Cheerleading is a new sport, practiced in 110 nations; since 2016 enjoys provisional Olympic status. Its leaders claim that it is a “happy” sport, but research on its psychological effects is lacking. In this field-study we examined core-affect, positive-affect, and negative-affect in 65 cheerleaders before, during, after, and one-hour after a cheerleading training. Core-affect was more positive during and immediately after training, but it tapered off one hour following the training when feeling states were still more positive than at baseline. Negative-affect declined linearly from baseline to one-hour following training when it became significantly lower than its previous values. Positive-affect showed quadratic dynamics, in parallel with arousal, being higher during and immediately after training than during baseline, or one-hour after training. These results demonstrate for the first time that cheerleading is a “happy” sport, which apart from the skill-development also yields positive psychological emotions both during and after training.
In the 21th century we can observe a return to Marx, particularly in the circles of New Left. A critical approach to the legacy of Karl Marx implies a readiness to revise or even reject the false or no longer valid propositions of Marx in order to be able to confront his legacy with the current state of contemporary science. Some of his views have already been definitely rejected (particularly the theory of revolution and of the dictatorship of proletariat). But a part of his contribution remains valid: (1) the philosophy of praxis, i.e. a theory oriented toward a social change, and (2) the sociological theory that interprets politics in terms of class interests.
The paper presents modeling and simulation results of the operation of a three-phase fluidized bed bioreactorwith partial recirculation of biomass. The proposed quantitative description of the bioreactor takes into account biomass growth on inert carriers, microorganisms decay and interphase biomass transfer. Stationary characteristics of the bioreactor and local stability of steady-stateswere determined. The influence of microbiological growth kinetics on the multiplicity of steady-states was discussed. The relationship between biofilm growth and boundaries of fluidized bed existence was shown.
Formalization of a set of beliefs expressed in one language consists in translating them into sentences of another language. The characteristic property of a good formalization is that the target language is correctly chosen and the translations precisely reflect the meaning of the original sentences. In the paper a formalization of ontology of situations (given by Professor Bogusław Wolniewicz) is discussed. I argue that this is an example of a perfect solution of the problem.
The article is devoted to the late Zygmunt Bauman (d. January 2017), a scholar who made an enormous impact on world humanities at the turn of the twentieth century. It briefly presents Bauman’s life and a number of the best known concepts from his works. The author first discusses Bauman’s attitude toward Marxist theory and explains his revision of it. He then introduces the main ideas of Bauman work Modernity and the Holocaust. The article ends with a review of Bauman’s reflections on globalisation and a discussion of his thesis concerning the crisis of the nation state.
The paper presents the response of a three-layered annular plate with damaged laminated facings to the loads acting in their planes. The presented problem concerns the analysis of the combination of global plate failure in the form of buckling with the local micro defects, like fibre or matrix cracks, located in the laminas. The plate structure consists of thin laminated, fibre-reinforced composite facings and a thicker foam core. The matrix and fibre cracks of facings laminas can be transversally symmetrically or asymmetrically located in plate structure. Critical static and dynamic stability analyses were carried out solving the problem numerically and analytically. The numerical results show the static and dynamic stability state of the composite plate with different combinations of damages. The final results are compared with those for undamaged structure of the plate and treated as quasi-isotropic ones. The analysed problem makes it possible to evaluate the use of the non-ideal composite plate structure in practical applications.
Leak detection in transmission pipelines is important for safe operation of pipelines. The probability of leaks may be occurred at any time and location, therefore pipeline leak detection systems play a key role in minimization of the occurrence of leaks probability and their impacts. During the operation of the network there are various accidents or intentional actions that lead to leaks of gas pipelines. For each network failure, a quick reaction is needed before it causes more damage. Methods that are used to detect such network failures are three-staged-: early identification of leakage, an accurate indication of its location and determine the amount of lost fluid. Methods for leak detection can be divided into two main groups: external methods (hardware) and internal methods (software). External leak detection methods require additional, often expensive equipment mounted on the network, or use systems that could display only local damage on the pipeline. The alternative are the internal methods which use available network measurements and signalling gas leakage signal based on the mathematical models of the gas flow. In this paper, a new method of leak detection based on a mathematical model of gas flow in a transient state has been proposed.
The analysis of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by the use of state-feedbacks is addressed. Generalized Frobenius matrices are proposed and their properties are investigated. It is shown that if the state matrix of an electrical circuit has generalized Frobenius form then the closed-loop system matrix is not positive and asymptotically stable. Different cases of modification of the positivity and stability of linear electrical circuits by state-feedbacks are discussed and necessary conditions for the existence of solutions to the problem are established.
This article investigates the engagement of EU law with the interests represented and pursued by the Member States within the framework of the European Union. In principle, because the interests which the Member States feed into the EU governance machinery are formulated in political processes at the national level, and thus possess paramount political legitimacy, EU law may only interact with those interests when a clear and sufficient mandate has been provided for doing so. Such mandates follow from Treaty provisions or EU legislation. They embody common political agreements among the Member States by which they commit themselves to realising the specific interests they share, as well as achieving related common policy objectives. In practice, however, the boundaries of EU law’s mandate are difficult to determine with precision, and this may weaken the legitimacy of EU law’s interventions. The weaker legitimacy of the law raises particular problems in the law of the Single Market, where the interests pursued by national governments are subjected to filtering, moderation, and even transformation by the Court of Justice.
