Medical sciences

Folia Medica Cracoviensia


Folia Medica Cracoviensia | 2017 | vol. 57 | No 1 |


Telocyte (TC) is an interstitial cell type with a small cellular body and extremely long tentacle-like extensions. TCs were discovered a decade ago and have specific morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical and secretome profi les, electrophysiological properties, microRNA expression. Moreover, they are different in gene expression from other cells. TCs play an important role in plenty of processes. Apparently, they are involved in homeostasis, remodelling, regeneration, repair, embryogenesis, angiogenesis and even tumorigenesis. “Telocytes need the world”, was emphasized by Professor Popescu and it will be actual at any time. This review summarizes particular features of TCs in different organs and systems, emphasizing their involvement in physiological and pathophysiological processes.

Go to article


The main goal of this study was to investigate possible residua of thymic tissue in 100 adult cadavers with no thoracic pathology known before, by dissection of standard locations of thymic tissue in perithyroid, periaortic, peritracheal and retrotracheal spaces, as well as areas located next to the course of phrenic, vagus and left recurrent laryngeal nerves. Thus obtained tissue samples were studied by two pathologists independently. The remnants of the thymic tissue were found in 61 out of 100 specimens studied. It means that residua of ectopic thymic tissue is common, which may have a huge impact on the results of treatment of many diseases i.e. myasthenia gravis in course of thymoma.

Go to article


B a c k g r o u n d: Assessment of the neurocontrol of the external anal sphincter has long been restricted to investigating patients by invasive tools. Less invasive techniques have been regarded less uitable for diagnosis.

O b j e c t iv e: The aim was to develop a surface electromyography-based algorithm to facilitate fecal incontinence diagnosis, and to assess its sensitivity and specificity.

D e s i g n: Data analysis from a single center prospective study.

P a t i e n t s: All patients from colorectal surgery office were considered. They underwent a structured interview, a general physical and proctologic examination. Patients with diagnosed fecal incontinence (Fecal Incontinence Severity Index >10) were included into the study group. The control group consisted of healthy volunteers that scored 5 or less and had negative history and physical exam. Both groups underwent the same tests (rectoscopy, anorectal manometry, transanal ultrasonography, multichannel surface electromyography and assessment of anal reflexes).

M e t h o d s: EMG results were analyzed to find parameters that would facilitate fecal incontinence diagnosis.

O u t c o m e m e a s u r e s: Sensitivity and specificity of surface electromyography, to diagnose fecal incontinence, were assessed.

R e s u l t s: A total of 49 patients were included in the study group (mean age ± SD 58.9 ± 13.8). The control group (n = 49) gender matched the study group (mean age ± SD 45.4 ± 15.1). The constructed classification tree, based on surface electromyography results, correctly classified 97% of cases. The sensitivity and specificity of this classification tree, to diagnose FI, was 96% and 98% respectively.

L i m i t a t i o n s: The age of women in the control group differs significantly from mean age of other groups.

C o n c l u s i o n s: Surface electromyography is an good tool to facilitate diagnosing of fecal incontinence.

Go to article


To determine the role of the pineal gland and its secretory product melatonin on various aspects of the functioning of the organism, the gland can be easily surgically removed in rats within 18 hours a fter birth. We performed pinealectomy in rats in a state of deep hypothermia under an operating microscope, using a micro-suction device of our own construction. The rats were induced into a state of suspended animation by placing them in the freezing compartment at minus 20 Celsius degrees. The cessation of respiration and heart beat lasted for about 15 minutes. During that time the pinealectomy was performed. In some cases there was minor hemorrhage that was easily controlled. There were no major side effects or mortality following surgery. All rats recovered within 15 minutes after the end of the procedure. The pinealectomy procedure described in this study is simple, rapid, effective and safe, and can be easily performed with instruments commonly available in most laboratories.

Go to article


The study was carried out on 50 human lower legs obtained during autopsies (KBET: 122.6120.315.2016). The anatomy of the joint was studied using classical anatomical description methods. Based also on literature we have reviewed the current knowledge on the inferior tibiofibular joint blood supply considering the important clinically aspect - vascular density. Authors of this paper postulate relatively low vascular density of the region described and potential worse condition for healing in case of injury or after surgical procedures performed. We also postulate that ligament screws should be positioned with special respect to time limit which enables proper healing of the syndesmosis.

