The experimental pharmacologist Prof. Stanisław Jerzy Czuczwar, Vice President of the Polish Academy of Sciences, tells us about how he got into medical research, about the search for new epilepsy treatments, and how pharmaceuticals are in a way akin to cell phone towers.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a second prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) treatment during Ovsynch on luteal regression and fertility in dairy cows, compared with standard Ovsynch. The study was conducted on 111 Holstein Friesian multiparous cows on commercial dairy farm. The cows in the experimental group (n=48) received two treatments of PGF2α 24 hours apart during Ovsynch. The cows in the control group (n=63) were synchronized with standard Ovsynch. To assess the progesterone (P4) concentration blood samples were collected at the day of PGF2α treatment and at the 2nd GnRH treatment. Pregnancy was evaluated by ultrasound examination 37-40 days after timed artificial insemination (TAI) by ultrasound. Cows diagnosed pregnant were re-examined between days 70-80 after TAI. The percentage of cows with complete corpus luteum (CL) regression (P4<0.5 ng/ml at the time of the 2nd GnRH treatment) was 89.6 % after two PGF2α treatments and 88.9 % after one PGF2α treatment. There were no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) in the pregnancies per artificial insemination (P/AI) between the experimental and control group (P/AI). However, the pregnancy loss rate was lower in cows receiving two PGF2α treatments than in the control animals (0.0 % vs. 6.4 %; p<0.05). In conclusion, the second PGF2α treatment during Ovsynch protocol had no significant effect on CL regression and P/AI in dairy cows. The pregnancy losses until days 75-80 after TAI were significantly lower after two PGF2α treatments than after one PGF2α treatment.
The thermochemical treatment applied to improve the surface properties of AZ91 consisted in heating the material in contact with AlSi10Mg powder at 445 oC for 30 min. During heat treatment process the powder was held under pressure to facilitate the diffusion of the alloying elements to the substrate and, accordingly, the formation of a modified layer. Two pressures, 1 MPa and 5 MPa, were tested. The resultant layers, containing hard Mg2Si and Mg17Al12 phases, were examined using an optical microscope and a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). The experimental data show that the layer microstructure was dependent on the pressure applied. A thicker, three-zone layer (about 200 μm) was obtained at 1 MPa. At the top, there were Mg2Si phase particles distributed over the Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase matrix. The next zone was a eutectic (Mg17Al12 and a solid solution of Al in Mg) with Mg2Si phase particles embedded in it. Finally, the area closest to the AZ91 substrate was a eutectic not including the Mg2Si phase particles. By contrast, the layer produced at a pressure of 5 MPa had lower thickness of approx. 150 μm and a two-zone structure. Mg2Si phase particles were present in both zones. In the upper zone, Mg2Si phase particles were regularly distributed over the Mg17Al12 intermetallic phase matrix. The lower zone, adjacent to the AZ91, was characterized by a higher volume fraction of Mg2Si phase particles distributed over the matrix composed mainly of Mg17Al12. The alloyed layers enriched with Al and Si had much higher hardness than the AZ91 substrate.
The article presents the results of research on the finishing of M63 Z4 brass by vibratory machining. Brass alloy was used for the research due to the common use of ammunition elements, cartridge case and good cold forming properties on the construction. Until now, the authors have not met with the results of research to determine the impact of abrasive pastes in container processing. It was found that the additive for container abrasive treatment of abrasive paste causes larger mass losses and faster surface smoothing effects. The treatment was carried out in two stages: in the first stage, the workpieces were deburred and then polished. Considerations were given to the impact of mass of workpieces, machining time and its type on mass loss and changes in the geometric structure of the surface. The surface roughness of machining samples was measured with the Talysurf CCI Lite optical profiler. The suggestions for future research may be to carry out tests using abrasive pastes with a larger granulation of abrasive grains, and to carry out tests for longer processing times and to determine the time after which the parameters of SGP change is unnoticeable.
The aim of the research was the evaluation of wastewater management in terms of stability and efficiency of wastewater treatment, using statistical quality control. For this purpose, the analysis of the operation and operation of the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was made, which is one of the most important and largest sewage management facilities in the city of Cracow. This assessment was done using control charts x for 59 observations. The analysed research period covered the multi-year from 2012 to 2016. Five key pollutant indicators were used to evaluate the work of the tested object: BOD5, CODCr, total suspension, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. In the case of the majority of them, based on the analysis of control charts, full stability of their removal was found in the tested sewage management facility. The exception was total nitrogen, for which periods of disturbed stability of its disposal processes were noted. Analysis of the effectiveness of wastewater treatment showed each time that the required efficiency of reduction of the analysed pollution indicators in the “Kujawy” Sewage Treatment Plant was achieved.