The paper presents differences between technical states and technical operation states of haul trucks in the technical operation process. The specification and analysis of operational parameters of technological vehicles used in surface mining is possible only due to more and more frequently used diagnostic – telemetric systems. While a detailed analysis of machines operation data can result in the more effective management of mining plant operations and the mining process itself. The determination of operational state indices and their individual components allows preventive actions to be commenced, resulting in improving the work organization of the entire mine machinery system. Moreover, the future technical state of machines operated in surface mining is strictly related to the current state and also depends on the events that occurred in the extraction system. A set of parameter values of individual state characteristics, which allow the haul trucks technical and operational state to be characterized, is a direct effect of a telemetric – diagnostic system operation.
The paper presents the experimental study of a novel unsteady-statemembrane gas separation approach for recovery of a slow-permeant component in the membrane module with periodical retentate withdrawals. The case study consisted in the separation of binary test mixtures based on the fast-permeant main component (N2O, C2H2) and the slow-permeant impurity (1%vol. of N2) using a radial countercurrent membrane module. The novel semi-batch withdrawal technique was shown to intensify the separation process and provide up to 40% increase in separation efficiency compared to a steady-state operation of the same productivity.
Most philosophers believe that a unified philosophical account of mental and non -mental actions is possible. This article presents two arguments indicating that in fact it is not possible. The first one says that thinking is not an activity. Its formulation, however, is exposed to significant difficulties. The second argument avoids these difficulties and puts forward a different, though sometimes erroneously identified, thesis that mental and non-mental actions differ significantly, and therefore one theory should not be expected to include both phenomena. Acceptance of this result sheds new light on the problems associated with the language of thought and gives promise to a new answer to the question “What is Le Penseur doing?”
This paper presents a set of concepts aiming at the reconstruction of mechanisms of the development of economic space. These concepts are ordered in the way that consecutive concepts add new pieces of knowledge increasing the degree of cognition of the mechanisms of economic space. This set includes among others: shift from one steady-state to the next steady-states, selforganization and the development out of equilibrium, multiple equilibrium, punctuated equilibrium, innovation in the phase transition, pulsative course of development process, emergence of complex spatial systems, development code of the system of regions.
The paper concerns the problem of state assignment for finite state machines (FSM), targeting at PAL-based CPLDs implementations. Presented in the paper approach is dedicated to state encoding of fast automata. The main idea is to determine the number of logic levels of the transition function before the state encoding process, and keep the constraints during the process. The number of implicants of every single transition function must be known while assigning states, so elements of two level minimization based on Primary and Secondary Merging Conditions are implemented in the algorithm. The method is based on code length extraction if necessary. In one of the most basic stages of the logic synthesis of sequential devices, the elements referring to constraints of PAL-based CPLDs are taken into account.
The paper addresses the problem of constrained pole placement in discrete-time linear systems. The design conditions are outlined in terms of linear matrix inequalities for the Dstable ellipse region in the complex Z plain. In addition, it is demonstrated that the D-stable circle region formulation is the special case of by this way formulated and solved pole placement problem. The proposed principle is enhanced for discrete-lime linear systems with polytopic uncertainties.
China has experienced the rapid emergence and development of private higher education in the recent decades. This article focuses on the current situation in several key areas, such as development of non-state education, globalization influence at chinse non-state education and social stratification in this sector. It shows regional diversity and random planning in private higher education and also stress situation low-income groups. Moreover it presents acquisition of labour market qualification by mentioned groups. This study concludes that proper financing and management in an urgent thing to do and in the future it will benefit from to Chinese society through multiple roles.
In the article is taken the issue of condition of pedagogy as a research field and academic discipline. Many critical researchers and analytics arrives at a conclusion that there is a crisis of: school, higher education, upbringing, teacher’s role, educational system etc. Thus, we face common demand of changes, adaptation, reorganization, modernization, emancipation of/for/towards that what is placed within the field of pedagogy. Fundamental questions about the scientific nature and paradigmaticness of pedagogy are being moved to the further plan and giving up place to the questions about: the state of the pedagogy/pedagogics, the quality of problems considered by it and its ability/readiness to solve those problems.
Equilibrium, disequilibrium and adaptation. The inspirations for spatial economics. This paper is a part of author’s long-term research project related to dynamics and evolution of space economy. In the attempts of theoretical reconstruction of these processes the notion of equilibrium plays an important role, as well as related notions: disequilibrium and adaptation. In the analysis of equilibrium the author drew on the concepts elaborated by the neoclassical school of economics. In the analysis of disequilibrium the concept of physics turned out to be fertilizing, namely the concept of dissipative structures and self-organisation. The concept of adaptation is elaborated in depth in biology. These three concepts have been applied in spatial economics long since. Further research is necessary however, to make these application more relevant to spatial economics, and in this way more fruitful.
Acidification, as a form of soil degradation is a process that leads to permanent reduction in the quality of soil as the most important natural resource. The process of soil acidification, which in the first place implies a reduction in soil pH, can be caused by natural processes, but also considerably accelerated by the anthropogenic influence of excessive S and N emissions, uncontrolled deforestation, and intensive agricultural processes. Critical loads, i.e. the upper limit of harmful depositions (primarily of S and N) which will not cause damages to the ecosystem, were determined in Europe under the auspices of the Executive Committee of the CLRTAP in 1980. These values represent the basic indicators of ecosystem stability to the process of acidification. This paper defines the status of acidification for the period up to 2100 in relation to the long term critical and target loading of soil with S and N on the territory of Krupanj municipality by applying the VSD model. The Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) geostatistic module was used as the interpolation method. Land management, particularly in areas susceptible to acidification, needs to be focused on well-balanced agriculture and use of crops/seedlings to achieve the optimum land use and sustainable productivity for the projected 100-year period.