A simplified isoperibol calorimetry method for measuring specific heat in solids is described. Taking advantage of the classical Nernst dependency the specific heat is calculated from time-domain temperature curves registered for a sample forced heating and natural cooling phase. In order to improve accuracy of the measurements a correction factor, taking into account the heat transferred to the surrounding, is introduced along with a procedure of statistical elimination of unavoidable measurement deviations. The method is implemented in a simple and straightforward measuring system involving no vacuum calorimeter. The method is applicable for quick and routine specific heat measurements performed on small solid dielectric or metallic specimens at near-room temperature. Test results of various materials used commonly in electrical engineering are demonstrated and discussed as well as comparison to drop calorimetry and differential scanning calorimetry reference measurements is included. The overall repeatability of the test method and the simplified apparatus is estimated as not worse than 2.6%.
The thermodynamic properties, which are the important bulk properties for solids, have been investigated for ZrB2 under pressure through the quasi harmonic Debye model. The dependences of thermal expansion, Gruneisen parameter, Debye temperature and specific heat on pressure P are successfully obtained. The obtained results are in a good agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical data.
In the paper, a method for determination of the near-critical region boundary is proposed. The boundary is evaluated with respect to variations of specific heat capacity along isobars. It is assumed that the value of specific heat capacity inside the near-critical region exceeds by more than 50% the practically constant value typical for fluids under normal conditions. It appears that large variations of heat capacity are also present for high-pressure subcritical states sufficiently close to the critical point. Therefore, such defined near-critical region is located not only in supercritical fluid domain but also extends into subcritical fluid. As an example, the boundaries of the near-critical region were evaluated for water, carbon dioxide and R143a.
In this study, a new laser flash system was proposed for the determination of the thermal conductivity of brown coal, hard coal and anthracite. The main objective of the investigation was to determine the effect of coal rank, composition, physical structure and temperature on thermal conductivity. The solid fuels tested were medium conductors of heat whose determined thermal conductivities were in the range of 0.09 to 0.23 W/(m K) at room temperature. The thermal conductivity of the solid fuels tested typically increased with the rank of coal and the measurement temperature. The results of this study show that the physical structure of solid fuels and temperature have a dominant effect on the fuels' thermal conductivity.
The paper presents results of calorimetric studies of foundry nickel superalloys: IN100, IN713C, Mar - M247 and ŻS6 U. Particular attention was paid to determination of phase transiti ons temperatures during heating and cooling. The samples were heated to a temperature of 1500°C with a rate of 10°C ⋅ min – 1 and then held at this temperature for 5 min. After a complete melting, the samples were cooled with the same rat e. Argon with a purity of 99.99% constituted the protective atmosphere. The sample was placed in an alundum crucible with a capacity of 0.45 cm 3 . Temperature and heat calibration was carried out based on the mel ting point of high- purity Ni. The tests were carried out by the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) using a Multi HTC high -temperature calorimeter from Setaram. Based on the DSC curves, the following temperatures were determined: solidus and liquidus, dissolution and precipitation of the γ ’ phase, MC carbides and melting of the γ ’ /γ eutectic. In the temperature range of 100 -1100°C, specific heat capacity of the investigated superalloys was determined. It was found that the IN713C and IN100 alloys exhibit a higher specific heat while compared to the Mar - M247 and ŻS6 U alloys.
In recent years, we can observe the development of the thermal diagnosis and operating control systems based on measuring techniques and mathematical modelling of processes improvement. Evaluation of the actual operating state is insufficient to make an optimal operating decisions. Thus, information about the influence of the operating parameters' deviations from the reference state on indicators describing energy consumption of the process (for example specific heat consumption or specific energy consumption) is also necessary. The paper presents methods for generation the information about the influence of the steam-water cycle operating parameters on specific heat consumption in a turbine's cycle. A mathematical model of steam-water cycle for a CHP (Cogeneration - also Combined Heat and Power) unit is being worked out. Methods for calculation of operating deviations with the application of correction curves and a mathematical model are described. Exemplary calculation results are presented.