The aim of the research was the evaluation of wastewater management in terms of stability and efficiency of wastewater treatment, using statistical quality control. For this purpose, the analysis of the operation and operation of the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was made, which is one of the most important and largest sewage management facilities in the city of Cracow. This assessment was done using control charts x for 59 observations. The analysed research period covered the multi-year from 2012 to 2016. Five key pollutant indicators were used to evaluate the work of the tested object: BOD5, CODCr, total suspension, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. In the case of the majority of them, based on the analysis of control charts, full stability of their removal was found in the tested sewage management facility. The exception was total nitrogen, for which periods of disturbed stability of its disposal processes were noted. Analysis of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment showed each time that the required efficiency of reduction of the analysed pollution indicators in the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was achieved.
The primary objective of the present study was to determine the seasonal dynamics of ciliates in activated sludge. Studies were carried out in order to verify the hypothesis that fertility of a habitat may significantly influence the seasonal dynamics of the abundance of ciliates, as well as the number and intensity of correlations between physic-chemical parameters and ciliates. It seems that the values of numbers of ciliates were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of ciliates were found in spring and summer, however the lowest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in winter. The studies showed that protozoa community is determined by ammonia mainly in summer. In spring and winter additional factors may be important. Probably suspended solid, total organic carbon and concentration of appropriate food (bacteria and flagellates) are the major regulator of abundance of ciliates.
Scaling and corrosion associated with the use of natural hard water in cooling towers during recirculation pose great problems from both economical and technical points of view, such as decreased system efficiency and increased frequency of chemical cleaning. Treated municipal wastewater (MWW) is a promising alternative to freshwater as power plant cooling system makeup water, especially in arid regions. In this work, hybrid systems of salt precipitation (SP), nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) were investigated, as potential pretreatment processes for wastewater reuse as cooling water in the planned Jordan nuclear power plants. The As-Samra wastewater was used to calculate the potential of carbonate and sulfate scale formation. The results were compared to scale potentials from Palo Verde wastewater. Four cases were investigated; SP, NF, SP-RO and NF-RO. The SP pretreatment cases showed the highest monovalent to divalent ratio because of a high removal of Ca and Mg and addition of Na from the chemicals of the SP step. The NF pretreatment cases, showed the lowest calcium sulfate scale potential and this potential decreases with the % pretreatment. The scale amount increases very slightly with concentration times when the SP and NF product is desalinated by RO step.
Azo dye wastewater treatment is urgent necessary nowadays. Electrochemical technologies commonly enable more efﬁcient degradation of recalcitrant organic contaminants than biological methods, but those rely greatly on the energy consumption. A novel process of bioﬁlm coupled with electrolysis, i.e., bioelectrochemical system (BES), for methyl orange (MO) dye wastewater treatment was proposed and optimization of main inﬂuence factors was performed in this study. The results showed that BES had a positive effect on enhancement of color removal of MO wastewater and 81.9% of color removal efﬁciency was achieved at the optimum process parameters: applied voltage of 2.0 V, initial MO concentration of 20 mg/L, glucose loads of 0.5 g/L and pH of 8.0 when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was maintained at 3 d, displaying an excellent color removal performance. Importantly, a wide range of effective pH, ranging from 6 to 9, was found, thus greatly favoring the practical application of BES described here. The absence of a peak at 463 nm showed that the azo bond of MO was almost completely cleaved after degradation in BES. From these results, the proposed method of biodegradation combined with electrochemical technique can be an effective technology for dye wastewater treatment and may hopefully be also applied for treatment of other recalcitrant compounds in water and wastewater.
Advanced automotive fleet repair facility wastewater treatment was investigated with Zero-Valent Iron/Hydrogen Peroxide (Air/ZVI/H2O2) process for different process parameters: ZVI and H2O2 doses, time, pH. The highest Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal efficiency, 76%, was achieved for ZVI/H2O2 doses 4000/1900 mg/L, 120 min process time, pH 3.0. COD decreased from 933 to 227 mg/L. In optimal process conditions odor and color were also completely removed. COD removal efficiency was increasing with ZVI dose. Change pH value below and over 3.0 causes a rapid decrease in the treatment effectiveness. The Air/ZVI/H2O2 process kinetics can be described as d[COD]/dt = −a [COD]tm, where ‘t’ corresponds with time and ‘a’ and ‘m’ are constants that depend on the initial reagent concentrations. H2O2 influence on process effect was assessed. COD removal could be up to 40% (560 mg/L) for Air/ZVI process. The FeCl3 coagulation effect was also evaluated. The best coagulation results were obtained for 700 mg/L Fe3+ dose, that was slightly higher than dissolved Fe used in ZVI/H2O2 process. COD was decreased to 509 mg/L.
