Heavy steel castings deoxidized with aluminium are sometimes brittle intercrystalline failed during their service along primary grain boundaries what is initiated by aluminium nitrides and so called conchoidal fractures are formed. The tendency to forming the conchoidal fractures depends in particular on cooling rate (the casting modulus), aluminium and nitrogen contents in steel. During deoxidation, when manufacturing heavy castings, the elements with high affinity to nitrogen, zirconium or titanium, are added to steel that would decrease nitrogen activity by the bond on stable nitrides. The formation of stable nitrides should reduce the tendency of steel to the formation of conchoidal fractures. Deoxidation was thermodynamically analyzed at presence of the mentioned elements. For particular conditions a probable course of deoxidation was estimated at test castings. The deoxidation course was checked by microanalysis of deoxidation products (inclusions). For service and experimental castings the anticipated composition of inclusions was compared. It has been proved that in heavy castings with high aluminium contents in steel under studied conditions neither the addition of zirconium nor of titanium nor of rare earth metals will prevent the formation of conchoidal fractures.
Use of welding technology for the repair of steel castings is particularly common in two areas. These include weld surfacing of protrusions that remained incomplete after casting, or filling the surface defects (cavities). These defects are more common for steel casting than for graphite cast iron, due to the lower fluidity of steel. This article describes a suitable technological process of repairing the defects on the casting using the welding technology. A specimen produced for this purpose was prepared by carving a groove into a cast steel plate 20 GL, which was then filled with a weld metal using MAG (135) technology. The following evaluation of the basic characteristics of the repaired site point to the suitability of the selected technological parameters of the repair procedure. Metallographic evaluation was carried out, further evaluation of mechanical properties by tensile test, bend test and Vickers hardness test. The proposed methodology for the evaluation repair of foundry defects in steel castings also meets the requirements for the approval of welding procedures in accordance with the relevant valid legislation.
The article is a case study of the steel milling ring casting of about 6 tonnes net weight. The casting has been cast in the steel foundry the authors have been cooperating with. The aim was to analyse the influence of the shape of the chills and the material which was used to make them on the casting crystallization process. To optimally design the chills the set of the computer simulation has been carried out with 3 chills’ shape versions and 3 material’s versions and the results have been compared with the technology being in use (no chills). The proposed chills were of different thermal conductivity from low to high. Their shapes were obviously dependant on the adjacent casting surface geometry but were the result of the attempt to optimise their effect with the minimum weight, too. The chills working efficiency was analysed jointly with the previously designed top feeders system. The following parameters have been chosen to compare their effectiveness and the crystallization process: time to complete solidification and so-called fed volume describing the casting feeding efficiency. The computer simulations have been carried out with use of MagmaSoft v. 5.2 software. Finally, the optimisation has led to 15% better steel yield thanks to 60% top feeders weight reduction and 40% shorter solidification time. The steel ring cast with use of such technology fulfil all quality criteria.
The paper presents the results of studies on the development of manufacturing technologies to cast hearth plates operating in chamber furnaces for heat treatment. Castings made from the heat-resistant G-X40CrNiSi27-4 steel were poured in hand-made green sand molds. The following operations were performed: computer simulation to predict the distribution of internal defects in castings produced by the above mentioned technology with risers bare and coated with exothermic and insulating sleeves, analysis of each variant of the technology, and manufacture of experimental castings. As a result of the conducted studies and analysis it was found that the use of risers with exothermic sleeves does not affect to a significant degree the quality of the produced castings of hearth plates, but it significantly improves the metal yield.
Creep-resistant parts of heat treatment furnaces are in most cases made from high-alloyed chromium-nickel and nickel-chromium iron alloys, both cast and wrought. This paper presents the types of casting alloys used for this particular purpose, since the majority of furnace components are made by the casting process. Standards were cited which give symbols of alloy grades used in technical specifications by the domestic industry. It has been indicated that castings made currently are based on a wider spectrum of the creep-resistant alloy grades than the number of alloys covered by the standards. Alloy grades recommended by the technical literature for individual parts of the furnace equipment were given. The recommendations reflect both the type of the technological process used and the technical tasks performed by individual parts of the furnace equipment. Comments were also made on the role of individual alloying elements in shaping the performance properties of castings.