The article is an attempt to analyze the spatio-pedagogical discourse of the German social pedagogy. It represents only a fragment of reflection on the turns in paradigm of place/ space (spatial turn), as pedagogical terms. & e authors seek to answer the question what is the space and place, and what concepts in the field of reflection on the place/space run in the German social pedagogy. The text introduces, inter alia, the relational concept of space developed by Martina Löw, duality of space and the concept of spacing. Active creation of urban space, the spatial dimension of the relationship and its dynamics are subjected to discussion. The article presents critical approach to the notion of transdisciplinary space, and space-oriented social work. Finally, it provides the incentive for in-depth, international analyzes of spatio-pedagogical theories.
The aim of this paper is to look at the quantitative dimension of public space resources in Polish cities, a comparative analysis of these resources, determining the share of public space in the urban spatial structure and referring this structure to European cities. The concept of ‘public space resources’ has been introduced, and is defined as those areas in the city that fulfill or can fulfill the functions of public space. This concept, and then the proposal of its operationalization, aimed to draw attention to the spatial and physical aspects of public space, which would allow to broaden and supplement social approaches in the study of public space. The quantitative approach to public space proposed in the paper also enabled a comparative research to assess the role of public space in the structure of Polish cities in a more objective manner and refer it to European cities.
This paper brings up elementary problems related to the creation of friendly public spaces in residential complexes as the main places of social integration. Contemporary social transformations are reflected in a new, intensified usage of public spaces which – offering more and more possibilities of satisfying human needs in the field of social contact, knowledge, recreation, stimulation etc. – provoke people and their activities to transfer “life” from a private space to a public space.
Experimental investigation of natural convection heat transfer in heated vertical tubes dissipating heat from the internal surface is presented. The test section is electrically heated and constant wall heat flux is maintained both circumferentially and axially. Four different test sections are taken having 45 mm internal diameter and 3.8 mm thickness. The length of the test sections are 450 mm, 550 mm, 700 mm and 850 mm. Ratios of length to diameter of the test sections are taken as 10, 12.22, 15.56, and 18.89. Wall heat fluxes are maintained at 250–3341 W/m2. Experiments are also conducted on channels with internal rings of rectangular section placed at various distances. Thickness of the rings are taken as 4 mm, 6 mm, and 8 mm. The step size of the rings varies from 75 mm to 283.3 mm. The nondimensional ring spacing, expressed as the ratios of step size to diameter, are taken from 1.67 to 6.29 and the non-dimensional ring thickness, expressed as the ratios of ring thickness to diameter are taken from 0.089 to 0.178. The ratios of ring spacing to its thickness are taken as 9.375 to 70.82. The effects of various parameters such as length to diameter ratio, wall heat flux, ring thickness and ring spacing on local steady-state heat transfer behavior are observed. From the experimental data a correlation is developed for average Nusselt number and modified Rayleigh number. Another correlation is also developed for modified Rayleigh number and modified Reynolds number. These correlations can predict the data accurately within ±10% error.
Commercial functions are very important to the process of urban revitalization. Various commercial forms of trade, such as markets, marketplaces, cloth halls have enriched the public spaces of cities over the centuries. Over the last 25 years of the free market in Poland, we have observed deformations within the urban structure caused by new types of commercial functions. The attractive functions of urban malls and shopping centers, which are usually placed inside, cause the degradation he streets located outside. Shopping centers, spread within the city and isolated by parking areas from pedestrian networks, contribute to the growth of inner peripheries. The fluctuations of the global economy should lead us however, to the delimitation of commercial functions, especially the largest ones. The proper relations between these commercial areas and the beautiful landscape of the city can be used as an element of building the city's image. Ventures within the historical city centers require the development of new instruments which would allow us to protect existing values.
The subject of this paper is the study of the specificity of the transformation of the urban public spaces of the Western world and the problem of the multi form nature of this phenomenon. The Author uses such concepts as that of the "hybrid" and of "hybridization" borrowed from the field of natural sciences and explains the reasons for their introduction within this specific scope of research in a broad manner.
The article is an attempt to collate and present the existing works of Polish geographers who focused on public space in cities, taking two main theoretical and methodological approaches – objective and subjective – under consideration. The article discusses different definitions of the analysed term in an interdisciplinary context as well as indicates main aspects and research directions in geographical studies along with the scholars representing them. Moreover, the authors make an attempt to evaluate the existing state of the art and try to set future perspectives for geographical studies on public space in cities. The article finishes with the authors’ conclusions regarding the necessity to continue the research on public space and the role Polish geographers shall play in it.
