Basing on Polish experience of about 5 years (since the presence of the African swine fever (ASF) in this country, starting from February 17th, 2014) and in accordance with literature the importance of the disease in wild boar is charaterised. ASF belongs to the most dangerous, very contagious diseases occurring in domestic swine and wild boar in Eurasia. In Europe, including Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Lithuania, Latvia, Estonia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, Czech Republic and Belgium ASF is existing at present and was diagnosed for short time in the frame of the Eurasian pandemy. There is a serious concern of spreading of the virus of ASF (ASFV) to other countries of Europe, not only by wild boar. However the reservoir of ASFV in this animal is playing a very important role in the maintenance of the virus and infection of pigs. Long lasting existence of ASFV in the environmnent is connected with the very high resistance to antiviral environmental factors. Following the lack of an effective immunogenic vaccine against ASF the disease can only be controlled by administrative measures. Additionally the important and recommended procedure is the significant reduction of the wild boar population. Probability of eradication of ASFV from wild boar is increased after adding quick carcass removal simultaneously by respecting biosecurity rules. If effectively implemented, fencing is more useful to delineating zones rather than adding substantially to increased efficiency of ASF control. However, segments of fencing will be particularly usefull in theses areas, where carcasses removal or intensive hunting is difficult to implement.
Main aim of this study is to combine the characteristics of the sonic crystal (SC) with acoustic panels and porous materials to improve the sound transmission loss (STL) through the triple-panel structure. SCs cause a bandgap centered around a certain frequency (Bragg’s frequency) due to generation of destructive interference. Initially, an analytical method is developed that extends the previous theory of double-panel structure to predict STL through a triple-panel structure. Finite element (FE) simulations are performed to obtain the STL through the triple-panel, which are validated with the analytical predictions. Various configurations are analyzed using the FE method based on the method of inserting the porous material and SCs between the panels to address the combined effect. STL through the triple-panel structure is compared with that through the double-panel structure having the same total weight and total thickness. It is found that the combined structure of the triple panel and the SC with glass wool as filler gives the best soundproof performance for the same external dimensions. For narrow air gaps, filing with glass wool is more advantageous than inserting one row of SC. In addition, the triple panel combined with a SC has better soundproofing than the two-panel counterparts.
A condition which determines the location of technical infrastructure is an entrepreneur holding the right to use the property for construction purposes. Currently, there are parallel separate legal forms allowing the use of a real property for the purpose of locating transmission lines, i.e. transmission easement (right-of-way) established under the civil law and expropriation by limiting the rights to a property under the administrative law. The aim of the study is to compare these forms conferring the right to use real properties and to analyze the related surveying and legal problems occurring in practice. The research thesis of the article is ascertainment that the current legal provisions for establishing legal titles to a property in order to locate transmission lines need to be amended. The conducted study regarded legal conditions, extent of expropriation and granting right- of-way in the city of Krakow, as well as the problems associated with the ambiguous wording of the legal regulations. Part of the research was devoted to the form of rights to land in order to carry out similar projects in some European countries (France, Czech Republic, Germany, Sweden). The justification for the analysis of these issues is dictated by the scale of practical use of the aforementioned forms of rights to land in order to locate technical infrastructure. Over the period of 2011-2014, 651 agreements were concluded on granting transmission right-of-way for 967 cadastral parcels owned by the city of Krakow, and 105 expropriation decisions were issued, limiting the use of real properties in Krakow.
The article outlines the conceptual assumptions of pedagogy underlying university education, re-defined with regard to the dynamic conditions underlying contemporary culture. The authors concentrate on constitutive educational forms that define the nature of semiosis in education, as well as their exposure and transformation. In connection with this, there is a focus on the concept of “symbolic politics”, which aims to liberalize the practice of pedagogy, freeing it from the dictatorship of a transmission form of education, as well as creating conditions for strengthening discursive relationships and a reflexive discursive attitude. As a result of the implementation of this form of symbolic politics, those involved in education do not promote the prevailing discourse but become agents capable of discursive reflection in action as well as participants in processes of discursive design and creation.
