The paper presents an analysis of the sustainable development of electricity generation sources in the National Power System (NPS). The criteria to be met by sustainable power systems were determined. The paper delineates the power balance of centrally dispatched power generation units (CDPGU), which is required for the secure work of the NPS until 2035. 19 prospective electricity generation technologies were defined. They were divided into the following three groups: system power plants, large and medium combined heat and power (CHP) plants, as well as small power plants and CHP plants (distributed sources). The quantities to characterize the energy effectiveness and CO2 emission of the energy generation technologies analyzed were determined. The unit electricity generation costs, discounted for 2018, including the costs of CO2 emission allowance, were determined for the particular technologies. The roadmap of the sustainable development of the generation sources in the NPS between 2020 and 2035 was proposed. The results of the calculations and analyses were presented in tables and figure
This publication presents an assessment of the economic efficiency of a hypothetical installation for the gasification of the municipal and industrial waste for the production of syngas used subsequently for the production of energy or chemical products. The first part of the work presents an example of a technological system for the energo-chemical processing of coal mud and municipal waste, based on the gasification process using a fluidized bed reactor. A hypothetical installation consists of two main blocks: a fuel preparation unit and a gasification unit. In the fuel preparation installation, reception operations take place, storage, and then grinding, mixing, drying and transporting fuel to the gasification unit. In the gasification installation, fuel gasification, oxygen production, cooling and purification of raw process gas and ash treatment are carried out. The following key assumptions regarding the gasification process, as well as the capital expenditures and operating costs related to the process, were estimated. Consequently, based on the method of discounted cash flows, the unit cost of generating energy contained in the synthesis gas (cost of energy, COE) was determined and the results were interpreted. In order to obtain an acceptable efficiency of the gasification process for waste fuels for the production of alternative fuel (process gas), it is necessary to supplement the mixture of waste coal and coal mud with the RDF. In this case, the unit cost of fuel measured by the PLN/GJ index is lower than in the case of hard coal and comparable with brown coal. The use of coal mud for the production of process gas in an economically efficient way is possible only in the case of changes in the legal system allowing for charging fees for the utilization of industrial waste – coal mud.
The article presents the question of solidarity in relation to the energy policy of the European Union. This topic seems particularly important in the context of the crisis of the European integration process, which includes, in particular, economic problems, the migration crisis and the withdrawal of the United Kingdom from the European Union (Brexit). The issue of solidarity was analyzed from the legal and formal, institutional, and functional and relational points of view. The aim of the article is to show to what extent the theoretical assumptions, resulting from the provisions of European law on the solidarity, correspond with the actions of the Member States in the energy sector. The practice of the integration process indicates that the particular national economic interests in the energy sector are more important for the Member States than working towards European solidarity. Meanwhile, without a sense of responsibility for the pan-European interest, it is not possible to effectively implement the EU’s energy policy. The European Commission – as the guardian of the treaties – confronts the Member States with ambitious challenges to be undertaken “in the spirit of solidarity”. In the verbal sphere, this is supported by by capitals of the individual countries, but in practice, the actions taken divide the Member States into opposing camps instead of building a sense of the European energy community. This applies in particular to such issues as: the management of the energy union, investments in the gas sector (e.g. Nord Stream I and Nord Stream II), and the position towards third countries – suppliers of energy raw materials to the EU (in particular towards the Russian Federation). Different views on the above problems make it extremely difficult for Member States to take action “in the spirit of energy solidarity”. Thus, the energy problem becomes another reason for the weakening of European unity.
The paper looks at an analysis of the tendency of changes in the fuel structure of electricity generation and thus resulting changes in carbon dioxide emissions. Forecasts drawn up by various institutions and organizations were selected for the analysis. Firstly, on the basis of statistical data contained in (IEA 2017a, IEA 2008) and with the use of Kay’s indicators, the impact of changes in energy intensity of the national income and energy mix on changes in carbon dioxide emissions per capita in 2006–2015 for the OECD countries and Poland were analyzed. A small effect of changes was found in the fuel mix in this period of time on the emissions. The main impact was due to changes in the energy intensity of the national income and changes in the national income per capita. Next, selected fuel scenarios for the period up to 2050 (60) were discussed – WEC, IEA, EIA, BP, Shell, with a focus on the WEC scenarios. These have been developed for various assumptions with regard to the pace of economic development, population growth, and developments of the political situation and the situation on the fuel market. For this reason, it is difficult to assess the reliability thereof. The subject of the discussion was mainly the data on the fuel structure of electricity generation and energy intensity of national income and changes in carbon dioxide emissions. The final part of the paper offers a general analysis of forecasts drawn up for Poland. These are quite diverse, with some of them being developed as part of drawing up the Energy Policy for Poland until 2050, and some covering the period up to 2035. An observation has been made that some forecasts render results similar to those characteristic of the WEC Hard Rock scenario.
A thermoelastic boundary value problem of a hollow circular disc made of functionally graded materials with arbitrary gradient is analysed. The steady-state temperature distribution is assumed to be the function of the radial coordinate with prescribed temperature at the inner and outer cylindrical boundary surfaces. The material properties are assumed to be arbitrary smooth functions of the radial coordinate. A coupled system of ordinary differential equations containing the radial displacement and stress function is derived and used to get the distribution of thermal stresses and radial displacements caused by axisymmetric mechanical and thermal loads. General analytical solutions of functionally graded disc with thermal loads are not available. The results obtained by the presented numerical method are verified by an analytical solution. The considered analytical solution is valid if the material properties, except the Poisson ratio, are expressed as power functions of the radial coordinate.