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Abstract

Theory and practice of sport psychology suggest that emotional and behavioral states of anxiety and aggression both affect athletic performance. The aim of the present study was the investigation of possible differentiation among water -polo male and female players according to their anxiety, anger and aggression levels. The sample consisted of 225 players (120 men, 105 women), between the ages of 17–39 years old. They completed the Greek versions of the: (a) CSAI -2, and (b) CAAS instruments. Results revealed differences among almost all questionnaire variables, between sport (athletic) experience’ groups. Finally, male athletes of the 2nd national division identified greater levels of anger and aggression in comparison to all other division groups. Overall, results shine some light on facets that play an important role and can affect the athletic performance of water -polo players.
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Abstract

Introduction: The history of using performance-enhancing substances (PES) is long and it goes back to ancient times. At present, PES are employed at all levels of sport competition, starting from Olympic level contestants to individuals recreationally involved in various sports disciplines. Purpose: The objective of the study was examining the views on doping in sports in a group of physicians, together with evaluating the frequency of their contacts with this phenomenon, in their professional activities. Methods: The investigation was carried out using a validated questionnaire developed by the authors. Questionnaire included 34 questions divided into 6 sections. In total, 257 individuals participated in the study. The percentage of answers was 75.81%. Results: Among the responders, 96.50% believed that using PES by sports competitors represented unethical behavior. 42% participants declared that they met doping problem during their professional career. Almost one-third of the physicians (28.79%) declared that during their work, they consulted patient suffering from adverse side eff ects resulting from using PES. Conclusions: In Poland, physicians regard using PES as unethical behavior. They believe that a health care system professional should participate in counteracting doping in sports. Physicians — regardless of their specialty — are also exposed to PES-related problems in their professional work. In view of the above facts and the consistently increasing popularity of PES, extending the knowledge in this field among physicians seems to be of importance to allow for their offering better medical services to their patients.
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