This paper presents an approximate analytical model for estimating the transmission loss (TL) of a finite rectangular plate in the low frequency range, which is based on the modal summation approach (MSA) taking into account the modal radiation impedance and fluid loading. The mode-dependent radiation resistance is calculated using the Rayleigh integral. The fluid loading is taken into account through the natural frequency modified by the added mass. The results are compared with the ones of Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) coupled with FEM and FEM coupled with BEM. In addition, the effects of the various vibration modes and the fluid loading on TL, and a way for reducing the calculation time are discussed.
A verification study of ultrasound transmission numerical simulation results with experiment results is presented in this paper. The work considers a model of a transformer tank which is filled with electro insulating oil. In the experiment, performed under laboratory conditions, an ultrasound wave is generated by a piezoelectric transducer that is fixed in the centre of the tank and measured by another transducer mounted inside the tank at three distances: 10, 20 and 30 cm from the sound source. The transducer is able to measure and generate acoustic waves in the ultrasound frequency band up to 1 MHz. The simulation considers numerical calculation of acoustic pressure distribution inside the tank in which acoustic source emits waves with frequency equal to 100 kHz. Verification analysis has confirmed consistency of the numerically calculated values with the measurement results.
There exist some possibilities for simultaneous delivery of laser radiation and ultrasounds of low frequency and high intensity: introducing ultrasound oscillations in the optical fiber by the rigid connection of the fiber to the vibrating element and non-contact influence of the ultrasonic wave on the laser beam. The article presents the results of Matlab simulations and experimental studies of influence of the ultrasonic wave on the laser beam. A role of the air gap, and its influence on laser-ultrasonic transmission in optical fiber was examined. Advantages and disadvantages of both solutions of interaction of ultrasonic and optical waves in, e.g., surgical applications are discussed.
The construction of transmission infrastructure and its functioning imposes the obligation on transmission companies to have a legal title to land. Both in Poland and in Canada, the title particularly results from the established easements subject to registration in public information systems. Due to different historical, social, and economic conditions, the specificity of legal regulations and technical solutions related to the registration of rights to land property is different in both countries. This results from the functioning and the substantive scope of particular systems of information on land property. Such systems are regulated by independent, internal rules of each of the countries. In Poland, easement is subject to registration in the land and mortgage register. In Canada, a federation country, it depends on legal regulations of particular provinces. The research objective of the article is the analysis of the way of registration of easements established for transmission companies in Poland and in Canada in the Ontario and Quebec provinces. The analysis covers the scope of registration of the said right in systems of information on land property. The evaluation of the applied solutions particularly involves pointing out those which to the greatest extent guarantee the safety of land property turnover. The best result is obtained in Canada in the Ontario province.
This paper presents and analyses the results of a simulation of the acoustic field distribution in sectors of a 1024-element ring array, intended for the diagnosis of female breast tissue with the use of ultrasonic tomography. The array was tested for the possibility to equip an ultrasonic tomograph with an additional modality - conventional ultrasonic imaging with the use of individual fragments (sections) of the ring array. To determine the acoustic field for sectors of the ring array with a varying number of activated ultrasonic transducers, a combined sum of all acoustic fields created by each elementary transducer was calculated. By the use of MATLAB software, a unique algorithm was developed, for a numerical determination of the distribution of pressure of an ultrasonic wave on any surface or area of the medium generated by the concave curvilinear structure of rectangular ultrasound transducers with a geometric focus of the beam. The analysis of the obtained results of the acoustic field distribution inside the ultrasonic ring array used in tomography allows to conclude that the optimal number of transducers in a sector enabling to obtain ultrasound images using linear echographic scanning is 32 ≤ n ≤ 128, taking into account that due to an increased temporal resolution of ultrasonic imaging, this number should be as low as possible.
