The article presents the urban layout, which is a best-preserved example of industrial estates in northern Italy. The subject of the research is a public space of the Crespi d’Adda settlement in the Province of Bergamo in Lombardy. Particular attention is paid to green areas occurring there, and their current use. Program of the public areas was very varied. The main role, besides the factory, held the public park, which is an important compositional and ideological. element of the layout. Research task was to show on example of Crespi, the current situation of former settlements in northern Italy, which are for the author reference material for settlements analyzed in Poland.
The analysis of provisions of Local Spatial Management Plans and selected cases of practical implementation of such provisions showed, that the provisions of spatial law practically stay without any relation to rules of urban composition and spatial order. The research was limited to analysis of urban composition, without considering all the conditions for planning process and its results. The town planning is treated in this article as planned space resulted from clear urban concept based on general urban composition rules. Town planning does not refer in this case to spatial chaos which can be a result of implementation of Local Spatial Management Plan.
The metropolis of Barcelona is one of the first ten Europe's urban agglomerations. The geographic and natural conditions of the city - located in area between the sea and the forested mountain ranges running parallel to the coast and divided by broad river valleys - have considerably influenced the formation of its hybrid urban structure. The heart of the agglomeration is still Barcelona, established by the Phoenicians in a natural port at the foot of the Montjiuc hill, growing together with its neighbouring towns for more than two thousand years now, incessantly filling one fragment of natural landscape after another with urban fabric. Monumental edifices and high-rise buildings erected in all historic periods have been inorming visitors of the power of teh city and the same time defining places which are important for its urban composition and status. Recent decades have brought no revolutionary changes in this trend. What was changed, though, are the architectural forms of those most emblematic structures in the scale of the metropolis.
Most of the medieval Italian cities are civitas born of the ruins of the ancient Roman civilization. Their beauty ist the origin for deep esthetical experiences, to which Sławomir Gzell gave the name bellezza. There are a few characteristic features composing the "picturesqueness", painterliness and harmony of those cities, which lead the observer to strong emotions and constant, sensual exploration. The author contemplates the aspects creating the phenomrnon of beauty of Italian cities and towns - which are the metapfor of human desires and deepest cravings.
Concentrations and elemental composition of fine (PM2.5) and coarse (PM2.5-10) ambient particles, at two sampling points located at the same urban background sites, were investigated. The points were 20 m distant from each other and at various heights (2 and 6 m) above the ground. A dichotomous sampler, equipped with a virtual impactor, and a cascade impactor were used to sample the dust. An X-ray fluorescence spectrometer was used in the elemental analyses. The investigations revealed heterogeneity of the spatial distribution and the elemental composition of suspended dust at the investigated urban background site. Coarse dust, whose concentration at 2.0 m above the ground was affected by secondary emission from roads, soil and other local low-level sources in some periods, appeared more heterogeneous.