The article is dedicated to the problems of the functioning of people with disabilities in the Polish penitentiary system. It present theoretical considerations, regarding the nature of imprisonment, adaptation problems, types of adaptation strategies, therapeutic system and its limitations, as well as premises for the implementation of own research.
Resistance genes in response to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) infection suppress one or more of several critical steps in nematode parasitism and their reproduction rate. The reaction of seven commercial tomato genotypes to M. javanica infection was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Current results classified these genotypes as: three resistant (Jampakt, Malika and Nema Guard), one moderately resistant (Fayrouz), and three susceptible (Castle Rock, Super Marmande and Super Strain B). Except Nema Guard, nematode infection significantly reduced plant height, fresh and dry weights of shoots of the other tomato genotypes. Leaf area was significantly reduced for all examined tomato genotypes except Malika and Nema Guard. Total chlorophyll was reduced in all tested tomato genotypes except Jampakt. Infection parameters of M. javanica and their population were significantly reduced on all nematode-resistant tomato genotypes compared to the susceptible genotypes. Also, the maturation rate of M. javanica was suppressed in the resistant genotypes compared to the susceptible genotypes. These results were confirmed by histological study that illustrated a delay in nematode development and their maturation. Total phenolic content significantly increased in nematode infected roots of both resistant and susceptible genotypes except Malika. Among non-infected roots, Malika showed the highest level of total phenols while after M. javanica infection, Nema Guard revealed the highest level of total phenols. Among infected roots, the highest level of total phenols was recorded in Castle Rock. These results suggested that using nematode-resistant tomato genotypes could provide an efficient and nonpolluting method to control root-knot nematodes.
The paper discusses political philosophy of Bogusław Wolniewicz. The leading idea of his general philosophy was rationalism of a specific type that he called ‘tychistic’ (meaning ‘based on fate’), or ‘transcendental’ (meaning ‘transgressing the limits of nature by reliance on human reason’). This self-description presents Wolniewicz as an author respecting his Christian background, though personally he did not espouse the complete body of precepts postulated by the Church. As a nonconfessional catholic he spoke in favor of Christian civilization which he identified with Western culture. This led him to the reject of liberalism, libertarianism and leftist ideologies. He wanted to be perceived as a democrat who supported civil and republican democracy based on the virtue of patriotism. He emphasized the essentiality of the possession of its own political state by each independent nation, and the most important circle of loyalty was for him a national community. Thus he undertook to defend a conception of cautious xenophobia that was expurgated of hate but dedicated to the defense of a national territory.
Nanotechnology has been widely applied in agriculture, and understanding of the mechanisms of plant interaction with nanoparticles (NPs) as environmental contaminants is important. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of foliar application of cobalt oxide (Co3O4) NPs on some morpho-physiological and biochemical changes of canola (Brassica napus L.) leaves. Seeds were sown in plastic pots and grown under controlled conditions. Fourteen-day-old seedlings were sprayed with different concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (0, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000, 2000, and 4000 mg L-1) at weekly intervals for 5 weeks. Growth parameters of the shoot (length, fresh and dry weights) were stimulated by low concentrations of Co3O4 NPs (50 and 100 mg L-1) and repressed by higher concentrations. Similar trends were observed in photosynthetic pigment contents. The results indicated that high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs increased lipoxygenase (LOX) activity and the malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and dehydroascorbate (DHA) contents, but reduced the membrane stability index (MSI), ascorbate (ASC), and glutathione (GSH). Despite the increase of antioxidant capacity (DPPH) and the accumulation of nonenzymatic antioxidants (total flavonoids and flavonols) and osmolytes (proline, glycine betaine (GB) and soluble sugars) at high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs, the growth and photosynthesis were reduced. The defence system activity did not seem to be sufficient to detoxify reactive oxygen species (ROS). Altogether, high concentrations of Co3O4 NPs showed a phytotoxic potential for canola as an oilseed crop.