The purpose of this work is to distinguish between Acoustic Emission (AE) signals coming from mechanical friction and AE signals coming from concrete cracking, recorded during fourteen seismic simulations conducted with the shaking table of the University of Granada on a reinforced concrete slab supported on four steel columns. To this end, a particular criterion is established based on the Root Mean Square of the AE waveforms calculated in two different temporal windows. This criterion includes a parameter calculated by optimizing the correlation between the mechanical energy dissipated by the specimen (calculated by means of measurements with accelerometers and displacement transducers) and the energy obtained from the AE signals recorded by low-frequency piezoelectric sensors located on the specimen. The final goal of this project, initiated four years ago, is to provide a reliable evaluation of the level of damage of Reinforced Concrete specimens by means of AE signals to be used in future Structural Health Monitoring strategies involving RC structures.
Winglets are introduced into modern aircraft to reduce wing aerodynamic drag and to consequently optimize the fuel burn per mission. In order to be aerodynamically effective, these devices are installed at the wing tip section; this wing region is generally characterized by relevant oscillations induced by flights maneuvers and gust. The present work is focused on the validation of a continuous monitoring system based on fiber Bragg grating sensors and frequency domain analysis to detect physical condition of a skin-spar bonding failure in a composite winglet for in-service purposes. Optical fibers are used as deformation sensors. Short Time Fast Fourier Transform (STFT) analysis is applied to analyze the occurrence of structural response deviations on the base of strain data. Obtained results showed high accuracy in estimating static and dynamic deformations and great potentials in detecting structural failure occurrences.
The present paper is devoted to the discussion and review of the non-destructive testing methods mainly based on vibration and wave propagation. In the first part, the experimental methods of actuating and analyzing the signal (vibration) are discussed. The piezoelectric elements, fiber optic sensors and Laser Scanning Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) method are described. Effective detecting of the flaws needs very accurate theoretical models. Thus, the numerical methods, e.g. finite element, spectral element method and numerical models of the flaws in isotropic and composite materials are presented. Moreover, the detection of the damage in structures, which are subjected to cyclic or static loads, is based on the analyzing of the change in natural frequency of the whole structure, the change of internal impedance of the material and the change in guided waves propagating through the investigated structure. All these cases are characterized in detail. At the end of this paper, several applications of the structural health monitoring systems in machine design and operation are presented.