The paper presents results of research concerning operating of five small wastewater treatment plants working in two different technologies: hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plant and constructed wetland. Each object was designed for the treatment of domestic sewage after preliminary mechanical treatment in a septic tank. Hydrobotanical wastewater treatment plants and one of constructed wetland beds were built for treating sewage produced in educational institutions and resort. In the article attention is paid to possibility of exceeding the maximum allowable concentration of pollutants for three main indicators of pollution: BOD5, COD, and total suspension. The reduction of these indices is required by the Regulation of the Minister of Environment  for wastewater treatment plants with PE < 2000. In addition, the paper presents the effects of wastewater treatment to reduce biogens. The best quality of outflow was reached by outflows from constructed wetland treatment plants. None of the observed objects fulfilled the requirements in terms of allowable concentrations for total suspension. The most effective were objects operating in technology of “constructed wetland”.
This study investigates the estimated adsorption efficiency of artificial Nickel (II) ions with perlite in an aqueous solution using artificial neural networks, based on 140 experimental data sets. Prediction using artificial neural networks is performed by enhancing the adsorption efficiency with the use of Nickel (II) ions, with the initial concentrations ranging from 0.1 mg/L to 10 mg/L, the adsorbent dosage ranging from 0.1 mg to 2 mg, and the varying time of effect ranging from 5 to 30 mins. This study presents an artificial neural network that predicts the adsorption efficiency of Nickel (II) ions with perlite. The best algorithm is determined as a quasi-Newton back-propagation algorithm. The performance of the artificial neural network is determined by coefficient determination (R2), and its architecture is 3-12-1. The prediction shows that there is an outstanding relationship between the experimental data and the predicted values.
The paper presents preliminary results of investigations on a relationship between turbidity and other quality parameters in the SBR plant effluent. The laboratory tests demonstrated a high correlation between an effluent turbidity and a total suspended solids (TSS) concentration as well as between TSS and COD. Such a relationship would help to continuously monitor and control quality of a wastewater discharge using turbidity measurement.
The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the temperature of wastewater in a biological reactor with activated sludge and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio in the inﬂuent to the treatment plant on nitriﬁcation efﬁciency and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater. Tests were carried out in a household wastewater treatment plant which collects and treats sewage from a school building and a teacher’s house. During the 3-year study, large ﬂuctuations in the sewage temperature in bioreactor were noted which was closely related to the ambient temperature. There were also large ﬂuctuations in the concentration of organic matter and the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in inﬂowing sewage. The inﬂuence of wastewater temperature in the bioreactor and the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio on the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater was determined using Pearson’s linear correlation. A statistical analysis showed that a 1°C decrease in the temperature of wastewater in the bioreactor increased the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in treated wastewater by 2.64 mgN-NH4·L-1. Moreover, it was found that nitriﬁcation depended on the ratio of BOD5 to the concentration of ammonium nitrogen in wastewater ﬂowing into the bioreactor. An increase in the BOD5/N-NH4 ratio by 1 value led to a 5.41 mgN-NH4·L-1 decrease in the concentration of ammonium nitrogen.
Five cosmetics wastewater samples were treated by Dissolved Air Flotation (DAF) assisted by coagulation. Different aluminum based coagulants were used: (Al2(SO4)3, Al 1019, Al 3010, Al 3030, Al 3035, PAX 16 and PAX 19). The raw wastewater COD values were in the range 285-2124 mg/l. The efficiency of DAF depended on different coagulants and production profi le of factory. COD removal was varied from 11.1 to 77.7%. The efficiency of coagulants was similar during treatment of particular sample. The best results were obtained with Al2(SO4)3 and for sample 5 - lotions and shampoos production. The wastewater from UV fi lter creams production (sample 4) was resistant to treatment by DAF regardless of used coagulant. HS-SPME-GC-MS analysis can be a confirmation of DAF effectiveness
This paper deals with wastewater treatment systems placed in motorway service areas (MSAs). In the years 2008-2009 eight of such facilities installed on the stretch of the A2 motorway between Poznań and Nowy Tomyśl were examined and analyzed. The system consists of a septic tank, a submerged aerated biofilter and an outflow filter. The volume of traffic on the highway was analyzed, the amount of water use was measured and peak factors were calculated. On this basis it was concluded that the inflows to the wastewater treatment systems in many cases exceeded the nominal design values. Based on the analysis of effluent quality it was found that the effects of plant operation in large part did not meet the requirements. It was found that the bioreactor aeration system and the design of the suspension separator (outflow filter) should be modified. One of the solutions was to use the soil-reed bed for wastewater treatment. The treatment of wastewater from the MSAs is a task that must take into account the unusual character of these facilities and the atypical quality of the effluent.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of applying different methods of data mining to model the inflow of sewage into the municipal sewage treatment plant. Prediction models were elaborated using methods of support vector machines (SVM), random forests (RF), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and of Kernel regression (K). Data consisted of the time series of daily rainfalls, water level measurements in the clarified sewage recipient and the wastewater inflow into the Rzeszow city plant. Results indicate that the best models with one input delayed by 1 day were obtained using the k-NN method while the worst with the K method. For the models with two input variables and one explanatory one the smallest errors were obtained if model inputs were sewage inflow and rainfall data delayed by 1 day and the best fit is provided using RF method while the worst with the K method. In the case of models with three inputs and two explanatory variables, the best results were reported for the SVM and the worst for the K method. In the most of the modelling runs the smallest prediction errors are obtained using the SVM method and the biggest ones with the K method. In the case of the simplest model with one input delayed by 1 day the best results are provided using k-NN method and by the models with two inputs in two modelling runs the RF method appeared as the best.