Results of a research on influence of chromium, molybdenum and aluminium on structure and selected mechanical properties of Ni-Mn-Cu cast iron in the as-cast and heat-treated conditions are presented. All raw castings showed austenitic matrix with relatively low hardness, making the material machinable. Additions of chromium and molybdenum resulted in higher inclination to hard spots. However, a small addition of aluminium slightly limited this tendency. Heat treatment consisting in soaking the castings at 500 °C for 4 h resulted in partial transformation of austenite to acicular, carbon-supersaturated ferrite, similar to the bainitic ferrite. A degree of this transformation depended not only on the nickel equivalent value (its lower value resulted in higher transformation degree), but also on concentrations of Cr and Mo (transformation degree increased with increasing total concentration of both elements). The castings with the highest hard spots degree showed the highest hardness, while hardness increase, caused by heat treatment, was the largest in the castings with the highest austenite transformation degree. Addition of Cr and Mo resulted in lower thermodynamic stability of austenite, so it appeared a favourable solution. For this reason, the castings containing the highest total amount of Cr and Mo with an addition of 0.4% Al (to reduce hard spots tendency) showed the highest tensile strength.
This article proposes to use abrasive waterjet cutting (AWJ) for deflashing, deburring and similar finishing operations in casting. The basic requirements concerning the dimensional accuracy and surface texture of cast components are not met if visible surface flaws are detected. The experiments focused on the removal of external flash from elements made of EN-GJL-150 cast iron. The method employed for finishing was abrasive waterjet cutting. The tests were carried out using an APW 2010BB waterjet cutting machine. The form profiles before and after flash removal were determined with a Taylor Hobson PGI 1200 contact profiler. A Nikon AZ100 optical microscope was applied to observe and measure the changes in the flash height and width. The casting surface after finishing was smooth, without characteristic sharp, rough edges that occur in the cutting of objects with a considerable thickness. It should be emphasized that this method does not replace precise cutting operations. Yet, it can be successfully used to finish castings for which lower surface quality is required. An undoubted advantage of waterjet cutting is no effect of high temperature as is the case with plasma, laser or conventional cutting. This process is also easy to automate; one tool is needed to perform different finishing operations in order to obtain the desired dimensions, both internal and external.
The objective of this study was to determine the effect of advanced oxidation process with the use of Fenton’s reaction on the effectiveness of anaerobic treatment of wastewaters originating from the wood industry that were characterized by a high concentration of formaldehyde. Experiments were established to analyze changes in COD content and in the concentration of formaldehyde in treated wastewaters, additional analyses were carried out to assay quantitative and qualitative changes in the biogas produced. The first stage of the experiment involved analyses of the effectiveness of the tested wastewaters treatment only in the process of methane fermentation. At the second stage of the experiment, the biological process was preceded by chemical pre-treatment of wastewaters with Fenton’s reagent. The conducted study proved that the investigated variants of chemical pre-treatment of wastewaters had a significant effect on increasing the total biogas production. In contrast, no significant effect of the applied technology was demonstrated on changes in the concentration of the analyzed contaminants in the treated wastewaters.
The effects of Mg and Ca on sulfide modification of sulphur steel were studied to elucidate the difference between micromagnesium treatment and micro-calcium treatment for the inclusion of sulphur steel. The results show that the inclusions in the steel appeared with an oxide core of Al2O3 and MnS wrapped. After the addition of Mg, the core was changed to spinel, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Mg-S. After Ca was added, the core was changed to Ca-Al-O, and the MnS coating was changed to Mn-Ca-S. The Mg content was higher than Ca content in the sulfides of the steel. Therefore, Mg was more effective than Ca in terms of sulfide modification with the same content of Mg and Ca in steel, but the yielding rate of Mg was lower than that of Ca. The Mg content in the oxide core was higher than Mg of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Mg or Mg-Ca. In contrast, the Ca content in the oxide core was lower than Ca of the coating of the inclusions in the steel treated with Ca or Mg-Ca. MnS formed and precipitated during the melt solidification process. The complex sulfide (Mg-Mn-S) was precipitated around MgO·Al2O3 in the Mg treated steel during the cooling process. CaS inclusion was precipitated on the CaO·Al2O3 inclusions in the liquid Ca-treated steel. Thus, CaS was formed first, whereas MnS was formed during the cooling process, followed by the formation of complex sulfide (CaS+MnS), which finally precipitated around CaO·Al2O3 in the Ca-treated steel.
