The objective of this work is to present an energy analysis of different absorption refrigerating systems operating with diverse refrigerants. Also is applied the method of experimental design to optimize configurations proposed by the absorption pairs used and the operating conditions. Both acceptable coefficient of performance and low operating generator temperature are scrutinised. Therefore, a computer program is developed. An investigation of the thermodynamic properties is presented. Results show the coefficient of performance evolution versus respectively the evaporator temperature, temperature of condensation and generator temperature. A particular interest is devoted to the intermediate pressure effect on the performance of different systems. In order to better converge in the selection of the configuration and the refrigerant, which can ensure a high coefficient of performance associated to relatively low operating generator temperature the plan of experiments has been developed, taking in account all parameters influencing the system performance and the function of operating temperature. Results show that the refrigerating machine containing a compressor between the evaporator and the absorber has a coefficient of performance quite acceptable and that it can work at low generator temperature for about 60 ◦C and using the NH3/LiNO3 as refrigerant.
In this article, I am examining the role of categorization in understanding. The problem arises from well-known distinction between explanation and understanding, which has been for a century pursued in hermeneutic tradition. Categorization belongs to explanatory endeavor and its role in understanding is unclear. In order to delimit the scope of inquiry I am focusing on the weakest kind of categorization, so called categorization ad hoc. I am examining the hypothesis to the effect that categorization plays its role in hermeneutic circle as some sort of preunderstanding. Eventually, however, I reject this hypothesis. It is because it leads to hermeneutic paradox: The notion of pre-understanding has a meaning only in the context of full-fledged understanding, which is an unattainable ideal. Such ideal cannot be used as a personal criterion of the quality of one’s understanding. There is a tension between the feeling of understanding and the scarcity of personal means to justify this feeling. I am suggesting that similar, albeit weaker effect occurs also in more elaborate, scientific categorizations. What is really wrong in the passage from categorization to understanding is some form of self-understanding: We do not know whether we understand better, or at all when we put some categorical order onto our experience. We do not seem to have the required meta-understanding.
The aim of the article is to present the role of tourism as a smart specialization, and in particular health tourism in strengthening regional development processes on the example of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The first part of the article presents the ideas of smart specialization as a concept of stimulating innovative development with a particular focus on tourism in regional innovation strategies. The second part of the article focuses on the uniqueness of natural resources in the context of the spa tourism development potential in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. The third part presents quantitative data characterizing tourism in the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. While the fourth part presents the effects of cooperation between entrepreneurs and expert and university employees who, while creating innovations, solve the problems of entrepreneurs, thus contributing to the development of tourism and the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. Finally, final conclusions and summary are presented.
The aim of this article is to defi ning problems occurring in the spatial management system, including those independent of subsequent legislative changes. The process of adopting decisions to be viable and socially equitable and execute the requirements of spatial order and sunstainable development requires fundamental changes. The study draws a conclusion – important in the context of subsequent research activities – that the varied application of development decisions in diff erent municipalities is also the result of not preparing a large part of the representatives of municipalities for specifi c spatial activities.
This article aims at constructing a new method for testing the statistical significance of seasonal fluctuations for non-stationary processes. The constructed test is based on a method of subsampling and on the spectral theory of Almost Periodically Correlated (APC) time series. In the article we consider an equation of a nonstationary process, containing a component which includes seasonal fluctuations and business cycle fluctuations, both described by an almost periodic function. We build subsampling test justifying the significance of frequencies obtained from the Fourier representation of the unconditional expectation of the process. The empirical usefulness of the constructed test is examined for selected macroeconomic data. The article studies survey indicators of economic climate in industry, retail trade and consumption for European countries.