Proposed is the analysis of steam condensation in the presence of inert gases in a power plant condenser. The presence of inert, noncondensable gases in a condenser is highly undesirable due to its negative effect on the efficiency of the entire cycle. In general, thermodynamics has not provided an explicit criterion for assessing the irreversible heat transfer process. The method presented here enables to evaluate precisely processes occurring in power plant condensers. This real process is of particular interest as it involves a number of thermal layers through which heat transfer is observed. The analysis was performed using a simple, known in the literature and well verified Berman’s model of steam condensation in the presence of non-condensable gases. Adapted to the geometry of the condenser, the model enables, for instance, to recognise places where non-condensable gases are concentrated. By describing with sufficient precision thermodynamic processes taking place in the vicinity of the heat transfer area segment, it is possible to determine the distributions of thermodynamic parameters on the boundaries between successive layers. The obtained results allow for the recognition of processes which contribute in varying degrees to irreversible energy degradation during steam condensation in various parts of the examined device.
We describe the development of a new type of heat exchanger. This heat exchanger operates using reverse thermosiphon action and consists of a self-acting and self-controlled liquid circulation loop with heat transfer in a downward direction, opposite to the direction of natural convection. This process moves a heat-carrying hot liquid downwards with the help of local heat transferred through the loop. This flow loop is partly filled with liquid and the upper part of the loop contains vapour from the liquid heat-carrier. The pressure difference in the saturated vapour is used to move the heated liquid downwards. The principles of action and the possibility of developing such a device using laboratory experimental methods are presented.