A new configuration of rectifier suiting CMOS technology is presented. The rectifier consists of only two n-channel MOS transistors, two capacitors and two resistors; for this reason it is very favourable in manufacturing in CMOS technology. With these features the rectifier is easy to design and cheap in production. Despite its simplicity, the rectifier has relatively good characteristics, the voltage and power efficiency, and bandwidth greater than 89%, 87%, and 1 GHz, respectively. The performed simulations and measurements of a prototype circuit fully confirmed its correct operation and advantages.
The results of shielding effectiveness (SE) measurements of textile materials containing metal by the free-space transmission technique (FSTT) in the 1-26.5 GHz frequency range are presented in the paper. It is shown that experimental data processing using time-domain gating (TDG) makes it possible to effectively remove diffracted and reflected components from the desired signal. The comparison with the results obtained by other techniques, namely modified FSTT with TDG and coaxial line probe technique (ASTM D4935-99) is given. The comparison shows that the proposed technique gives more reasonable results while the measurement set-up is simpler in realization.
The possibility of acoustic wave propagation in optical waveguides creates new prospects for simultaneous transmission of laser beams and ultrasonic waves. Combined laser-ultrasonic technology could be useful in e.g. surgical treatment. The article presents the results of experimental studies of transmission of ultrasonic wave in optical fibres, the core of which is doped by 7.5% of TiO2, using a sandwich-type transducer. It also presents amplitude characteristics of an ultrasonic signal propagated in the optical fibre. Authors studied the effect which the length of the fibre has on the achieved output signal amplitudes. They presented the relation of the output signal amplitude from a capacitive sensor to the power applied to the sandwich-type transducer. The obtained results were compared with the results produced when using an optical fibre with a core doped by 3% of GeO2, in order to select optical fibre suitable for simultaneous transmission of ultrasonic waves and laser rays.
The article presents results of our own research regarding acoustic properties of 110 classrooms in five typical primary schools in Warsaw. The target of the research was to assess the classrooms using established criteria. These criteria include the reverberation time and the speech transmission index. The research has shown a large diversity of acoustic properties of classrooms within each of the schools and between the schools, resulting from the classroom equipment and the school building construction. In addition, the assessment has indicated that classrooms in schools researched do not meet the established acoustic criteria (reverberation time and speech transmission index). Because the classroom equipment is different for younger forms (integrated teaching) and for older forms (subject teaching), the results have been analyzed separately for rooms for younger forms (0-III) and for rooms for older forms (IV-VI). Synthetic results prove the advisability of such division. Correlation analysis has been conducted for the speech transmission index STI and reverberation time Tmf, as well as for the speech transmission index STI and the suggested reverberation time Twf defined in a similar manner as Tmf, but in a wider frequency range. The correlation between the speech transmission index STI and Twf is higher than that between the STI index and Tmf. The reverberation time Twf can therefore be used for a more precise assessment of acoustic properties of interiors with regard to verbal communication than Tmf. In addition, the paper presents estimated analysis results of the influence of selected classroom equipment (carpets) on its acoustic properties.
Transmission of vibroacoustic energy from an internal combustion engine (ICE) to its surroundings largely depends on how it is mounted, on available transmission paths and on the construction of the vehicle body and/or its surrounding structures. This is especially true in low speed engines in enclosed areas which generate perceptually weak noise, but strong low-frequency waves which energy has a negative impact on human health, comfort and driving safety especially in prolonged exposure to the source. The primary aim of the article was to analyse components of the ICE unit which had a determining impact on the reduction of low-frequency waves. Thus, the structurally transmitted noise from the ICE to its surrounding structure (body of the passenger vehicle) was analysed. The results of the vibroacoustic measurements were compared to modal analysis in order to determine possible resonance sources in the vehicle body and/or for assessing the influence of the vehicles safety gear on the generated vibroacoustic energy transfer into the cabin area of the passenger vehicle. Measurements were made for a passenger vehicle at rest and operating in its most common operational speed as well as for the stationary ICE of a cogenerate unit (CGU). Measurements and FFT analysis were used for the detection of the vibroacoustic energy sound pressure level (noise) and mechanical vibration. Firstly, the low-frequency noise sources were determined and their direct effects on the human body were investigated. Finally, this paper suggests some measures which may contribute to the reduction of undesirable vibroacoustic energy in enclosed areas.