The main objective of the article is an attempt to indicate factors which determine the image of a city as a good place to live as well as to reveal the ways in which they affect the citizens’ quality of life. In order to do so, the author selected the city of Gdynia which is perceived as the best city to live in by its citizens. Among the most important factors determining the quality of life in general there are: the scale of a city, local identity, public spaces, symbolic places, housing environment, perception of a place, personal satisfaction of a place where a particular person lives, urban policies as well as presence and activeness of local leaders. The article presents the results of a social study carried out by the author herself during two periods of time – in 2004 and 2014 as well as the results of the Social Diagnosis 2015.
The article concerns problems with shaping contemporary housing estates. By analyzing housing structures designed in recent years, the aim was to demonstrate the importance of creating the continuity of public spaces in order to achieve places seen as attractive and presenting features of high quality urban space. Essential for the research is the question about the conditions which should be fulfi lled when creating the ideal residential place which then leads to a series of answers. These included indicating a good location with functional and aesthetic urban/architectural solutions. Environmental issues are important as well. Regardless of whether it is a multi-family dwelling or a single family house, a good neighborhood and its location in a well-connected place with necessary basic services within walking range are important. It is also signifi cant how the public space was shaped and whether a natural network was created. Due to factors such as the specifi city of the structure’s location in the city and diff erent surfaces of designed estates, as well as the variety of residential buildings being constructed, it is often diffi cult to assess them unambiguously. Importantly, this assessment also includes social and economic aspects as well as technical issues. However, by using multi-directional research it can be noted that the forms of public spaces within housing complexes play an important role in the creation of high-quality structures, perceived as attractive not only by the residents.
The concept of place has been present in human geography for almost half a century. The human geographers looked for the answer about genesis of place category in different sociological or psychological aspects with the basis of space dimension. In last two decades a few of them referred that idea to communication processes. Inspired by the views expressed by the latter group of scientists, we are asking: how is creating a place? We put forward thesis that a special type of place making is social communication that works continuously on the principle of the palimpsest of overlapping meanings through messages arising in several dimensions. Our assumption is that every place is creating (overwriting) a social subject – an individual or a group, that will build communication in three dimensions: within a space/place (W), about a space/place (A), and/or between people and a space/place (B).
The article describes the relationship between the local community and the primary school considered as “place” within the meaning derived from the book by yi-Fu Tuan “Space and place: The perspective of experience”. The article compares the cases of two schools in the city of bielsko-biała (the city has a population of 175 thousands inhabitants). One school is overcrowded, yet its future existence has been secured. The second school, however, was first transferred to another location and it eventually went into liquidation in 2012. The article demonstrates then underlying reasons and consequences of losing the school as place. Moreover, it indicates potential problems emerging in such cases altogether with a set of possible solutions.
The Author tries to “think out of the box”, presenting “Sponsalia ex hoc mundo” (“Hand fastening out of this world”). The title reflects the view that the outer space sciences and the sea sciences are analytically separable, but practically interlinked. It might be observed in the context of space technology and satellite technics, a new system of management and government, as well as a new system of law and policy. Nowadays, the outer space infrastructure (the use of artificial Earth satellites for Direct Television Broadcasting, communications, remote sensing, navigation, military missiles) affects infrastructure of our Planet, including maritime infrastructure. There is, therefore, the need for a new face of integrated system of science and practice.
The evaluation accuracies of rock mass structures based on the ratings of the Rock Quality Designation (RQD) and discontinuity spacing (S) in the Rock Mass Rating (RMR) system are very limited due to the inherent restrictions of RQD and S. This study presents an improvement that replaces these two parameters with the modified blockiness index (Bz) in the RMR system. Before proceeding with this replacement, it is necessary for theoretical model building to make an assumption that the discontinuity network contains three sets of mutually orthogonal disc-shaped discontinuities with the same diameter and spacing of discontinuities. Then, a total of 35 types of theoretical DFN (Discrete Fracture Network) models possessing the different structures were built based on the International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM) discontinuity classification (ISRM, 1978). In addition, the RQD values of each model were measured by setting the scanlines in the models, and the Bz values were computed following the modified blockiness evaluation method. Correlations between the three indices (i.e., Bz, RQD and S) were explored, and the reliability of the substitution was subsequently verified. Finally, RMR systems based on the proposed method and the standard approach were applied to real cases, and comparisons between the two methods were performed. This study reveals that RQD is well correlated with S but is difficult to relate to the discontinuity diameter (D), and Bz has a good correlation with RQD/S. Additionally, the ratings of RQD and S are always far from the actual rock mass structure, and the Bz ratings are found to give better characterizations of rock mass structures. This substitution in the RMR system was found to be acceptable and practical.