The work presents the results of the experimental research concerning the impact of a heat treatment (toughening) of aluminum bronze CuAl10Fe4Ni4 on its mechanical properties. The conditions of the experiments and selected results are described. A detailed description of the effects of individual heat treatment conditions namely low and high temperature aging is also presented in the work.
The primary objective of the present study was to determine the seasonal dynamics of ciliates in activated sludge. Studies were carried out in order to verify the hypothesis that fertility of a habitat may significantly influence the seasonal dynamics of the abundance of ciliates, as well as the number and intensity of correlations between physic-chemical parameters and ciliates. It seems that the values of numbers of ciliates were seasonally changeable. The highest numbers of ciliates were found in spring and summer, however the lowest numbers of ciliate communities were noted in winter. The studies showed that protozoa community is determined by ammonia mainly in summer. In spring and winter additional factors may be important. Probably suspended solid, total organic carbon and concentration of appropriate food (bacteria and flagellates) are the major regulator of abundance of ciliates.
In this study, music teachers' exposure to sound was tested by measuring the A-weighted equivalent sound pressure level (SPL), the A-weighted maximum SPL and the C-weighted peak SPL. Measurements were taken prior to and after acoustic treatment in four rooms during classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and percussion instruments. Results showed that acoustic treatment affects the exposure of music teachers to sound. Daily noise exposure levels (LEX, 8 h) for all teachers exceeded a limit of 85 dB while teaching music lessons prior to room treatment. It was found that the LEX, 8 h values ranged from 85.8 to 91.6 dB. The highest A-weighted maximum SPL and C-weighted peak SPL that music teachers were exposed to were observed with percussion instruments (LAmax = 110.4 dB and LCpeak = 138.0 dB). After the treatments, daily noise exposure level decreased by an average of 5.8, 3.2, 3.0, 4.2 and 4.5 dB, respectively, for the classes of trumpet, saxophone, French horn, trombone and drums, and did not exceed 85 dB in any case.
The paper discusses the results of investigations of material, tribological and anti-corrosion properties of hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type, consisting of chromium and chromium nitride, formed on the surface of alloy tool steel by the Arc-PVD method. Investigations of the morphology and microstructure of hybrid coatings, as well as of their phase composition were carried out. The studies on mechanical properties included tests on hardness and Young’s modulus using the nanoindentation method. Tests on adhesion were conducted using the scratch-test method. Tribological properties of the obtained coatings were evaluated by the pin-on-disc method. Resistance to corrosion was determined by electrochemical methods. It was shown that hybrid coatings of the Cr/CrN type are characterized by good adhesion to the substrate and very good tribological properties, as well as by very good resistance to corrosion in a solution containing chlorine ions.
Neodymium-Iron-Boron (Nd-Fe-B) magnets are considered to have the highest energy density, and their applications include electric motors, generators, hard disc drives, and MRI. It is well known that a fiber structure with a high aspect ratio and the large specific surface area has the potential to overcome the limitations, such as inhomogeneous structures and the difficulty in alignment of easy axis, associated with such magnets obtained by conventional methods. In this work, a suitable heat-treatment procedure based on single-step and multistep treatments to synthesize sound electrospun Nd-Fe-B-O nanofibers of Φ572 nm was investigated. The single-step heat-treated (directly heat-treated at 800°C for 2 h in air) samples disintegrated along with the residual organic compounds, whereas the multistep heat-treated (sequential three-step heat-treated including three steps;: dehydration (250°C for 30 min in an inert atmosphere), debinding (650°C for 30 min in air), and calcination (800°C for 1 h in air)) fibers maintained sound fibrous morphology without any organic impurities. They could maintain such fibrous morphologies during the dehydration and debinding steps because of the relatively low internal pressures of water vapor and polymer, respectively. In addition, the NdFeO3 alloying phase was dominant in the multistep heat-treated fibers due to the removal of barriers to mass transfer in the interparticles.
The aim of this paper was to determine the effect of heat treatment for the corrosion resistance of the ZnAl40Ti2Cu alloy under “acid rain” conditions. ZnAl40TiCu alloy after supersaturation and after supersaturation and aging was studied. Potentiodynamic studies, potentiostatic studies and studies on structure of the alloy top layer of samples after corrosion tests were carried out. These investigations indicated a significant influence of heat treatment on corrosion resistance of the ZnAl40Ti2Cu alloy. The highest increase in corrosion resistance comparing to the alloy in the as-cast condition may be obtained by supersaturation. A significant influence of the aging temperature and time on corrosion resistance was proved.
