The text was created on the basis of interviews with Caltech scholars (Pasadena, USA) in 2018. The talks concerned various contemporary theories of biogenesis and the role of their philosophical premises. The researchers also addressed the issue of popularizing science. The worldview is shaped (and established) by popularizing publications. They also answered the questions how their personal beliefs influenced on research.
The article analyses the issue of the potential development of theoretical thinking in young children. The context for this discussion is found in the cultural and historical development theory of L.S. Vygotsky which constitutes the basis for assumptions regarding the thinking about development and education of children. It highlights the elementary education stage as a very important area of designing „developmental teaching” as understood by Vygotsky. The article emphasizes the role of an adult who builds the scaffolding for the child’s thinking and acting, and establishes the conditions and teaching environment necessary for the performance of a cognitive process directed at the development of theoretical thinking. In the author’s opinion building the foundation for theoretical thinking will be possible when teachers set „the right developmental and educational tasks” for a child who is constructing knowledge.
The text is devoted to the reconstruction of Wolniewicz’s philosophical views presented by him in the first volume of his Philosophy and Values. The philosophical tradition to which Wolniewicz admitted allegiance and the results of his analyzes in the field of methodology, philosophy of religion, anthropology and philosophy of politics are discussed. Some methodological problems are raised, such as theoretical criteria (including the semantic criterion) of theoreticity, philosophy as theory, philosophical styles, parapsychology as a pseudo-theory, mystified observation and the rule of rationality. Within philosophy of religion the author analyses Wolniewicz’s thesis that the foundation of religion resides in the fear of death. From anthropological problems, Wolniewicz’s views on relations of anthropology to axiology are presented, as well as the relationship between meliorism and pejorism (with particular emphasis on the so-called epiphany of the devil), abortion and murder, transplantations and ‘(neo)cannibalism.’ Within philosophy of politics the author undertakes to carefully reconstruct Wolniewicz’s attempts to distinguish between such oppositions as democracy and democratism, evolution and revolution, fanaticism and tolerance. Finally the author argues that Wolniewicz was one of the most outstanding contemporary Polish philosophers even though he points to some gaps in his arguments.
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of the development of economic space. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of economic space. This set includes among others: shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, selforganization and the development out of equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, pulsative course of development process, emergence of complex spatial systems, development code of the system of regions.