concern about, and issuing corrections pertaining to articles that have been published in the journal. The editor evaluates manuscripts for intellectual content without regard to race, gender, sexual orientation, religious belief, ethnic origin, citizenship, or political philosophy of the author(s). The editor do not disclose any information about a manuscript under consideration to anyone other than the author(s), reviewers and potential reviewers, and in some instances the editorial board members, as appropriate.

The editor seeks so ensure a fair and appropriate peer review process. Editors recuse themselves (i.e. ask a co-editor, associate editor or other member of the editorial board instead to review and consider) from considering manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or (possibly) institutions connected to the papers. Editors require all contributors to disclose relevant competing interests and publish corrections if competing interests are revealed after publication. If needed, other appropriate action should be taken, such as the publication of a retraction or expression of concern.

Reviewer Responsibilities

Peer review assists the editor in making editorial decisions and, through the editorial communication with the author, may also assist the author in improving the manuscript. Any invited referee who feels unqualified to review the research reported in a manuscript or knows that its timely review will be impossible should immediately notify the editor so that alternative reviewers can be contacted.

Any manuscripts received for review is treated as confidential documents. They must not be shown to or discussed with others except if authorized by the editor. Reviews should be conducted objectively. Personal criticism of the author is inacceptable. Referees should express their views clearly with appropriate supporting arguments.

Reviewers should identify relevant published work that has not been cited by the authors. Any statement that an observation, derivation, or argument had been previously reported should be accompanied by the relevant citation. A reviewer should also call to the editor's attention any substantial similarity or overlap between the manuscript under consideration and any other published data of which they have personal knowledge.

Privileged information or ideas obtained through peer review is kept confidential and not used for personal advantage. Reviewers should not consider evaluating manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competitive, collaborative, or other relationships or connections with any of the authors, companies, or institutions connected to the submission.

Author Responsibilities

Authors reporting results of original research should present an accurate account of the work performed as well as an objective discussion of its significance. Underlying data should be represented accurately in the manuscript. A paper should contain sufficient detail and references to permit others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or knowingly inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

The authors should ensure that they have written entirely original works, and if the authors have used the work and/or words of others that this has been appropriately cited or quoted.

An author should not in general publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Parallel submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal constitutes unethical publishing behaviour and is unacceptable.

Proper acknowledgment of the work of others must always be given. Authors should also cite publications that have been influential in determining the nature of the reported work.

Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions should be listed as co-authors. Where there are others who have participated in certain substantive aspects of the research project, they should be named in an Acknowledgement section.

The corresponding author should ensure that all appropriate co-authors (according to the above definition) and no inappropriate co-authors are included in the author list of the manuscript, and that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the paper and have agreed to its submission for publication.

If the work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that have any unusual hazards inherent in their use, the authors must clearly identify these in the manuscript.

All authors should disclose in their manuscript any financial or other substantive conflict of interest that might be construed to influence the results or their interpretation in the manuscript. All sources of financial support for the project should be disclosed.

When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in his/her own published work, it is the author’s obligation to promptly notify the journal’s editor or publisher and cooperate with them to either retract the paper or to publish an appropriate erratum.

Publisher’s Confirmation

In cases of alleged or proven scientific misconduct, fraudulent publication or plagiarism the publisher, in close collaboration with the editors, will take all appropriate measures to clarify the situation and to amend the article in question. This includes the prompt publication of an erratum or, in the most severe cases, the complete retraction of the affected work.

Additional information

The Geodesy and Cartography is a semi-annually scientific journal publishing peer-reviewed articles with original solutions of theoretical, experimental or applicable problems in the field of geodesy, surveying engineering, cartography and GIS, cadastre and land management, photogrammetry, remote sensing and related disciplines. Besides original research papers, the journal includes commissioned review papers on topical subjects and special issues arising from chosen scientific symposia or workshops.

The Geodesy and Cartography is published under the umbrella of the Committee on Geodesy of the Polish Academy of Sciences (PAS).

Indexed in:

Geodesy and Cartography is covered by the following services:

Arianta, Astrophysics Data System (ADS), Baidu Scholar, BazTech, Clarivate Analytics - Emerging Sources Citation Index, Clarivate Analytics - Web of Science, CNKI Scholar (China National Knowledge Infrastructure), CNPIEC, Current Geographical Publications, Dimensions, DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), EBSCO (relevant databases), EBSCO Discovery Service, Elsevier - Engineering Village, Genamics JournalSeek, GeoArchive, GeoRef, Google Scholar, Index Copernicus, Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST), J-Gate, JournalTOCs, KESLI-NDSL (Korean National Discovery for Science Leaders), Microsoft Academic, Naviga (Softweco), POL-index, Primo Central (ExLibris), Publons, ReadCube, Sherpa/RoMEO, Summon (Serials Solutions/ProQuest), TDNet, Ulrich's Periodicals Directory/ulrichsweb, WanFang Data, WorldCat (OCLC)

Disclosures:

Please, note that the journal uses plagiarism detection software for all the submissions. If plagiarism is identified, the submission will be returned to the corresponding author.

Content published in this journal is blind peer-reviewed.

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