Improvement of Al-Si alloys properties in scope of classic method is connected with change of Si precipitations morphology through: using modification of the alloy, maintaining suitable temperature of overheating and pouring process, as well as perfection of heat treatment methods. Growing requirements of the market make it necessary to search after such procedures, which would quickly deliver positive results with simultaneous consideration of economic aspects. Presented in the paper shortened heat treatment with soaking of the alloy at temperature near temperature of solidus could be assumed as the method in the above mentioned understanding of the problem. Such treatment consists in soaking of the alloy to temperature of solutioning, keeping in such temperature, and next, quick quenching in water (20 0 C) followed by artificial ageing. Temperature ranges of solutioning and ageing treatments implemented in the adopted testing plan were based on analysis of recorded curves from the ATD method. Obtained results relate to dependencies and spatial diagrams describing effect of parameters of the solutioning and ageing treatments on HB hardness of the investigated alloy and change of its microstructure. Performed shortened heat treatment results in precipitation hardening of the investigated 320.0 alloy, what according to expectations produces increased hardness of the material.
Mechanical and technological properties of castings made from 3xx.x alloys depend mainly on properly performed process of melting and casting, structure of a casting and mould, as well as possible heat treatment. Precipitation processes occurring during the heat treatment of the silumins containing additives of Cu and/or Mg have effect on improvement of mechanical properties of the material, while choice of parameters of solutioning and ageing treatments belongs to objectives of research work performed by a number of authors. Shortened heat treatment, which is presented in the paper assures suitable mechanical properties (Rm), and simultaneously doesn’t cause any increase of production costs of a given component due to long lasting operations of the solutioning and ageing. Results of the research concern effects of the solutioning and ageing parameters on the Rm tensile strength presented in form of the second degree polynomial and illustrated in spatial diagrams. Performed shortened heat treatment results in considerable increase of the Rm tensile strength of the 320.0 alloy as early as after 1 hour of the solutioning and 2 hours of the ageing performed in suitable.
Secondary or multiple remelted alloys are common materials used in foundries. For secondary (recycled) Al-Si-Cu alloys, the major problem is the increased iron presence. Iron is the most common impurity and with presence of other elements in alloy creates the intermetallic compounds, which may negatively affect the structure. The paper deals with effect of multiple remelting on the microstructure of the AlS9iCu3 alloy with increased iron content to about 1.4 wt. %. The evaluation of the microstructure is focused on the morphology of iron-base intermetallic phases in caste state, after the heat treatment (T5) and after natural aging. The occurrence of the sludge phases was also observed. From the obtained results can be concluded that the multiple remelting leads to change of chemical composition, changes in the final microstructure and also increases sludge phases formation. The use of heat treatment T5 led to a positive change of microstructure, while the effect of natural aging is beneficial only to the 3rd remelting.
FA discharged from the wastewater treatment plant were extracted from purifi ed effl uents for the quantitative and qualitative analysis. The treated sewage from municipal treatment plants was acidifi ed to pH <2 and extracted with ion exchange resins in a laboratory column. After desorption with NH4 OH, the fulvic acids were condensed under vacuum and tested for mass performance, UV-VIS light spectra, IR absorption spectra, elementary composition and other elements. Their structure was analysed and compared to FA present in surface waters and in sewage treated in other sewage treatment plants based on the authors’ own research and the literature data. The concentration of FA in the treated sewage was 5.2 mg/L. There is a high interdependence between the IR spectrum analysis in the visible light and the elementary composition of FA extracted from different environments, confi rming the conclusions pertaining to the structure and properties of the acids being tested. The longer sewage is subjected to a biological treatment process, the greater the degree of aromatic condensation and humus maturity of the FA contained within it. FA contained in the sewage treated in the three biological sewage treatment plants have the ratio A2 /A3 (the ratio of the absorbance of light with the wavelength of 250 and 300 nm) equal to the value 1.7. There is a high interdependence between the IR spectrum analysis in the visible light and the elementary composition of FA extracted from different environments, confi rming the conclusions pertaining to the structure and properties of the acids being tested.
