We describe the spatial variability of snow accumulation on three selected glaciers in Spitsbergen (Hansbreen, Werenskioldbreen and Aavatsmarkbreen) in the winter seasons of 1988/89, 1998/99 and 2001/2002 respectively. The distribution of snow cover is determined by the interrelationships between the direction of the glacier axes and the dominant easterly winds. The snow distribution is regular on the glaciers located E-W, but is more complicated on the glaciers located meridionally. The western part of glaciers is more predisposed to the snow accumulation than the eastern. This is due to snowdrift intensity. Statistical relationships between snow accumulation, deviation of accumulation from the mean values and accumulation variability related to topographic parameters such as: altitude, slope inclination, aspect, slope curvature and distance from the edge of the glacier have been determined. The only significant relations occured between snow accumulation and altitude (r = 0.64-0.91).
The aim of the article to assess the functioning of the NewConnect market over 10 years from the organizer’s and participants’ perspective. This helps to diagnose the most important organizational advantages and problems of the Polish MTF, determine further development prospects and propose potential changes to neutralize the negative factors. To illustrate the problem, a comprehensive analysis will be made of aggregated statistical data from 2007–2017, which show the changes and trends on this market, and additionally include the data comparing the current state of the NewConnect market with other alternative markets organized by European stock exchanges. The conducted research does not allow to view the NewConnect market as an organizational success. The analysis identified a number of problems in the functioning of the Polish MTF, ranging from the inappropriate organization of the primary market, resulting in the admittance of too high a number of issuers of dubious credibility, to the consequences appearing on the secondary shares market. It does not give unambiguous grounds to expect positive prospects for the market development in the future. In order to stop unfavorable trends and to improve the issuers’ quality, a discussion on the regulations regarding issuers’ admission, i.e. the size of the minimum equity, IPO, capitalization and the issue price of the debuting company, should be initiated.
The use of quantitative methods, including stochastic and exploratory techniques in environmental studies does not seem to be sufficient in practical aspects. There is no comprehensive analytical system dedicated to this issue, as well as research regarding this subject. The aim of this study is to present the Eco Data Miner system, its idea, construction and implementation possibility to the existing environmental information systems. The methodological emphasis was placed on the one-dimensional data quality assessment issue in terms of using the proposed QAAH1 method - using harmonic model and robust estimators beside the classical tests of outlier values with their iterative expansions. The results received demonstrate both the complementarity of proposed classical methods solution as well as the fact that they allow for extending the range of applications significantly. The practical usefulness is also highly significant due to the high effectiveness and numerical efficiency as well as simplicity of using this new tool.