An emerging ultrasonic technology aims to control high-pressure industrial processes that use liquids at pressures up to 800 MPa. To control these processes it is necessary to know precisely physicochemical properties of the processed liquid (e.g., Camelina sativa oil) in the high-pressure range. In recent years, Camelina sativa oil gained a significant interest in food and biofuel industries. Unfortunately, only a very few data characterizing the high-pressure behavior of Camelina sativa oil is available. The aim of this paper is to investigate high pressure physicochemical properties of liquids on the example of Camelina sativa oil, using efficient ultrasonic techniques, i.e., speed of sound measurements supported by parallel measurements of density. It is worth noting that conventional low-pressure methods of measuring physicochemical properties of liquids fail at high pressures. The time of flight (TOF) between the two selected ultrasonic impulses was evaluated with a cross-correlation method. TOF measurements enabled for determination of the speed of sound with very high precision (of the order of picoseconds). Ultrasonic velocity and density measurements were performed for pressures 0.1–660 MPa, and temperatures 3–30XC. Isotherms of acoustic impedance Za, surface tension #27; and thermal conductivity k were subsequently evaluated. These physicochemical parameters of Camelina sativa oil are mainly influenced by changes in the pressure p, i.e., they increase about two times when the pressure increases from atmospheric pressure (0.1 MPa) to 660 MPa at 30XC. The results obtained in this study are novel and can be applied in food, and chemical industries.
This work presents an influence of cooling rate on crystallization process, structure and mechanical properties of MCMgAl12Zn1 cast magnesium alloy. The experiments were performed using the novel Universal Metallurgical Simulator and Analyzer Platform. The apparatus enabled recording the temperature during refrigerate magnesium alloy with three different cooling rates, i.e. 0.6, 1.2 and 2.4°C/s and calculate a first derivative. Based on first derivative results, nucleation temperature, beginning of nucleation of eutectic and solidus temperature were described. It was fund that the formation temperatures of various thermal parameters, mechanical properties (hardness and ultimate compressive strength) and grain size are shifting with an increasing cooling rate.
In the present paper the structure and thermal properties of europium cerium oxides were investigated. The material for the research was obtained via solid state synthesis. The initial powders: ceria CeO2 and europia Eu2O3 were mixed in 1:1 mass ratio (non-stoichiometric proportion with the excess of CeO2) and milled. The sintering process was performed using high temperature vacuum press at 1350°C. Calorimetric analysis was conducted both for initial powders and milled mixture. The structure, phase composition and thermal diffusivity of obtained material were investigated in as-sintered condition. It was revealed that the obtained material was multi-phase. Non-stoichiometric phases including Ce0.5Eu0.5O1.75 with fluorite type structure and different lattice parameters were present. Thermal diffusivity decreased in the range from 25 to 900°C from 1.49 to 0.57 mm2/s and then increased to 0.70 mm2/s at 1400°C.
In the article we were studing the impact of the remelting on transformations in Co-Cr-Mo prosthetics alloy. The TDA curves were analyzed, the microstructure was examined, the analysis of the chemical composition and hardness using the Brinell method was made. It was found that the obtained microstructure of the alloys that we studied do not differ significantly. In all four samples, microscopic images were similar to each other. The volume, size and distribution of the phases remain similar. Analysis of the chemical composition showed that all the samples fall within the compositions provided for the test alloy. Further to this the hardness of the samples, regardless of the number of remeltings did not show any significant fluctuations and remained within the error limit.After analyzing all the results, it can be concluded that the remeltings of the alloys should not have a significant impact on their properties. Secondarily melted alloys can be used for prosthetics works.
Ductile irons of the type of Si-Mo are characterized by increased resistance to long-term influence of high temperatures and cyclic temperature changes. They are mainly used in castings of combustion engine exhaust piping and other castings utilized at temperatures of up to 850°C. The aim of the study is to verify the mechanical properties of non-alloyed cast iron EN CSN GJS 450, SiMo4-0.5 and SiMo5-1 ductile irons at temperatures of 700 to 800°C, and the extent of their superficial oxidation after longterm annealing at a temperature of 900°C. Via chemical microanalysis the composition of oxidation products in the surface layer was evaluated.
The influence of the chill on the AlSi7Mg alloy properties after the heat treatment T6, was realised in the system of the horizontally cast plate of dimensions 160x240 mm and thickness of 10 and 15 m. The cooling course in individual casting zones was recorded, which allowed to determine the solidification rate. Castings were subjected to the heat treatment T6 process. Several properties of the alloy such as: hardness BHN, density, tensile strength UTS, elongation %E were determined. The microstructure images were presented and the structural SDAS parameter determined. The performed investigations as well as the analysis of the results allowed to determine the influence zone of the chill. The research shows that there is a certain dependence between the thickness of the casting wall and the influence zone of the chill, being not less than 2g, where g is the casting wall thickness. The next aim of successive investigations will be finding the confirmation that there is the dependence between the casting wall thickness and the influence zone of the chill for other thicknesses of walls. We would like to prove that this principle is of a universal character.
Owing to its properties, metallic foams can be used as insulation material. Thermal properties of cast metal-ceramic composite foams have applications in transport vehicles and can act as fire resistant and acoustic insulators of bulkheads. This paper presents basic thermal properties of cast and foamed aluminum, the values of thermal conductivity coefficient of selected gases used in foaming composites and thermal capabilities of composite foams (AlSi11/SiC). A certificate of non-combustibility test of cast aluminum-ceramic foam for marine applications was included inside the paper. The composite foam was prepared by the gas injection method, consisting in direct injection of gas into liquid metal. Foams with closed and open cells were examined. The foams were foaming with foaming gas consisting of nitrogen or air. This work is one of elements of researches connected with description of properties of composite foams. In author's other works acoustic properties of these materials will be presented.
Small additions of Cr, Mo and W to aluminium-iron-nickel bronze are mostly located in phases κi (i=II; III; IV),and next in phase α (in the matrix) and phase γ2. They raise the temperature of the phase transformations in aluminium bronzes as well as the casts’ abrasive and adhesive wear resistance. The paper presents a selection of feeding elements and thermal treatment times which guarantees structure stability, for a cast of a massive bush working at an elevated temperature (650–750°C) made by means of the lost foam technology out of composite aluminium bronze. So far, there have been no analyses of the phenomena characteristic to the examined bronze which accompany the process of its solidification during gasification of the EPS pattern. There are also no guidelines for designing risers and steel internal chill for casts made of this bronze. The work identifies the type and location of the existing defects in the mould’s cast. It also proposes a solution to the manner of its feeding and cooling which compensates the significant volume contraction of bronze and effectively removes the formed gases from the area of mould solidification. Another important aspect of the performed research was establishing the duration time of bronze annealing at the temperature of 750°C which guarantees stabilization of the changes in the bronze microstructure – stabilization of the changes in the bronze HB hardness.
Along with the increase in popularity of the sewage sludge thermal treatment methods in Poland resulting from the implementation of European Union law, a management problem with ash, which is produced as a result of this process, appeared. The paper analyses the chemical composition and physical properties of fl y ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge in terms of its use in concrete technologies in relation to EN 450-1 Fly ash for concrete. Defi nition, specifi cations and conformity criteria (2012) and EN 197-1 Cement. Composition, specifi cations and conformity criteria for common cements (2011) standards. The tested material did not meet the requirements related to use of fl y ash for concrete production (chemical composition, low activity index, high water demand and fi neness), and as main and minor components for cement production. On the basis of the carried out research and analyses, it was found that the hardening slurry technology creates the greatest possibilities related to the management of fl y ash from thermal treatment of municipal sewage sludge.