A verification study of ultrasound transmission numerical simulation results with experiment results is presented in this paper. The work considers a model of a transformer tank which is filled with electro insulating oil. In the experiment, performed under laboratory conditions, an ultrasound wave is generated by a piezoelectric transducer that is fixed in the centre of the tank and measured by another transducer mounted inside the tank at three distances: 10, 20 and 30 cm from the sound source. The transducer is able to measure and generate acoustic waves in the ultrasound frequency band up to 1 MHz. The simulation considers numerical calculation of acoustic pressure distribution inside the tank in which acoustic source emits waves with frequency equal to 100 kHz. Verification analysis has confirmed consistency of the numerically calculated values with the measurement results.
This paper presents and analyses the results of a simulation of the acoustic field distribution in sectors of a 1024-element ring array, intended for the diagnosis of female breast tissue with the use of ultrasonic tomography. The array was tested for the possibility to equip an ultrasonic tomograph with an additional modality - conventional ultrasonic imaging with the use of individual fragments (sections) of the ring array. To determine the acoustic field for sectors of the ring array with a varying number of activated ultrasonic transducers, a combined sum of all acoustic fields created by each elementary transducer was calculated. By the use of MATLAB software, a unique algorithm was developed, for a numerical determination of the distribution of pressure of an ultrasonic wave on any surface or area of the medium generated by the concave curvilinear structure of rectangular ultrasound transducers with a geometric focus of the beam. The analysis of the obtained results of the acoustic field distribution inside the ultrasonic ring array used in tomography allows to conclude that the optimal number of transducers in a sector enabling to obtain ultrasound images using linear echographic scanning is 32 ≤ n ≤ 128, taking into account that due to an increased temporal resolution of ultrasonic imaging, this number should be as low as possible.
The paper presents an analysis of the results of ultrasound transmission tomography (UTT) imaging of the internal structure of a breast elastography phantom used for biopsy training, and compares them with the results of CT, MRI and, conventional US imaging; the results of the phantom examination were the basis for the analysis of UTT method resolution. The obtained UTT, CT and MRI images of the CIRS Model 059 breast phantom structure show comparable (in the context of size and location) heterogeneities inside it. The UTT image of distribution of the ultrasound velocity clearly demonstrates continuous changes of density. The UTT image of derivative of attenuation coefficient in relation to frequency is better for visualising sharp edges, and the UTT image of the distribution of attenuation coefficient visualises continuous and stepped changes in an indirect way. The inclusions visualized by CT have sharply delineated edges but are hardly distinguishable from the phantom gel background even with increased image contrast. MRI images of the studied phantom relatively clearly show inclusions in the structure. Ultrasonography images do not show any diversification of the structure of the phantom. The obtained examination results indicate that, if the scanning process is accelerated, ultrasound transmission tomography method can be successfully used to detect and diagnose early breast malignant lesions. Ultrasonic transmission tomography imaging can be applied in medicine for diagnostic examination of women’s breasts and similarly for X-ray computed tomography, while eliminating the need to expose patients to the harmful ionising radiation.
In this paper, we estimate the upper limit of the transmission data rate in airborne ultrasonic communications, under condition of the optimal power allocation. The presented method is based on frequency response of a channel in case of single-path LOS propagation under different climatic conditions and AWGN background noise model, and it can be easily extended to the case of frequency-dependent noise. The obtained results go beyond the discrete distances for which experimental SNR values were available, and are more accurate than the previous calculations in the literature, due to the inclusion of the channel frequency response and its changes over the distance. The impact of air temperature, relative humidity and the atmospheric pressure on the channel capacity is also investigated. The presented results can serve as a reference during the design of airborne ultrasonic communication systems operating in the far-field region.