A comprehensive understanding of melt quality is of paramount importance for the control and prediction of actual casting characteristics. Among many phenomenon that occur during the solidification of castings, there are four that control structure and consequently mechanical properties: chemical composition, liquid metal treatment, cooling rate and temperature gradient. The cooling rate and alloy composition are most important among them. This paper investigates the effect of the major alloying elements (silicon and copper) of AlSi-Cu alloys on the size of secondary dendrite arm spacing. It has been shown that both alloying elements have reasonable influence on the refinement of this solidification parameter
The quality of the squeeze castings is significantly affected by secondary dendrite arm spacing, which is influenced by squeeze cast input parameters. The relationships of secondary dendrite arm spacing with the input parameters, namely time delay, pressure duration, squeeze pressure, pouring and die temperatures are complex in nature. The present research work focuses on the development of input-output relationships using fuzzy logic approach. In fuzzy logic approach, squeeze cast process variables are expressed as a function of input parameters and secondary dendrite arm spacing is expressed as an output parameter. It is important to note that two fuzzy logic based approaches have been developed for the said problem. The first approach deals with the manually constructed mamdani based fuzzy system and the second approach deals with automatic evolution of the Takagi and Sugeno’s fuzzy system. It is important to note that the performance of the developed models is tested for both linear and non-linear type membership functions. In addition the developed models were compared with the ten test cases which are different from those of training data. The developed fuzzy systems eliminates the need of a number of trials in selection of most influential squeeze cast process parameters. This will reduce time and cost of trial experimentations. The results showed that, all the developed models can be effectively used for making prediction. Further, the present research work will help foundrymen to select parameters in squeeze casting to obtain the desired quality casting without much of time and resource consuming.
The essay critically approaches the current state and directions of changes in the university education. We see the critical point in the unconditioned endorsement by the university of the market values of intense competitiveness of global economy and the cult of the pro-market education which is its inevitable result. We would like to argue that although the university must respect economic conditions and limitations, nevertheless we fear that the ongoing process of corporatization of the university with its management strategies such as cutting costs, scanning environments for competitive purposes, re-engineering highly competitive efficiency criteria for the staff will bring about a neglect of the humanist values rooted in intellectual and social sensibility and hence undermine the social mission of the university which, apart from professional skills and research, must cultivate intellectual pluralism by providing space for intelligent conversation, sharing critical views of the present state of things thus fostering social criticism and the spirit of responsible dissent.
Multidimensional, variety of saving memories ways in landscape is visible in creation of commemorative spaces. These meaning is strictly connected with the most important events and persons in history of the country. Authors of article in their research are concentrated on commemorative space with monuments example in Poland and the world presence in landscape design meaning. They are announced by landscape analysis methods to recognition of structure, meaning and phenomena of chosen objects in genius loci categories. In Study of Conditions and Directions of Space Development Capital City of Warsaw is found the record that “commemorative resource” is not enough examined and protected. The aim of elaboration is indication of tendencies in aspects of location, space relations and meanings of memory places.
The urban form creates the city structure, whose spatial values not only shape the functionality of the city, but also its identity, whose the most important determinant is the urban tissue. The subject of the study is the analysis of selected historical areas of Cracow in the scope of composition and readability of their urban structure. The analysis focuses on the identification of the most important aspects of spatial renewal processes of these spaces. These processes aimed at strengthening their potential as local centres, that can become a factor stimulating the development of the individual urban units. The increase in the attractiveness and quality of public spaces will positively affect the degree of their perception by the inhabitants and the social relations taking place in them. This in turn, influences the degree of the social involvement in development processes and the creation of more or less spontaneous, bottom-up activities.
Formation the local identity in the “thematic” Rural Renewal, The article aims to determine the main conditions for the development of rural thematic areas in the context of Rural Renewal. Against this background, the authors attempt to explain the mechanisms governing the discussed process and their effects. In view of the above, the focus was on presenting mechanisms for the development of processes that lead to the flowering of this idea (an anatomy of success – the case of the village of Sierakowo Sławieńskie) and those that slow down or completely limit this development (anatomy of failure – the case of the village of Lubcza).
The author presents changes which took place in the 3 eld of ideas of presenting art to the city audience at the end of the twentieth century. She draws attention to the importance of a movement of so-called “new museology”, which revised the museum practitioners’ attitudes towards art viewers. She presents taken from Poland and Europe practices of realizing artistic practices outside exhibition halls, directly in the public space, with immediate access to the viewer, who also is invited to participate in a process of creation of the art work together with the artist. She indicates a consequence of this practice, which is a formation of a so-called “new audience” – conscious of their expectations towards cultural institutions. In the end, the author mentions a research project on the phenomenon of the “new audience” initiated in the framework of the international project “Artecitya”.