This article presents an efficient method of modelling acoustic phenomena for real-time applications such as computer games. Simplified models of reflections, transmission, and medium attenuation are described along with assessments conducted by a professional sound designer. The article introduces representation of sound phenomena using digital filters for further digital audio processing.
The paper presents an extensive review investigating the practical aspects related to the use of single- number ratings used in describing the sound insulation performance of partition wall panels and practical complications encountered in precise measurements in extensive frequency range from 50 Hz to 5 kHz. SWOT analysis of various single number ratings is described. A laboratory investigation on a double wall partition panel combination revealed the significant dependence of STC rating on transmission loss at 125 Hz attributed to 8 dB rule. An investigation conducted on devising alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, vehicular horn noise and elevated metro train noise as an extension to ISO 717-1 Ctr for ascertaining the sound insulation properties of materials exclusively towards these noise sources revealed that the single-number rating Rw + Ctr calculated using ISO 717-1 Ctr gives the minimum sound insulation, when compared with Rw + Cx calculated using the alternative spectrums of aircraft noise, traffic noise, etc., which means that material provides a higher sound insulation to the other noise sources. It is also observed that spectrum adaptation term Cx calculated using the spectrum of noise sources having high sound pressure levels in lower frequencies decreases as compared to ISO 717-1 Ctr owing to significant dependence of Ctr at lower frequencies.
The shipping noise near channels and ports is an important contribution to the ambient noise level, and the depth of these sites is often less than 100 m. However less attention has been paid to the measurement in shallow water environments (Brooker, Humphrey, 2016). This paper presents extensive measurements made on the URN (underwater radiated noise) of a small fishing boat in the South China Sea with 87 m depth. The URN data showed that the noise below 30 Hz was dominated by the background noise. The transmission loss (TL) was modelled with FEM (finite element method) and ray tracing according to the realistic environmental parameters in situ. The discrepancy between the modelled results and the results using simple law demonstrates both sea surface and bottom have significant effect on TL for the shallow water, especially at low frequencies. Inspired by the modelling methodology in AQUO (Achieve QUieter Oceans) project (Audoly et al., 2015), a predicted model applied to a typical fishing boat was built, which showed that the URN at frequencies below and above 100 Hz was dominated by non-cavitation propeller noise and mechanical noise, respectively. The agreement between predicted results and measured results also demonstrates that this modelling methodology is effective to some extent.
In the age of digital media, delivering broadcast content to customers at an acceptable level of quality is one of the most challenging tasks. The most important factor is the efficient use of available resources, including bandwidth. An appropriate way of managing the digital multiplex is essential for both the economic and technical issues. In this paper we describe transmission quality measurements in the DAB+ broadcast system. We provide a methodology for analysing parameters and factors related with the efficiency and reliability of a digital radio link. We describe a laboratory stand that can be used for transmission quality assessment on a regional and national level.
Power system state estimation is a process of real-time online modeling of an electric power system. The estimation is performed with the application of a static model of the system and current measurements of electrical quantities that are encumbered with an error. Usually, a model of the estimated system is also encumbered with an uncertainty, especially power line resistances that depend on the temperature of conductors. At present, a considerable development of technologies for dynamic power line rating can be observed. Typically, devices for dynamic line rating are installed directly on the conductors and measure basic electric parameters such as the current and voltage as well as non-electric ones as the surface temperature of conductors, their expansion, stress or the conductor sag angle relative to the plumb line. The objective of this paper is to present a method for power system state estimation that uses temperature measurements of overhead line conductors as supplementary measurements that enhance the model quality and thereby the estimation accuracy. Power system state estimation is presented together with a method of using the temperature measurements of power line conductors for updating the static power system model in the state estimation process. The results obtained with that method have been analyzed based on the estimation calculations performed for an example system - with and without taking into account the conductor temperature measurements. The final part of the article includes conclusions and suggestions for the further research.