In this work microbiological air pollution at several commune sewage treatment plants (capacity up to 15,000 PE) was investigated. The bioreactors in all plants had a covered construction. The air samples were taken indoors as well as outdoors (both on the windward and leeward side) during different seasons. The samples were collected using the collision method. The presence of indicator organisms in the samples was determined according to the Polish Standards. Identiﬁcation of individual indicators was performed on solid selective-differentiating substrates. To verify the presence of bacteria from Salmonella, Shigella, coliforms and enterococci species, the colonies observed on the MacConkey substrate were then sifted onto SS and Endo substrates. At all facilities (with one exception) the average CFU for the total number of bacteria and fungi did not exceed 1000/m3, which is the limit set by the Polish Standards for a pollution-free atmospheric air. Bacteria and fungi concentrations, observed at windward and leeward sides of all plants, were relatively low (<100 CFU/m3 and <1000 CFU/m3, respectively) and comparable. A sewage collection point had only a slight impact on the bioaerosol emission. The concentration of microorganisms in the immediate vicinity of covered reactors (aeration chambers) was rather low and remained below the limits sets by the Polish Standards at three facilities. The CFU of individual indicators, measured in rooms accessible for the personnel, was comparable to the CFU in technological rooms. However some indicators, e.g. a number of Actinomycetes, were signiﬁcantly higher and reached >100 CFU/m3, which means signiﬁcant air pollution. Similarly, the CFU of hemolytic bacteria had nonzero values. The only place where higher concentrations of bioaerosol were found was the centrifuge room, where digested sludge was dewatered. The number of fungi stayed below the limits there, but the amount of heterotrophic and hemolytic bacteria exceeded the limits and reached the values of ~10000 CFU/m3 and 800 CFU/m3, respectively; it means that the personnel working in this area is exposed to microbiological agents.
22 representative antibiotics, including 8 quinolones (QNs), 9 sulfonamides (SAs), and 5 macrolides (MCs) were selected to investigate their occurrence and removal efficiencies in a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and their distribution in the receiving water of the Chaobai River in Beijing, China. Water quality monitoring was performed in an integrated way at different selected points in the WWTP to explore the potential mechanism of antibiotics removal during wastewater treatment. Water quality of the Chaobai River was also analyzed to examine environmental distribution in a river ecosystem. The results showed that within all the 22 compounds examined, 10 antibiotics were quantified in wastewater influent, 10 in effluent, and 7 in river. Sulfadiazine (SDZ, 396 ng/L) and Sulfamethazine (SMZ, 382 ng/L) were the dominating antibiotics in the influent. Both the conventional treatment and advanced Biological Aerated Filter (BAF) system was important for the removal of antibiotics from the wastewater. And the concentrations of selected antibiotics were ranged from 0-41.8 ng/L in the effluent-receiving river. Despite the fact that the concentrations were reduced more than 50% compared to effluent concentrations, WWTP discharge was still regarded as a dominant point-source input of antibiotics into the Chaobai River.
System Dynamics is methodology for modeling and analyzing complex systems. Such systems can be characterized by interconnectedness and feedback. Applying risk assessment to the results of System Dynamics models is a challenge. Though in some cases the resulting time series data generated by a simulation may appear approximately random at a specific scale, there is often a high-degree of auto-correlation within the data series due to the deterministic nature of generation and feedback loops inherent in the system. This paper presents proposed Dynamic Risk Assessment Method (DRAM) that allows for the estimation of risk for system dynamics data series that appear to be approximately random. DRAM is based on standard risk assessment methods and is simple both to calculate and apply. In this article, the proposed method is applied to determine the risk connected with hypothetical costs of illness stemming from water supply system contamination with Cryptosporidium.
The study was aimed at evaluating microbial contamination on the premises of the sewage treatment plant by determining the concentrations of selected groups of airborne microorganisms. Another objective was to determine the antibiotic sensitivity patterns of isolated strains of staphylococci. The research was conducted in a seasonal cycle, by the impaction method using Merck MAS-100 air sampler. Samples were collected at six sites, each representing a different stage of sewage treatment. The susceptibility of isolated staphylococci was assessed with the disc-diffusion method, following the recommendations of the EUCAST. The results indicate that the microbial population in the air of the investigated area was dominated by mold fungi, whose highest average concentration was recorded at site IV located near the final clarifier (7672 CFU•m-3). Heterotrophic bacteria and mannitol-positive staphylococci were the most numerous at locations where sewage undergoes primary treatment. In each subseuqent stage the number of microorganisms emitted into the air from the sewage was lower. Antibiograms show that more than 50% of Staphylococcus spp. exhibited resistance to penicillin and 20% to rifampicin. In addition, 90% of the analyzed strains were sensitive to other antibiotics. The fungal community included the following genera: Cladosporium, Fusarium, Alternaria, Penicillium, Aspergillus, Aureobasidium, and Acremonium.The highest air contamination with all studied groups of microorganisms was recorded at the locations where mechanical sewage treatment was performed. During the subsequent stages lower numbers of heterotrophic bacteria were emitted into the air. The air in the investigated sewage treatment plant did not contain multidrug-resistant staphylococci.