Ecology and life characteristics of overwintering larvae of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis Hbn.) (Lep.: Crambidea) are partly unexplored due to their hidden lifestyle. In plant protection research the best way to study these phenomena is to apply less used, non-destructive, in vivo methods. The objective of our CT survey was to examine the factors influencing the location of the overwintering O. nubilalis larvae in maize stalks. The findings obtained by CT-analysis can be used for monitoring the presence and location of O. nubilalis larvae in the stalk, as well as both their displacement and movement. Our results showed that both the location and the distance from the brace root of O. nubilalis larvae were significantly influenced by the sampling time, the number of larvae per plant, the stalk diameter and finally the prevailing temperature. The location of the larvae situated nearest to the brace roots (first larvae) was significantly lower in stalks containing several larvae, than those where only a single larva was found in the stalk. The thickness of stalks was related to the simultaneous presence of more larvae, and to the ground level position of the first larvae. These overwintering larvae were located closer to the brace root (and to the soil), possibly because of having moved downwards inside the stalk, where the temperature is slightly milder than in the upper part of the stalk.
One of the crucial advancements in next-generation 5G wireless networks is the use of high-frequency signals specifically those are in the millimeter wave (mm-wave) bands. Using mmwave frequency will allow more bandwidth resulting higher user data rates in comparison to the currently available network. However, several challenges are emerging (such as fading, scattering, propagation loss etc.), whenever we utilize mm-wave frequency wave bands for signal propagation. Optimizing propagation parameters of the mm-wave channels system are much essential for implementing in the real-world scenario. To keep this in mind, this paper presents the potential abilities of high frequencies signals by characterizing the indoor small cell propagation channel for 28, 38, 60 and 73 GHz frequency band, which is considered as the ultimate frequency choice for many of the researchers. The most potential Close-In (CI) propagation model for mm-wave frequencies is used as a Large-scale path loss model. Results and outcomes directly affecting the user experience based on fairness index, average cell throughput, spectral efficiency, cell-edge user’s throughput and average user throughput. The statistical results proved that these mm-wave spectrum gives a sufficiently greater overall performance and are available for use in the next generation 5G mobile communication network.