In the Act on Revitalization of 9 October 2015, for the first time in Poland, the legal act introduced the necessity to apply the principles of universal design (Article 3 paragraph 2 point 3). The practice of investment processes in crisis areas shows that the requirements set out in the Act are not properly implemented. Regeneration processes require attention to improve the quality of life of residents. The article presents issues related to the implementation of universal design principles during revitalization processes. There is a noticeable lack of interest in this issue despite the fact that it is one of the three tasks set before local governments in the Revitalization Act, after social participation and support for people at risk of exclusion in the area of housing. The reasons for this state should be seen in a small knowledge of the issue, deficiencies in the educational process of designers and poor control on the part of local governments and central authorities. This is due to conservation conditions, which often misinterpret the right to protect cultural heritage. The self-government as its own task should guarantee the possibility of using the positive effects of the revitalization process, in particular the implementation of residents’ rights to an independent and dignifi ed life, which is required by the UN Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
In the paper author discusses problems related to the leading role of architectural structures, as a part of the creating process within contemporary urban space. Architectural objects establish a continuous dialogue not only with their surrounding space, but also between each other. In this relation, the first plan comes with two factors, determining all spatial and functional solutions: the place in which a given project is localized and the time in which the urban designer came to the architect to create his plan. Based on the analysis of own projects and urban and architectural realizations, the author proves that the architectural dialogue in urban space must be respected in the context of the place and the time, but also in the creators moral responsibility. This responsibility is defined by consequences of design decisions not only for the urban space itself, but above all, for people and their coexistence with the space. For designers it reveals a necessity to comply principles of ethics and professing the value system in order to taking care of the urban space not only three-dimensional, but also “existential”.
Fractal analysis is one of the rapidly evolving branches of mathematics and finds its application in different analyses such as pore space description. It constitutes a new approach to the issue of their natural irregularity and roughness. To be properly applied, it should be encompassed by an error estimation. The article presents and verifies uncertainties along with imperfections connected with image analysis and expands on the possible ways of their correction. One of key aspects of such research is finding both appropriate place and the number of photos to take. A coarse- grained sandstone thin section was photographed and then pictures were combined into one, bigger image. Fractal parameters distributions show their change and suggest that the accurately gathered group of photos include both highly and less porous regions. Their amount should be representative and adequate to the sample. The resolution influence on the fractal dimension and lacunarity values was examined. For SEM limestone images obtained using backscattered electrons, magnification in the range of 120x to 2000x was used. Additionally, a single pore was examined. The acquired results point to the fact that the values of fractal dimension are similar to a wide range of magnifications, while lacunarity changes each time. This is connected with changing homogeneity of the image. The article also undertakes a problem of determining fractal parameters spatial distribution based on binarization. The available methods assume that it is carried out after or before the image division into rectangles to create fractal dimension and lacunarity values for interpolation. An individual binarization, although time consuming, provides better results that resemble reality to a closer degree. It is not possible to define a single, correct methodology of error elimination. A set of hints has been presented that can improve results of further image analysis of pore space.
Participatory budgeting has become an important element of empowerment of the residents in the process of spatial planning in Polish cities. The citizens gained the right and a concrete tool to implement their ideas on how to change the city spaces. Many of the projects of participatory budgeting are the results of serious negligence in basic infrastructure in the cities. On the other hand, some of them are an expression of great ingenuity and innovative approach of the citizens to the modernization and arrangements in urban spaces. The civic projects improve quality of life and increase the utility value of public spaces. The main aim of the paper is to review and classify tasks changing public spaces under the formula of participatory budgeting. The research in a form of diagnosis enables to present the directions of participatory budgeting. It helps to monitor and evaluate the social impacts in the process of city space transformations. The subject of analysis are participatory budgets in Łódź and Katowice based on editions in 2015/2016 and 2016/2017.
The post-mining areas due to the difficulties of those, often associated with expensive activities, usually take the form of wasteland. In contrast, unavailable, unused and alien areas the mentality of residents, are identified with empty space. The purpose of the authors was to answer the question: Are post-mining areas becoming empty spaces? Her research basis was changes in the functioning of post-mining areas and empty spaces in Katowice – a city with a long-standing mining tradition. Using GIS tools, a spatial analysis was carried out to determine the empty spaces functions and the perceiving of the post-mining areas by residents or users of a given district nearby.