This paper presents the use of multi-criteria analysis as a tool that helps choosing an adequate technology for a household wastewater treatment plant. In the process of selection the criteria of sustainable development were taken into account. Five municipal mechanical-biological treatment plants were chosen for the comparative multi-criteria analysis. Different treatment technologies, such as sand filter, activated sludge, trickling filter, a hybrid system - activated sludge/trickling filter and a hybrid constructed wetland system VF-HF type (vertical and horizontal fl ow) were taken into account. The plants’ capacities were 1 m3∙d-1 (PE=8) and they all meet the environmental regulations. Additionally, a solution with a drainage system was included into the analysis. On the basis of multi-criteria analysis it was found that the preferred wastewater treatment technologies, consistent with the principles of sustainable development, were a sand filter and a hybrid constructed wetland type VF-HF. A drainage system was chosen as the best solution due to the economic criteria, however, taking into consideration the primary (ecological) criterion, employment of such systems on a larger scale disagree with the principles of sustainable development. It was found that activated sludge is the least favourable technology. The analysis showed that this technology is not compatible with the principles of sustainable development, due to a lack of proper technological stability and low reliability.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of two flocculants that are often used to overcome activated sludge bulking problems - aluminium chloride, AlCl3, and aluminium sulphate, Al2(SO4)3 - on Lecaneinermis (Rotifera, Monogononta) at three different temperatures: 8, 15 and 20°C. The mean EC50 value (effective concentration, mg dm-3) calculated for the 24 h mortality test was 0.012 mg Al3+dm-3. Next, the effects of low concentrations of the Al-salts on the population development from single individuals (parthenogenetic females) were tested in a 21-day experiment. At concentrations as low as EC4.8 and EC0.48, both Al-salts affected rotifer population negatively. However, temperature was the most pronounced factor that modified the toxicity of the Al-salts to the rotifers. On the 12th day of the experiment, there were significant interactions between temperature and the Al-salts, indicating that the chemicals were more toxic to the rotifers at 20°C than at lower temperatures. The weaker rotifers sensitivity to Al-salts (especially to AlCl3) in temperatures below 15°C, when the biggest problems associated with sludge bulking occurs,may means use both rotifers and chemicals reasonable and effective.
The article presents results of an input-output data inventory and life cycle assessment (LCA) for individual wastewater treatment plants (IWWTPs), considering their whole life cycle, including the stage of construction, use and end-of-life. IWWTPs located in the area of a medium-sized town in Poland, were assessed from a systemic perspective. The research was conducted basing on actual data concerning performance of 304 individual wastewater treatment plants in Żory. Environmental assessment was conducted with ReCiPe and TRACI methods. Greenhouse gases (GHG) emission, eutrophication, fossil fuel and metal depletion were calculated. The LCA was conducted basing on ISO 14040 standard with SimaPro 8 software and Ecoinvent 3 database. The system boundary ranged from cradle to grave. It was shown that, at the construction stage, GHG emission depends on the amount of used cement, polyethylene, concrete, PVC and polypropylene. At the use stage, the GHG emission is determined by the sewage treatment technology and application of a bio-reactor in IWWTPs. At the construction stage, the fossil fuel depletion is determined by the amount of used polyethylene, PVC, cement, polypropylene and concrete; while the metal depletion is determined by the amount of used stainless steel, copper and cast iron. Data inventory and LCA of IWWTPs are presented for the ﬁrst time. Conclusions of the work may support decisions taken by local governments concerning wastewater management in their area and promote and support solutions of high ecological standards.