Go to article


Nicotine, a potent parasympathomimetic alkaloid with stimulant effects, is contributing to addictive properties of tobacco smoking and is though used in the smoking cessation therapy. Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is involved in physiology and pathophysiology of various systems in mammals. The interactions between nicotine and H2S are not fully recognized. The aim of the study is to assess the influence of nicotine on the H2S tissue concentrations in different mouse organs. Adult CBA male mice were administered intraperitoneally 1.5 mg/kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D1, n = 10) or 3 mg/ kg b.w. per day of nicotine (group D2, n = 10). The control group (n = 10) received physiological saline. The measurements of the free and acid-labile H2S tissue concentrations were performed with the Siegel spectrophotometric modi ed method. ere was a significant increase in H2S concentrations in both nicotine doses groups in the kidney (D1 by 54.2%, D2 by 40.0%). In the heart the higher nicotine dose caused a marked decrease in H2S tissue level (by 65.4%), while the lower dose did not affect H2S content. Nicotine administration had no effect on H2S concentrations in the brain and liver. In conclusion, nicotine affects H2S tissue concentrations in kidney and heart but not in the liver and brain tissues.

Go to article

Editorial office


Redaktor Naczelny
Dr hab. Krzysztof Gil, prof. UJ

Zastępca Redaktora Naczelnego
Prof. Andrzej Surdacki

Sekretarz Redakcji
Dr hab. Beata Kuśnierz – Cabala, prof. UJ

Prof. Benjamin Chain (London, UK),
Prof. Paul Enck (Tübingen, Germany),
Prof. Tomasz Grodzicki (Kraków, Poland),
Prof. Kalina Kawecka-Jaszcz (Kraków, Poland)
Prof. Maciej Małecki (Kraków, Poland),
Prof. Janusz Marcinkiewicz (Kraków, Poland),
Prof. Franz H. Messerli (New York, USA),
Prof. Jacek Musiał (Kraków, Poland),
Prof. Wiesław Pawlik (Kraków, Poland),
Prof. Jacek J. Pietrzyk (Kraków, Poland)
Prof. Władysław Sułowicz (Kraków, Poland)
Prof. Piotr Thor (Kraków, Poland)
Prof. Jerzy A. Walocha (Kraków, Poland)

Redaktor techniczny
Danuta Ambrożewicz


Adres redakcji
ul. Czysta 18
31-121 Kraków

Instructions for authors

Manuscripts will be considered for publication in the form of Original Articles or Reviews. Submitted work must comply with ethical policy, which is based on the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE) guidelines on good publication. ( Only manuscripts that are previously unpublished, and are not offered simultaneously elsewhere will be considered.
Folia Medica Cracoviensia only accepts electronic submission via e-mail at Manuscripts will be assigned a unique manuscript number that must be quoted in correspondence. Papers and Reviews are refereed by experts in the field; the Editors reserve the right to reject an article without review. Please submit your covering letter or comments to the Editor as well as the names of two potential referees (including name, affiliation, and e-mail address). Currently, Authors have the only option to publish their articles in printed version. The online version will be available soon.
Original Articles
Original Articles describe the results of basic or clinical studies. The length of all Original Articles is limited to 6000 words, excluding acknowledgements and disclosures, references, tables, figures, table legends and figure legends. Please limit the number of figures and tables to a maximum of eight (e.g. four figures and four tables). Color figures can be included as necessary; however authors will be charged a fee (for details please contact editorial office).
Review Articles
Topical reviews of basic or clinical areas are invited by the Editor. Manuscript length is limited to 5000 words and 50 references. All Review articles are subject to review.
The Folia Medica Cracoviensia uses American spelling. Authors for whom English is a second language may choose to have their manuscript professionally edited before submission to improve the English.

The complete set of instructions for Authors can be downloaded here as a PDF file:

This page uses 'cookies'. Learn more