Helical coil heat exchangers are widely used in a variety of industry applications such as refrigeration systems, process plants and heat recovery. In this study, the effect of Reynolds number and the operating temperature on heat transfer coefficients and pressure drop for laminar flow conditions was investigated. Experiments were carried out in a shell and tube heat exchanger with a copper coiled pipe (4 mm ID, length of 1.7 m and coil pitch of 7.5 mm) in the temperature range from 243 to 273 K. Air – propan-2-ol vapor mixture and coolant (methylsilicone oil) flowed inside and around the coil, respectively. The fluid flow in the shell-side was kept constant, while in the coil it was varied from 6.6 to 26.6 m/s (the Reynolds number below the critical value of 7600). Results showed that the helical pipe provided higher heat transfer performance than a straight pipe with the same dimensions. The convective coefficients were determined using theWilson method. The values for the coiled pipe were in the range of 3–40 W/m2 ·K. They increased with increasing the gas flow rate and decreasing the coolant temperature.
The aim of this study is to design a control strategy for the angular rate (speed) of a DC motor by varying the terminal voltage. This paper describes various designs for the control of direct current (DC) motors. We derive a transfer function for the system and connect it to a controller as feedback, taking the applied voltage as the system input and the angular velocity as the output. Different strategies combining proportional, integral, and derivative controllers along with phase lag compensators and lead integral compensators are investigated alongside the linear quadratic regulator. For each controller transfer function, the step response, root locus, and Bode plot are analysed to ascertain the behaviour of the system, and the results are compared to identify the optimal strategy. It is found that the linear quadratic controller provides the best overall performance in terms of steady-state error, response time, and system stability. The purpose of the study that took place was to design the most appropriate controller for the steadiness of DC motors. Throughout this study, analytical means like tuning methods, loop control, and stability criteria were adopted. The reason for this was to suffice the preconditions and obligations. Furthermore, for the sake of verifying the legitimacy of the controller results, modelling by MATLAB and Simulink was practiced on every controller.
The article looks into a recently developed concept of international interest which is intended as a replacement for traditional securities such as ship mortgages and maritime liens. The regulation is being introduced by Cape Town Convention on International Interest in Mobile Equipment together with one of the protocols. The Cape Town Treaty has been welcomed by 60 signatures, including the European Union and the United States, and it has already proven itself in the aircraft industry. The author discusses the Cape Town Treaty’s chances for wider adoption against the backdrop of the 1926 Brussels Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages, the 1967 Brussels International Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules relating to Maritime Liens and Mortgages and the 1993 Geneva International Convention on Maritime Liens and Mortgages.
O b j e c t i v e s: To evaluate the properties of natural sweetener solutions in whole organ preservation and assess their influence on the dimension, weight and shape of cardiac tissue samples in stated time intervals, up to a one-year period of observation. B a c k g r o u n d: Tissue fixation is essential for biological sample examination. Many negative toxic effects of formaldehyde-based fixatives have forced us to seek alternatives for formaldehyde based solutions. It has been demonstrated that natural sweeteners can preserve small tissue samples well and that these solutions can be used in histopathological processes. However, their ability to preserve whole human organs are unknown. M e t h o d s: A total of 30 swine hearts were investigated. Th ree study groups (n = 10 in each case) were formed and classifi ed on the type of fixative: (1) 10% formaldehyde phosphate-buffered solution (FPBS), (2) 10% alcohol-based honey solution (ABHS), (3) 10% water-based honey solution (WBHS). Samples were measured before fi xation and in the following time points: 24 hours, 72 hours, 168 hours, 3 months, 6 months and 12 months. R e s u l t s: The WBHS failed to preserve heart samples and decomposition of tissues was observed one week after fixation. In half of the studied parameters, the ABHS had similar modifying tendencies as compared to FPBS. Th e overall condition of preserved tissue, weight, left ventricular wall thickness, right ventricular wall thickness and the diameter of the papillary muscle differed considerably. C o n c l u s i o n s: The ABHS may be used as an alternative fi xative for macroscopic studies of cardiac tissue, whereas the WBHS is not suited for tissue preservation.
The rigid finite element method (RFEM) has been used mainly for modelling systems with beam-like links. This paper deals with modelling of a single set of electrodes consisting of an upper beam with electrodes, which are shells with complicated shapes, and an anvil beam. Discretisation of the whole system, both the beams and the electrodes, is carried out by means of the rigid finite element method. The results of calculations concerned with free vibrations of the plates are compared with those obtained from a commercial package of the finite element method (FEM), while forced vibrations of the set of electrodes are compared with those obtained by means of the hybrid finite element method (HFEM) and experimental measurements obtained on a special test stand.