Moulting southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina (L.), were counted in 17 discrete wallows at Walker Bay on Livingston Island in the South Shetland Islands between 2 January and 16 February 1994. Daily weather conditions were also recorded. It was also found that, although there were no overall correlations between wind scale, air temperature, sunshine, precipitation, sea roughness and cloud cover with seal numbers, there were conditions on specific days that affected the movements of seals between wallows. Most notably, it was found that numbers of seals decreased when they were exposed to winds, and that they often sought out more sheltered sites nearby.
Southern elephant male seals (Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758) were studied at King George Island (62°14´S, 58°40´W) from September to December 1999. The first males came ashore at the beginning of September. Twenty-five adults were immobilized, hot iron branded, and measured. Thirteen out of the 25 marked males spent an average of 66 (+/-8) days on land. Early arrival was positively correlated with the time spent ashore (r = 0.88, P < 0.05). Nine harems were formed in the study area. At the maximum haul-out of females (28 October) mean harem size was 32ą42 females (range 3–107). During the course of harem development, 10 changes in male harem dominance were observed. These changes were more frequent during the early (1–20 October, n = 6) than during the mid (21 October – 10 November, n = 2) and late (11–29 November, n = 2) periods of harem development. Overall, there were 14 dominant males; five of these in two different harems and nine in one harem. Of the 25 marked males, 44% were resighted in the following breeding or moulting season, and 16% seemed to improve their potential breeding success.
A population survey of southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina Linnaeus, 1758) was conducted at Nelson Island, South Shetland Islands, Antarctica, during the 2001 breeding season. Two breeding sites were identified, one of which had not been previously reported. The largest breeding site was located at Duthoit Point, with a total of 128 females, 111 pups and 7 weanlings distributed in 6 harems along 3 km of coast. The new breeding group was observed at Harmony Point, where 3 females with their pups were found. This is the first report on southern elephant seal numbers during the breeding period for the Nelson Island coast.