The low-frequency optical-signal phase noise induced by mechanical vibration of the base occurs in field-deployed fibers. Typical telecommunication data transfer is insensitive to this type of noise but the phenomenon may influence links dedicated to precise Time and Frequency (T&F) fiber-optic transfer that exploit the idea of stabilization of phase or propagation delay of the link. To measure effectiveness of suppression of acoustic noise in such a link, a dedicated measurement setup is necessary. The setup should enable to introduce a low-frequency phase corruption to the optical signal in a controllable way. In the paper, a concept of a setup in which the mechanically induced acoustic-band optical signal phase corruption is described and its own features and measured parameters are presented. Next, the experimental measurement results of the T&F transfer TFTS-2 system’s immunity as a function of the fibre-optic length vs. the acoustic-band noise are presented. Then, the dependency of the system immunity on the location of a noise source along the link is also pointed out.
Visible Light Communication (VLC) is a technique for high-speed, low-cost wireless data transmission based on LED luminaries. Wireless LAN environments are a major application of VLC. In these environments, VLC is used in place of traditional systems such as Wi-Fi. Because of the physical characteristics of visible light, VLC is considered to be superior to traditional radio-based communication in terms of security. However, as in all wireless systems, the security of VLC with respect to eavesdropping, signal jamming and modification must be analyzed. This paper focuses on the aspect of jamming in VLC networks. In environments where multiple VLC transmitters are used, there is the possibility that one or more transmitters will be hostile (or “rogue”). This leads to communication disruption, and in some cases, the hijacking of the legitimate data stream. In this paper we present the theoretical system model that is used in simulations to evaluate various rogue transmission scenarios in a typical indoor environment. The typical approach used so far in jamming analysis assumes that all disruptive transmissions may be modeled as Gaussian noise, but this assumption may be too simplistic. We analyze and compare two models of VLC jamming: the simplified Gaussian and the exact model, where the full characteristics of the interfering signal are taken into account. Our aim is to determine which methodology is adequate for studying signal jamming in VLC systems.
A short overview of the developments of functional materials featuring miniaturisation and integration is illustrated by examples taken from the ?eld of ceramic functional materials. To obtain new materials new methods are required. Most of them are microfabrication processes developed by the "top-down" approach.
This article presents the results of experimental studies of simultaneous transmission of ultrasonic waves and laser signals in optical fibers by the use of both the optical single mode and multimode fiber couplers. This work was aimed, among other things, at the study of the way the acoustic energy affects a laser beam. The light wave was guided into one of the coupler's arms. The optical power applied to one input of the coupler is separated into two coupler outputs according to the rate determined by the coupling coefficient. Only an ultrasonic wave generated by a sandwich type transducer is applied to the other arm of the coupler. In this experiment, as in case of the light wave, the acoustic power is separated into both the outputs. One can observe the interaction of both the waves on the two outputs - a modulation of the light wave by means of the ultrasonic wave is possible. The output signal was detected using a PIN diode and an optical power meter (OPM). Temporary courses were observed on an oscilloscope screen. The simultaneous transmission of ultrasounds and optical radiation in optical fibers can be used in the construction of medical equipment.
The modern cabin of heavy duty machines have to fulfil a number of requirements which deal with operators' work comfort. More and more often, the vibroacoustic and thermal comforts decide about the cabin quality. This paper presents principles of acoustic and thermal calculations as well as their use in combined assessment.